Psie Pole ( German Hundsfeld ) is one of the five districts of the city of Wroclaw in the Polish Voivodeship of Lower Silesia .
The district lies on the banks of the Willow ( Widawa ), a northern tributary of the Oder . It includes the districts of Osobowice ( Oswitz ), Karłowice ( Karlowitz ), Psie Pole ( Hundsfeld ) and Kowale ( Kawallen ), and extends north of downtown Wroclaw for more than ten kilometers in an east-west direction.
Hundsfeld was an independent town in the Oels district until 1928 and was then incorporated into Breslau.
There are different legends about the origin of the place name Hundsfeld. According to the chronicler Gallus Anonymus († 1116), King Henry V should have appeared on his campaign of 1109 after the unsuccessful siege of Glogau at the gates of Wroclaw, but was there by the Polish Duke Bolesław III. Wrymouth held up. The chronicler Vinzenz Kadłubek , who wrote in the 13th century and is known for his picturesque decorations of historical tradition, reports that the battlefield was named Hundsfeld because the German army suffered such a severe defeat near Wroclaw that the population was buried at the many dead was overwhelmed and had to leave some of this to the dogs. Another version says that the German army left many of those who died of disease or starved to death, which is why the population, who the Germans called dogs, later referred to the site as Hundsfeld.
The earliest news of the settlement of Germans on ducal soil is from Hundsfeld; This emerges from an exchange of the ducal estate Hundsfeld, including the church, income and Germans resident there, agreed in 1203 and notarized in 1206, for the estate Ohlau of the Breslauer Vinzenzstift . A Vorwerk was built on the undeveloped land of Hundsfeld, which Otto v. Biberstein who, with the approval of the abbot, resold it in 1281 to the Gablo brothers, citizens and merchants in Breslau, for 325 marks. Biberstein's property in Hundsfeld also included a tavern that the Duke had given him in recognition of his services.
The German place name Hundsfeld has nothing to do with the place Hundzfelt mentioned in 1305 (1206 Polish Pzepole , 1281 Latin caninus campus ); rather, it is likely to refer to a ducal dog keeper's settlement.
The ground plan of Hundsfeld following the Vorwerk was similar to that of a street green village . The citizens lived mainly from agriculture and also earned money from through traffic. Hundsfeld was first mentioned as a town in 1473. At the end of the 18th century, the town's craftsmen were still part of the Oels guild. Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the Vorwerk and the town were temporarily owned by the rulers of Oels. From 1527 to 1534 Hundsfeld was owned by the city of Wroclaw, then from 1571 by noble families, from 1692 until the secularization in 1810 again by the Wroclaw Monastery.
The Reformation entered Hundsfeld before 1530; 1543 Protestant writings were printed in Hundsfeld. The Evangelicals did not get their own church until 1791-1793. Since 1833, two general markets and two cattle markets were allowed to be held. By the middle of the 19th century, the city had a Protestant church, a Catholic church, a synagogue and famous markets. At the beginning of the 20th century, the town of Hundsfeld belonged to the Oels district and had some medium-sized businesses, the previously existing synagogue is no longer mentioned.
- Population development
|1825||829||including 328 Evangelicals, 409 Catholics and 92 Jews|
|1829||809||including 354 Protestants, 385 Catholics and 70 Jews|
|1840||774||396 Protestants, 342 Catholics and 36 Jews|
Concentration camp subcamps
During the Third Reich, there was a satellite camp of the Groß Rosen concentration camp in Breslau-Hundsfeld . Towards the end of the war, up to 1,000 women were employed here in the production of armaments for the Rheinmetall-Borsig AG company. Until March 1946, German prisoners of war were held in the Breslau-Hundsfeld camp until they were transported to the Caucasus .
The main roads Breslau – Oels ( Oleśnica ) and Breslau – Lissa ( Leszno ) and the A8 autostrada run through Psie Pole .
The railway connection to Breslau and to Oels, Kreuzburg and Vossowska has existed since 1868 and to Trebnitz since 1886 . The Psie Pole and Sołtysowice railway stations are located in Psie Pole on the Breslau – Oels railway line (Polish: Oleśnica) .
- Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 201-203.
- Andrea Rudorff: Women in the subcamps of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp. Metropol Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86331-162-9
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k Hugo Weczerka (ed.): Handbook of historical sites. Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition. Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 201-203.
- ^ A b Franz Xaver Görlich : The Premonstratensians and the Abbey of St. Vincent . Volume 1: Documented history of the Premonstratensians and their Abbey of St. Vincent , Breslau 1836, p. 56.
- ↑ a b Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, towns, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, pp. 840-841.
- ^ Pierer's Universal Lexicon . Volume 8, Altenburg 1859, p. 620.
- ↑ a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 9, Leipzig / Vienna 1907, p. 654.
- ^ Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, towns and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration . Breslau 1830, p. 944.
- ^ Johann Georg Knie : Brief geographical description of Prussian Silesia, the County of Glaz and the Prussian Margraviate of Upper Lusatia or the entire province of Prussian Silesia: For use in schools. First ribbon . Breslau 1831. Page 103 of Chapter I: District of the royal. Government of Breslau ( p. 291 of the e-copy of the Gyfrowa library ).
- ↑ Andrea Rudorff: Women in the subcamps of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp. Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86331-162-9