|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Cologne|
|Height :||125 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||85 km 2|
|Residents:||91,216 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1073 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||52349, 52351, 52353, 52355|
|Area code :||02421|
|License plate :||DN, JÜL, MON, SLE|
|Community key :||05 3 58 008|
|LOCODE :||DE DUE|
|City structure:||15 districts or city districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Paul Larue ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Düren in the Düren district|
With around 92,400 inhabitants, Düren is a large medium-sized town in North Rhine-Westphalia . It is located on the northern edge of the Eifel between Aachen and Cologne and is the administrative seat of the district of the same name as well as a member of the Euregio Maas-Rhine . The city through which the Rur flows is also called The Gate to the North Eifel .
The story goes back to a Neolithic settlement. Düren was first mentioned in documents in 747 at the time of the Franks, when Charlemagne came to the city. With the Annahaupt, a relic of Saint Anne , Düren became a destination for many pilgrims in the 16th century. This is not only the basis of the Annakirmes as a large folk festival, but also the tradition as a city of markets. The Thirty Years War , the plague and a great earthquake in 1756 weakened the city. Düren experienced a new boom through industry. Families like Schoeller and Hoesch brought the paper and textile industry as well as the metalworking industry to the city. On November 16, 1944, Düren was 99% destroyed by an Allied bombing raid. Düren was the most heavily destroyed city in Germany in the Second World War. With the municipal reorganization on January 1, 1972, the urban area expanded considerably. Today Düren maintains partnerships with cities in France, Eastern Europe and China.
Culture includes the Leopold Hoesch Museum and Paper Museum Düren , performances in the Haus der Stadt and in the Arena Kreis Düren . The most successful sports club, the volleyball Bundesliga team SWD Powervolleys Düren , also plays there; Düren also produced some well-known football players. In addition to the Annakirmes and the Rhenish Carnival, the city festival, the jazz days and various markets are part of the regular program of events. The Burgau Castle is adjacent to the Urban Forest, in addition to several other castles and mansions belonging Schilling Park to the monuments in Duren. Economically, the city continues to be shaped by the paper and metal processing industries that were historically located there, but more recent developments such as electromobility are also represented in the industry. For medical care there are several hospitals and the LVR psychiatric clinic, some of the buildings of which are listed. Education is u. a. Mediated in five grammar schools, three vocational colleges and the city library. Düren can be reached by various means of transport via the A4 motorway, the Cologne – Aachen railway line and several large cycle paths.
The city is part of the Euregio Meuse-Rhine between the major cities of Aachen and Cologne on the northern edge of the Eifel . The fertile Jülich-Zülpicher Börde extends to the north as part of the Lower Rhine Bay . In the southwest lies the Rureifel with the Rurtalsperre as Germany's second largest dam and the Eifel National Park . From the south ( Lendersdorf ) to the north ( Merken ) the Rur flows through the city area. Düren's highest point is on the Beythal waste dump on federal road 399 in Berzbuir-Kufferath , the lowest point at on the Rur at Merken.
While in the southern city at Berzbuir layers of conglomerate rock of Devonian and Carboniferous come to light, the Jülicher Börde in the north of the city is from a powerful loess plate formed under the gravels and sands from the last ice age are pending, the Rhine and Maas have attached. Numerous tectonic faults from the Tertiary with a height difference of up to 400 meters have been proven. The Jülich plaice is the northern part of a small plaice between Rur and Erft plaice raised and opposite the Rurscholle but dropped against the Erft floe. In between lie mighty brown coal seams from the Tertiary. Düren belongs to the earthquake area of the Cologne Bay .
The city lies in the temperate climate zone , which is shaped here by the Atlantic Gulf Stream in the transition between oceanic and continental climate. Westerly winds prevail and rainfall occurs all year round. The annual rainfall is about 617 mm. June and July are the wettest months of the year, February and September are the wettest months. Summers are warm and winters are mild. In July the mean temperature is 17 ° C, in January 2 ° C. Most of the sunshine is in July and the least in December.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Düren
Source: Precipitation: German Weather Service; other values: Forschungszentrum Jülich , 1961–1990 respectively
Expansion of the urban area and land use
The urban area extends over an area of about 85 km². The extension is a maximum of 12.5 km in north-south direction and a maximum of 10 km in east-west direction. The city limits are about 50 km long. At the end of 2016, most of the area was taken up by agriculture , which at 4054 hectares used almost half of the urban area.
|Land use in the city of Düren|
|Type of use||Area in ha||proportion of|
|Industrial and commercial space||543||6.4%|
|Leisure and recreation area||375||4.4%|
|Area of special character||198||2.3%|
|Mixed use areas||172||2.0%|
The old urban area includes the inner city districts of Düren-Nord , Düren-Ost (with the satellite town and Distelrath ), Düren-Süd and Rölsdorf as well as the settlement area Grüngürtel, which dates back to the first third of the 20th century . The other districts arose from 15 formerly independent locations: Arnoldsweiler , Berzbuir , Birgel , Birkesdorf , Derichsweiler , Echtz , Gürzenich , Hoven , Konzendorf , Krauthausen , Kufferath , Lendersdorf , Mariaweiler , Merken and Niederau . These current districts were incorporated on January 1, 1972 on the basis of the Aachen Law .
As part of the local reorganization through the Cologne Act , the city refused to incorporate Merzenich for local political reasons , which was a novelty in the history of the North Rhine-Westphalian community restructuring. With Merzenich, Düren would have reached a population of more than 100,000 and thus crossed the border to the big city .
Today's residents are distributed among the districts as follows (as of December 31, 2018).
|Old urban area||53,416||52349-52351|
Prehistory and early history
One of the oldest evidence of human settlement in the city of Düren is a Neolithic settlement with a box well and over 40 houses that date back to around 5100 BC. And was uncovered between Arnoldsweiler and Ellen . The settlement also includes a burial ground with more than 200 skeletons. One of them was called "Lilith" and is the oldest known specimen in the Rhineland after the Neanderthal man and a double grave in Bonn-Oberkassel . Both finds show that people coming from the east practiced agriculture west of the Rhine. Neolithic flint arrowheads and a stone battle ax were found near Berzbuir. There were also finds from this time in the area of the former Miesheim .
Settlers from the Bronze Age built an earth fortification near Arnoldsweiler. Other finds, including graves, date from Roman times . Settlements near Berzbuir, Distelrath, Mariaweiler and parts of a water pipe in Lendersdorf are also known from this time. Roman bricks and a temple were found at Hoven.
With the arrival of the Roman general Gaius Iulius Caesar in 54 BC. In the fifth year of the Gallic War , the Celtic tribe of the Eburones settled between the Rhine and the Meuse under their leader Ambiorix . Caesar suffered a severe defeat in the central, but not exactly localized, capital Aduatuca . The fact that he actually destroyed the Eburones in his campaign of revenge the following year, as he himself claims, is largely doubted. The Ubier took over the settlements of the killed and driven Eburones and met the Romans. The religious veneration of matrons , which combined elements from cultures, arose . In the following 460 years, the Romans occupied the country and, to protect the Rhine border, settled Germanic tribes from the right of the Rhine as federates , who then mixed with the Celtic population.
The Roman historian Tacitus reports that the Ubier who settled in the Cologne area were defeated in the winter of 69/70 AD in a battle against the Germans on the right bank of the Rhine at “Marcodurum”. The suffix “-durum” in this place name comes from the Celtic root “-duor” for the Gallic word “duron”, which is found in many Gallic place names and means door or gate. This meant trading and administrative centers fortified by walls and gates, which is why ancient writers translated the Gallic “duron” with the Latin “forum” for market or trading place. There are no ancient testimonies from the core town of Düren, but the finds near Arnoldsweiler suggest an ancient settlement that gave the city of Düren its name. The long pronounced u in the word component “Durum” was later added with an elongation-i (“Duirum”), from which the current spelling “Düren” developed.
During the Great Migration Period , on the last day of the year 406 AD, Vandals , Alans and Suebi streamed in huge flocks on their way west across the frozen Rhine into the Roman Empire and forced it to surrender at the Rhine border. As a result, Germanic tribes coming from the north and united to form the Franconian people advanced into the Rhineland . The place names on "-weiler" in the urban area bear witness to this early Merovingian settlement period, while the place names on "-hausen", "-rath" and "-dorf" are from the Carolingian period around the middle of the 8th century. Traces of Franconian settlement were found in Birkesdorf and Distelrath.
As excavations have shown, there was a Franconian hall church in Düren around the year 700. "Villa Dura" (Duria) was mentioned for the first time in the Frankish imperial annals (and then in the Metz annals ) for the year 747: "in villa quae dicitur Duria". An imperial assembly and synod , organized by the Frankish house celebrations Karlmann and Pippin, took place there. The Carolingian King Pippin the Little (714–768), father of the later Emperor Charlemagne (~ 747–814), made the settlement a Palatinate . It was located where the Anna Church stands today. In the years 761, 775 and 779 Reichstag took place there ; Campaigns against the Saxons were decided on the last two days of the Reich . Charlemagne also used the Palatinate Villa Dura and other palaces that he had built along the Aachen-Frankfurter Heerstraße in Aachen, Sinzig , Ingelheim and Frankfurt . For 600 years, the German kings traveled to Aachen for their coronation on this coronation road . There was also a lot of traffic on this country road, which soon gave rise to a number of markets in Düren (grain market, cattle market, wood market, chicken market and butter market), which contributed to the city's growth.
In 881 and 882 Normans , who had invaded the country via the Rhine and the Meuse, devastated the place. Emperor Otto III. confirmed the rights as a free imperial city in the year 1000 . The city wall was built from around 1212 . The city wall included twelve towers and five gates, which were in the four cardinal directions: in the north the Philippstor and the Wirteltor , in the east the Kölntor , in the south the Obertor and in the west the wooden gate . Ruins of them still exist. Today a large piece of the city wall still stands on Wallstrasse .
When Emperor Friedrich II pledged the city, to which the suburbs had also belonged since the Middle Ages, to Wilhelm IV of Jülich for 10,000 marks of silver , it lost its imperial immediacy and came under the rule of the Counts and later Dukes of Jülich . The oldest surviving medieval building in Düren is the tower of the "Ühledömche" (Owl Cathedral), a chapel in the Distelrath district, from the 11th / 12th. Century. There was a settlement around the church in the 10th to 13th centuries. According to more recent findings, Miesheim had its heyday in these centuries. In 1459 the Franciscans built a monastery as the second church in downtown Düren, which was consecrated to Maria von Bethanien and from which today's St. Mary 's Church emerged .
Early modern age
In 1501 the stonemason Leonhard stole a shrine with a relic head of Saint Anne , the so-called Annahaupt , from the Mainz collegiate church of St. Stephan and brought it to Düren. The ensuing dispute over the possession of the relic was fought before the emperor and the pope until Pope Julius II decided in 1506 in favor of Düren. The objects were kept in the Martinskirche, which was later renamed the Anna Church. Shortly after the arrival of the relic, a pilgrimage to the Düren parish church began, which led pilgrims from all over Europe to Düren. Saint Anne became the patron saint of Düren, and even today the name day of Saint Anne (July 26th) is celebrated for one week every year with the Anna octave, a church celebration, and the Anna fair , one of the largest folk festivals in Germany.
Since the Reformation in Düren was not enforced by sovereigns, it initially had little influence. The first Reformed preachers adopted presbyterial principles from Calvinist refugees from France and the Netherlands. In the course of the Reformation, the community of Anabaptists appeared in Düren , who were also called "Kettists" there after their leader Lancelot von Kettig. In their religious convictions they stood between the Catholics and the followers of Martin Luther . With their demand to renounce property, they won sympathy among the poor and caused trouble for the authorities.
In 1531 Emperor Karl V visited Düren. In 1538 the Duchy of Geldern fell to Duke Wilhelm von Jülich, Kleve and Berg , but Charles V claimed the land for himself, which was also granted to him at the Diet in Regensburg in 1541 . A treasure recovered in 1961 consisting of 402 coins and many pieces of jewelry must have been hidden in an old well around 1541. The finds are now in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn . During the Third War of the Geldr Succession in 1543 , the emperor had a 30,000-strong army on a campaign to the Netherlands to storm, plunder and set fire to the city of Düren. More than 600 buildings, including the town hall and the Anna Church, were destroyed. The reconstruction took a few years; In 1563 the Anna church stood again.
After the duchies of Jülich and Kleve had fallen to the Electoral Palatinate, the new Protestant sovereign granted freedom of religion with the "Düren Reversal" in 1609. Reformed Christians have been recorded in Düren since 1572, so the community was officially recognized in 1609. In the period that followed, a Reformed and a Lutheran congregation were formed . In 1837, both parishes in the Jülich parish took over the Uniate Confession , as it had been introduced in Prussia in 1817.
The Spaniards under Ambrosio Spinola took the city in 1614. In the Thirty Years War it was destroyed and devastated by Hessian troops in 1642. When the war ended in 1648, the plague ravaged the city, killing numerous people. A second epidemic broke out in 1665. Düren was partially destroyed again in 1679 by various attacks on the weakened city. In 1713 the city had the lowest detectable population with around 1,800 inhabitants.
18th and 19th centuries
Due to the wars and the plague epidemics of the past decades in 1713, Düren had the lowest population in history with 1,800 inhabitants. At the end of 1755 a series of earthquakes began around Düren and Aachen, which peaked on February 18, 1756 near Düren with an earthquake measuring 8 on the Mercalli scale (this corresponds to about 6.5 on the Richter scale ) and the strongest known up to that point There was an earthquake in Germany. The city wall got large cracks.
After French revolutionary troops occupied the lands on the left bank of the Rhine in 1794 - the invasion of Düren on October 2, 1794 - Düren was the capital of the canton of the same name in the arrondissement d'Aix-la-Chapelle of the Départements de la Roer from 1798 to 1814 . Johann Heinrich Flügel was appointed President of the Municipality of the Canton of Düren in 1798 and the first Prussian mayor of the city of Düren in 1814/1815 . The next three mayors worked part-time. After the fall of Napoleon , the King of Prussia became the new sovereign in the later Rhine Province due to the resolutions of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 .
Economic life in the Düren area has been determined by paper production, the textile industry (cloth makers) connected to the Gewandhaus and metal processing since the 16th century . Paper and textile production were favored by the exceptionally soft water of the Rur . In 1710, Rütger von Scheven built the first paper mill in Düren, from which today's company Kanzan Spezialpapiere emerged . In 1812 there were already 17 paper mills, eleven cloth and blanket mills, a rolling mill and two iron foundries in Düren.
Since 1841 the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft opened up the Rhineland and the Ruhr area with a railway network and created a junction in Düren between the four cities of Aachen in the west, Neuss in the north, Cologne and Bonn in the east. Industrial companies settled and grew rapidly.
One of the oldest family businesses is that of the Schoeller family , which has been documented as early as 1550. At the time of the Napoleonic occupation, Johann Arnold Schoeller moved from the Eifel municipality of Gemünd to Düren and founded a fine cloth factory. In 1852 his daughter Catharina Schenkel set up the Schenkel-Schoeller pension institution, from which the Schenkel-Schoeller-Stift retirement home, which was rebuilt in 1953 after the war in Niederau, emerged . Several family members founded companies in the 18th and 19th centuries that have survived to this day. In 1784 Heinrich Wilhelm Schoeller built the Schoellershammer paper factory , which is now in the Krauthausen district. Leopold Schoeller founded a cloth factory in 1842 and the carpet office in 1854 (today's company Anker Gebr. Schoeller in Birkesdorf ), while at the same time he was successful in other European countries. In addition, he was also socially involved in various projects.
Eberhard Hoesch and his brother Wilhelm bought an ironworks in the Lendersdorf district in November 1820 , which they operated as well as a cutting plant in Schneidhausen and the Zweifallshammer works founded by their father . William son Leopold Hoesch took over management of the family company and founded in Dortmund the Hoesch AG , were among the factories in Düren and the Eifel. Leopold's son Eberhard Hoesch junior continued the tradition. He also financed the construction of the city theater and a museum named after his father. Leopold's son Julius Hoesch turned to another industry and in 1865 became a chemicals dealer .
Hubert Jakob Werners was the first full-time mayor of Düren from 1868. In 1880 the city had 17,368 inhabitants, including 1,408 Protestants and 252 Jews . It owned five Catholic and two Protestant churches, a synagogue , a Catholic grammar school , a Protestant Real progymnasium , a Catholic citizen school , a parity and a Catholic secondary school for girls , a commercial drawing school, a city library , the Düren Provincial Facility for the Blind , an insane asylum and a Hospital. There were 93 factories, in particular several paper factories , three cloth factories, a flax spinning mill / linen weaving mill, iron foundries , machine factories . Needles, sugar (see Düren sugar factory ), glass (see Peill & Putzler ), synthetic wool and carpets were produced in the city. There was also a beer brewery, pottery, lignite mine and galme pits . Around 1900 Düren was one of the wealthiest cities in Germany with a population of 27,000. Around 50 millionaires lived there and the manufacturers shaped the district with their villas.
Around 1900 the Düren workers organized themselves increasingly in the trade unions and parties of the German labor movement to improve their economic and political situation . At that time these were the Free Trade Unions , the Factory Workers' Association (FAV) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
20th and 21st centuries
In preparation for the First World War , the railroad was of great importance in the Schlieffen Plan and in this context the Düren Vorbahnhof was created . During the war, the Düren airship hangar was built south of Distelrath for Zeppelins in 1915 , from which front trips to France and England started. The citizens had to give up all the metal, gold and silver for the armament and the churches had to give up some of their bells and the gold currency was replaced by paper money. In view of inflation , which the city tried to cope with with its own emergency money .
After the end of the war, in connection with the November Revolution on November 9, 1918, a workers 'and soldiers' council was also founded in Düren . The SPD lost members, while many people joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Until November 1919 Düren was occupied by the British and for the following ten years by the French. Instead of a revolutionary mood there was a large black market and barter trade. The people of Düren liked to celebrate during this time and the Burgau leisure center was created. The period of the Weimar Republic until 1933 was still characterized by party conflicts in Düren. Added to this was the mass unemployment with six million unemployed , which was increased by the global economic crisis .
After Hitler came to power on January 30, 1933, the National Socialists forced the incumbent Lord Mayor Ernst Overhues out of office. They named streets and squares after their party sizes and took part in the boycott of Jewish businesses. During the November pogroms of 1938 , as everywhere in the German Reich, there were anti-Jewish acts of violence in which the synagogue was destroyed, Jews were arrested for no reason, and their shops were plundered and devastated. The barley mill then served as a collection camp for the deportation of Jews.
After the Allies landed in Normandy in June 1944 , the first large Allied air raids on the border area began in July 1944. At the beginning of September 1944, the British and Americans approached the German western border, whereupon a large flow of refugees started eastwards across the Rhine. The scheduled evacuation of the border area began in mid-September . Many people from the civilian population wanted to stay and hoped that the Nazi dictatorship and the Second World War would soon end . In October 1944, neighboring Aachen was the first German city to be captured by the Allies. The battle in the Hürtgenwald , which took place only a few kilometers from Düren, became one of the most violent battles of World War II.
Around 22,000 people were still in the town of Düren, which had grown in the meantime, and lived in basements of 16 and 20 people seeking protection from the approaching artillery fire. On November 16, 1944, 474 Royal Air Force bombers dropped 2,751 tons of bombs in a 21-minute attack. In this heaviest and most devastating of a total of 51 documented air raids on Düren by the Allies in World War II, the city was completely destroyed. 3,128 people died in the hail of bombs and under the rubble: 2,404 citizens of Düren, 398 foreigners and 326 strangers. Of the 6,431 houses in Düren only thirteen remained intact. More than 1.5 million cubic meters of rubble covered the Düren soil. Three days after the devastating bomb attack, the Reich Defense Commissioner ordered the city to be evacuated. The survivors had to leave their homeland and were brought to Central Germany ; only four people remained in the city.
Subsequently, Düren was in the main section of the Allied troop deployment against the Rur front , which the German Wehrmacht had set up north of the Eifel along the Rur. On February 25, 1945, American troops crossed the river after fierce fighting and established a military government based in the Düren district court . At the beginning of March they appointed the heating fitter Alfred Stiegler , one of the few remaining residents in the city, as mayor. A few weeks after the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht , the British took command in May 1945.
After the end of the war, many Düren residents returned to their destroyed city in 1945, and around 27,000 people came by October. After Düren had been cleared , the reconstruction of the completely destroyed building began. While the Allies favored a new founding of the city south of the rubble mountains, the Dürener were determined to rebuild their city at the previous location. The city center of Düren is still largely characterized by the architecture of the 1950s.
In the period from 1943 to 1952 there were seven different mayors in Düren and from 1893 to 1976 there was the title of Lord Mayor . In the course of the municipal reorganization, the urban area increased on January 1, 1972 to almost four times the size of the previously independent municipalities of Arnoldsweiler, Birgel, Birkesdorf, Derichsweiler, Echtz-Konzendorf , Gürzenich, Mariaweiler-Hoven and Merken as well as large parts of Lendersdorf and Niederau was incorporated. From 1976 to 1997 the mayor was a volunteer citizen who also presided over the council. During this time, the administration was headed by a senior city director or city director in accordance with the municipal code for the state of North Rhine-Westphalia .
The converted Pleußmühle and the town's house were opened in 1991, which opened up new cultural opportunities. International relationships developed with various city partnerships. In 1992 the last Belgian soldiers withdrew from the tank barracks . On October 21, 2010, the federal government awarded the city of Düren the title “ Place of Diversity ”.
The population grew only slowly in the Middle Ages and the early modern period and kept falling due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. With the onset of industrialization in the 19th century, population growth accelerated. In 1805 only 4,563 people lived in the city, in 1900 there were already 27,168. By 1939 the population rose to over 45,000, but then fell to just 3,806 by June 1945 due to the effects of the Second World War. After the bombing of November 16, 1944, only four German residents lived in the city on March 1, 1945 Forced laborers etc. there were 21 people. On April 1, the population had risen to 180 and on May 1, 1945 there were already 1218 people. In December 1945 the number increased to 25,000 inhabitants and in 1958, 45,000, were as many as before the war. Due to the incorporation of several places in the area, the population of the city grew on January 1, 1972 by 35,522 to 89,087.
On December 31, 2007, it reached its historic high of 92,945. It had risen by a good 10,000 in twenty years. At the end of 2018, 92,435 people (including 46,286 women) lived in Düren. This includes 12,103 children and 3607 young people. The population density of 1067 inhabitants per km² is above average compared to cities of similar size. In recent years there has been a birth deficit , mostly between 150 and 200. The largest difference arose in 2013 with 746 births compared to 1,072 deaths (−326). In 2018 there were 917 births and 1126 deaths (−2019). The general demographic development is also evident in Düren , according to which the proportion of older people is increasing. The average age is 43 years, with the average age in Birgel being the highest.
The largest influx in recent years was in 2015, i.e. at the beginning of the general refugee crisis , with 7,091 immigrants compared with 5,642 emigrants. When the new residents were broken down by municipality in 2018, most of the new residents came from Bonn , Cologne , the Rhein-Erft district and the neighboring municipalities of Kreuzau , Merzenich and Niederzier . In addition to the neighboring towns, the next big cities Cologne and Aachen are the preferred destinations when moving on . In 2018 there were 10,787 Germans with additional citizenship and 16,208 foreigners in Düren. The largest groups of foreigners are Turks, Romanians and Poles.
The Catholics form the largest religious community in Düren. They belong to the diocese of Aachen . The Catholic parishes are grouped into three communities of parishes . The GdG St. Lukas, which was founded in 2010, comprises the inner-city communities St. Anna and St. Marien as well as St. Bonifatius in the east of the city, St. Antonius in the green belt, St. Josef in Düren-Süd and St. Cyriakus in Niederau. The central church is the Anna Church and the GdG also includes the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and Resurrection of St. Cyriakus . The GdG St. Elisabeth, which was established in 2003, includes the parishes of the western districts, namely St. Johannes Evangelist in Gürzenich, St. Michael in Lendersdorf, St. Nikolaus in Rölsdorf and St. Martin in Birgel. In the north there is the GdG St. Franziskus with the parishes St. Arnold in Arnoldsweiler, St. Joachim and St. Peter in North Düren / Birkesdorf, St. Martin in Derichsweiler, St. Michael in Echtz, Herz Jesu in Hoven, St The Assumption of the Virgin in Mariaweiler and St. Peter in Merken.
In addition, three Catholic religious orders are based in Düren. The Carmelites came from the Netherlands to their Düren monastery on the Kölner Landstrasse . A support association has existed since 2004 to support them. The Cellitinnen von St. Gertrud are based in the Marienkloster in Niederau and dedicate themselves to their nursing work in the adjoining retirement home and two other facilities in the city center. The Ursulines took care of the school system. They were temporarily expelled from the city at the end of the 19th century.
Around 12% of the population in Düren are Protestant. The Evangelical Community of Düren covers an area that extends far beyond the city and also includes the southern district of Düren and the Rhein-Erft district . It has 21,000 members in nine districts.
The Muslims are mainly at home in Düren-Nord. Your community center is the Fatih Mosque on Veldener Straße, which is operated by the DİTİB association. The Hicret mosque belongs to the IGMG umbrella organization and Düren Camii to the VIKZ ; both are located on Kölner Landstrasse. There are also four other mosques without allocation.
Free churches and other confessions
- The New Apostolic Church operates a community center on Euskirchener Strasse. The Apostolic Community has had its community center on Bücklersstrasse since the 1960s. There are also various other free churches in Düren.
- Since the pogrom night in which the synagogue was destroyed, the Jews no longer have their own place of prayer in Düren, and they are organized in the Jewish community of Aachen.
- Other religious communities in the city include the Jehovah's Witnesses .
City Council and Administration
In addition to the mayor, the Düren city council has 50 members. Seven parties are currently represented in the Council. In the local elections on May 25, 2014, the CDU received 20 seats. The second largest group is the SPD with 16 seats in front of the Greens with five seats. The left is represented by three MPs. The FDP and the newly represented AfD in the city council each have two seats. The citizens of Düren have a mandate , as does the LKR . After the 2014 local elections, a coalition of the SPD, the Greens, the FDP and the Left Party, known as “ Ampel plus ”, was formed.
The mayor Paul Larue is also head of the administration with four departments in which the offices are combined. Department I includes the areas of personnel, youth, school, sport, culture, integration and economic development. The First Alderman and Treasurer in Department II is responsible for the areas of general administration, finance, economics and social affairs . The technical assistant heads Department III, which is responsible for planning and building as well as urban drainage and the Düren service company (DSB). Department IV takes care of law, security and citizen service. Political work takes place in the district and technical committees as well as advisory boards for inclusion, integration and senior citizens.
Mayors and city directors
All office holders are listed in the list of personalities of the city of Düren .
In the past, the political management of the city was divided between a mayor and a city director; there were also mayors . Since 1994 the mayor has been chairman of the city council and head of administration at the same time. The current mayor, Paul Larue, has been in office since 1999. Most recently, in the election on September 13, 2015, he won 64% of the vote (with around 36% turnout ) against Elisabeth Koschorreck (“Ampel plus”) and Bernd Essler ( AfD ). His three deputies are Elisabeth Koschorreck (SPD), Thomas Floßdorf (CDU) and Carmen Heller-Macherey (Greens). At the beginning of October 2019, Larue announced that it would no longer run in the 2020 election.
Coat of arms and logo
|Blazon : "The coat of arms of the city of Düren is divided and shows a red armored black eagle in gold above, a striding red-tongued black lion in gold below."|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The eagle reminds of the old royal and later free imperial city. The lion in the lower field symbolizes the rule of Jülich.|
Before that there was already a seal showing the king with the city wall and bearing a Latin inscription: HOC EST REGALE SIGILLVM OPIDI DVRENSIS (“This is the royal seal of the city of Düren”).
The coat of arms is also included in the logo of the city of Düren in the upper right corner, which is designed in the same colors (black, red, gold). Under the name of the city, today's motto is “lively, open, right in the middle”.
|Gradačac||Tuzla||Bosnia and Herzegovina||2001|
|Jinhua||Zhejiang||People's Republic of China||2002|
|Lechbruck am See||Ostallgäu||Germany||2012|
Düren has eight partner cities. The city first established ties with the French city of Valenciennes in 1959 , thereby helping to reconcile the two states after the Second World War. Even today, many associations maintain contacts with the city in the north, around 250 kilometers away, and there are regular student exchanges . Cormeilles became the second twin town from the neighboring country in June 1970. The contact came about through a dance group from TV Arnoldsweiler, which invites guests from Normandy to the carnival every year and visits them on Ascension Day . On December 23, 1971, the mayor of Düren signed a partnership document with the Austrian market town of Altmünster am Traunsee . The Niederau male choir looks back on a long friendship with the Neukirchen music club. Streets in the twin cities are named after the places and there are many mutual visits.
In the 21st century the gaze was directed towards the east. In August 2001 the partnership with the Bosnian city of Gradačac was sealed, which like Düren suffered from the effects of a war and has now named a district after its German partner. In the mid-1990s, the people of Düren sheltered war refugees from there and then helped with the reconstruction. One month after the partnership with the Bosnians, the Ukrainian city of Stryj was added, where employees of the St. Augustine Hospital provided medical assistance. Today the partnership benefits, among other things, young Ukrainians who can do internships in Düren companies. Since October 2002, the Chinese city of Jinhua has been Düren's most distant twin city. The contacts came about after a performance by a youth jazz orchestra from Düren in the city 300 kilometers south of Shanghai . On September 17, 2009, the latest town partnership with the Turkish city of Karadeniz Ereğli , located on the Black Sea, was sealed with a certificate . It came about through Düren who came from there.
In August 2013, the city council also signed a friendship agreement between the Lendersdorf district and the Lechbruck am See community in Ostallgäu. The twin cities are particularly present every year at the Düren city festival, where they present themselves with music and dance performances.
A new sponsorship began in September 2002 with the christening of an Airbus A340 under the name "Düren". The long-haul aircraft with 247 seats is on the road in North and South America, Africa and Asia.
Culture and sights
The most famous museum in the city of Düren is the Leopold Hoesch Museum named after the father of its founder . The building, erected in 1905 in neo-baroque style, shows changing exhibitions of contemporary art, including expressionist paintings. Since 1986 there are also works of art of international Biennale PaperArt to see.
The Leopold Hoesch Museum is cooperating with the neighboring Düren Paper Museum for this exhibition . Since 1990, the history, manufacture and diverse uses of paper, which has played a major role in the industrial development of the city since the 16th century, have been demonstrated there. In September 2018, the museum reopened after a renovation and redesign.
The city's youngest museum is the Düren City Museum, founded in 2009 on Arnoldsweilerstrasse. This museum is dedicated to the history of the city in its permanent exhibition. In addition to the permanent exhibition, there are activities on specific epochs or topics such as migration . The museum is also working on digital 3D models with historical views of the city.
The fact that people from Düren like to celebrate Carnival can not only be observed in the “ fifth season ”. Since 2006 there has been a carnival museum in the former nurses' home of the St. Augustinus Hospital in the Lendersdorf district , which was founded in 1994 by the Düren regional group of the Federation of German Carnival and was previously housed in Niederzier . It is used by many carnival societies in the region.
Theater, music and other entertainment
The Düren City Theater was opened in January 1907 opposite the Leopold Hoesch Museum. The Art Nouveau building, in which many well-known ensembles performed, was almost completely destroyed in the bombing on November 16, 1944 and demolished in 1952. Today such cultural performances usually take place in the house of the city . This multi-purpose building near the train station has been the successor to the town hall since 1991. For many decades, the city hall served as a venue for concerts, carnivals and similar events, but became dilapidated and finally demolished in 2015.
The multifunctional Arena Kreis Düren has served as the venue for large concerts since 2004 and offers space for around 2000 spectators. On a smaller scale, the youth and culture center Komm , which is located in the Pleußmühle , an old flour mill with origins in the 13th century, offers music, cabaret and theater several times a week. The former factory of the Dürener Metallwerke has been home to EndArt for several decades , where parties for young people and fans of music from the 1970s to 90s as well as various concerts take place. Since 1994, the Cappella Villa Duria concert forum has been dedicated to classical music in particular.
The Düren Jazz Days have been taking place every year since 1991 with concerts at various locations and a "pub crawl". Concerts are also regularly held at the Düren bathing lake in summer. a. REM and Peter Fox performed. In 1998 a brass band was formed , which plays as one of a total of eleven German brass bands with an original English line-up and has been hosting the Summer Brass since 2015.
Theater performances are mainly shown in the Haus der Stadt. There are theater groups at several schools in Düren; this includes the “Young Theater” at the Wirteltor grammar school and the theater group at the Burgau grammar school.
There used to be many cinemas in Düren . Today there is a large, modern cinema on Fritz-Erler-Straße with a total of eight halls, which was taken over by the current operator in 2013.
The Annakirmes arose from a fair of showmen, aimed at pilgrims who came to Düren to worship the Assumption head . It always takes place around July 26th, the day Pope Gregory XIII. 1584 designated as the feast day of St. Anne . With around one million visitors, it developed into one of the largest folk festivals in Germany. In addition to numerous rides and snack bars and concerts in the marquee, the nine-day spectacle includes the world championship in cherry pit spitting . At the same time as the hustle and bustle, Catholics celebrate the Octave of St. Anne in St. The historic Annamarkt, which has been held every few years since 2001, also recalls the time at the beginning of the 16th century when the Annahaupt and prominent pilgrims such as Emperor Charles V and Albrecht Dürer came to Düren.
Düren's tradition as the “city of markets” also emerged from the story of the pilgrims. In addition to the weekly market and seasonal offers such as May, autumn and Christmas markets, there is a flea market and a beer market every year . The latest development is the Schlemmermarkt as a street food festival that has been taking place every summer since 2018.
Every year since 1979, IG City has organized the city festival on a weekend in September. In addition to concerts, the presentations by the partner cities and a “club mile” are an integral part. At the beginning of November there is also the “Düren lights” campaign, in which light projections and lighting elements decorate the city center and late-night shopping is possible.
As in the entire Rhineland, the carnival is celebrated in Düren . The Prinzengarde was founded in 1954. On Carnival Sunday, the carnival parade with the prince couple moves through the city center. Many districts have their own carnival societies that hold meetings and processions.
The Burgau Castle stands on the southern edge of the city forest in the district Niederau. The moated castle dates back to the 14th century and was in ruins after being destroyed in 1944 to 1979, before it was restored through the commitment of the Schützenbruderschaft . Today various events and civil weddings take place there. The Burg Birgel in the same district was created in its present form in the 17th century and in it a primary school is housed. Other preserved mansions in Düren are Gut Weyern in the Burgau Forest, House Mozenborn in Birgel, House Pimmenich in Lendersdorf and House Rath near Arnoldsweiler.
In addition to several churches (see below), numerous individual houses are listed. These can be found above all in Holzstrasse , Heerweg, in the Grüngürtel settlement less affected by the bombing raids in 1944 and on the premises of the LVR clinic . As an example of the architecture of the 1950s, the town hall, inaugurated in 1959, is also a monument. Several towers and some pieces of the wall have been preserved from the city fortifications of Düren .
The most famous statues in Düren are the Bismarck monument in memory of the prominent honorary citizen and the Anna column with the Child Mary at the Altenteich . In addition, there are some artistically designed graves, especially in the Evangelical Cemetery, and various wayside crosses. A special architectural feature is the three-chord bridge , inaugurated in 1930 and now a listed building , which was the first of its kind in the world and over which the railway still travels today.
Houses of worship
The central church in Düren's inner city is the Anna Church , in which the Assumption head is kept as a relic . After it was destroyed by the bombing, it was rebuilt in the 1950s under the direction of the architect Rudolf Schwarz . The second church in the city center is the Marienkirche on Hoeschplatz. The parish of St. Lukas also includes the church of St. Antonius in the green belt, the church of St. Josef in Düren-Süd with the Mother of God house , the Ühledömche in Distelrath as well as the grave and resurrection church of St. Cyriakus and the old church in the Niederau district stand only a few meters apart. St. Boniface was divested in 2017 and converted into a day care center. Outside of St. Lukas, there is St. Joachim in the north, the Carmel Monastery and the Church of the Heart of Jesus of the LVR Clinic in Düren . There are also several Catholic churches and chapels in the individual districts, which are recorded in the list of church buildings in Düren .
The most important Protestant church in Düren is the Christ Church , which replaced the destroyed Church of the Resurrection after the Second World War. When it was inaugurated in 1954, it had the tallest free-standing church tower in Germany. Another meeting place for the Protestants is the house of the Evangelical Congregation.
The Muslims pray since the 1980s in the Fatih Mosque (dt. "Conqueror Mosque") of DİTİB at Velden Street , which was built in 1992 by the minaret has become a defining monument for Düren North. There are also several mosques in more inconspicuous buildings.
In Düren there are 16 municipal cemeteries with a total area of about 55 hectares, which are managed by the Düren service company. About half of the area belongs to the New Düren-Ost cemetery, the city's main cemetery on Friedenstrasse. The Peill family crypt is a striking building on the cemetery grounds, which are laid out as a park . The other Catholic cemeteries are in the individual districts.
The Protestant cemetery on Kölnstrasse has existed since 1825 and was donated by the couple Rudolph and Lucia Schenkel (née Schoeller). There are many elaborately designed tombs that were created by sculptors such as Joseph Uphues and are on the list of monuments. There is the Reformed and Lutheran cemetery on Paradiesstrasse .
The old Jewish cemetery on Arnoldsweilerstraße has existed since at least 1581 and the last burials took place in 1888. The new Jewish cemetery is located on Binsfelder Straße near the main Catholic cemetery in Düren-Ost. There is also a former Jewish cemetery in Gürzenich .
Since Düren was one of the most heavily damaged cities in Germany in the Second World War, various memorials have been a reminder of the time of National Socialism and the world wars since the reconstruction in the 1950s . In front of the town hall, the "Flammenengel" designed by Adolf Wamper (inaugurated on November 16, 1962) serves to commemorate the devastating air raids of November 16, 1944 and all those who died in the two world wars. Since March 1954, the city administration has been collecting the names of all victims of November 16, 1944 in a register. Since November 1961, a bronze plaque designed by Jaekel in the district house has been commemorating the war dead from the then district office. The picture shows how the Archangel Michael fights a dragon over the burning city.
Between 1988 and 1990 Ulrich Rückriem created a decentralized memorial with the steles named after him . Reminder hours will be held on the ten sculptures on the anniversary of the Reichspogromnacht . On June 26, 2005, the Cologne artist Gunter Demnig laid the first stumbling blocks in Düren . These cobblestones have a small memorial plaque to commemorate the Jewish citizens deported during the Nazi era.
For the dead of the First World War, a specially founded association worked on the erection of a memorial on the Fuchsberg , which was never completed because of the Second World War and was demolished in 1975. A Düren war memorial, which commemorated the victims of the wars of 1866 and 1870/71 , was located at the intersection between August-Klotz-, Tivoli- and Schenkelstraße and was demolished in 1949. In Niederau and Merken as well as in several cemeteries in the other parts of the city there are memorials and war graves for the victims of the two world wars.
Parks and recreation
The Burgau Forest , the largest local recreation area in the city, stretches from Burgau Castle in Niederau to the southern edge of the city. There is the Motte tower, a fitness trail and an educational forest trail . There are several parks in the city. The city park on Valencienner and Aachener Strasse was named after Willy Brandt . Right next to it is the old city nursery with a Chinese pavilion. The Konrad-Adenauer-Park on Kölnstrasse was once a cemetery and has existed in its present form since 1974. The park has been redesigned since September 2019. The Holzbendenpark is located between Rütger-von-Scheven- and Nippesstraße and contains, among other things, a large playground. A few meters to the north there is the small Hoeschpark at the transition to August-Klotz-Straße. The newest park is Theodor-Heuss-Park on Bismarckstrasse. It was opened in spring 2019 as part of the converted "Bismarck Quarter".
The Schillingspark in the Gürzenich district is part of the Weiherhof and is only accessible on the Open Monument Day and similar occasions. In addition to several ponds, there are monuments such as the fishing house and the Mona Lisa tower. Further green spaces can be found along the Rur and in the individual districts.
In summer, the people of Düren can spend their free time at two swimming lakes , which were created from former opencast mines in the Rhenish lignite mining area . The Düren bathing lake has a water surface of about 35 hectares and is also used as a venue for concerts. There is a campsite on the 16 hectare lake in Echtzer See .
The SWD Powervolleys Düren are the most successful club in town. The team, which emerged from the volleyball department of Dürener TV, established itself in the Bundesliga and was in the play-off finals for the German championship from 2005 to 2007 . The Düren volleyball players reached the DVV Cup final four times . They also represented the city in the Champions League and other international competitions. The beach volleyball duo Brand / Reinhardt has been competing for the SWD Powervolleys in the national tournament series since 2019 . The duo Lahme / Müsch , who play for the volleyball department of GFC Düren 09 , took part in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens . From 2002 to 2012, the district of Düren hosted the DKB Beach Cup on Kaiserplatz, which was filled with national players and was then moved to Jülich . Dürener TV operates a beach volleyball facility on Doktor-Overhues-Allee.
The successful days of the Düren football clubs go back a long time. The SG Düren 99 played in the league and five Middle Rhine Championships still one of the most successful amateur clubs in the Middle Rhine. The national player Karl-Heinz Schnellinger , who was born in Düren, began his career with Düren 99. The later vice world champion Toni Schumacher began his career with Schwarz-Weiß Düren . Other national and Bundesliga players come from Düren. On April 1st, 2011 the clubs SG Düren 99 and GFC Düren 09 merged to form the new club GFC Düren 99. FC Düren-Niederau was particularly successful in the youth field. In 2017/18 1. FC Düren was created as a merger of the GFC with the Niederauers. The club's first team plays on the Westkampfbahn and competes in the Middle Rhine Football League . In October 2008, the Düren initiative “football clubs against the right” was awarded the Julius Hirsch Prize of the DFB .
The badminton team of the 1st BC Düren have achieved five promotions since 2002. In the 2009/10 season she played in the second Bundesliga for the first time and reached the Badminton Bundesliga in 2012 . In 2017, the club took the Final Four, but at the same time announced the withdrawal from the Bundesliga.
The swimmers of Düren TV were already represented by the women's team in the second Bundesliga and regularly take part in the German championships. Florian Moll reached the finals of the 100 meters chest and 400 meters freestyle at the 2008 Summer Paralympics .
The Düren Demons play American football . The club's men's and youth team is in league play. The Demons emerged in 2001 from a merger of the AFC Aachen Demons, founded four years earlier, and the Düren Bravehearts.
The Düren boxing ring , which Heinz Jäger founded in 1955 in the green belt , was made famous by the European champion Ernst Müller . The PBC Düren-Nord played for several years in the 1st Bundesliga and won the German 8-Ball Cup twice .
Economy and Infrastructure
Düren became an important business location due to its manufacturing industry. The city is traditionally known for paper production. Then there is the textile industry based on the cloth makers and metal processing.
In June 2017, according to the municipal profile, 27.8% of employees subject to social security contributions in Düren worked in the manufacturing industry. A total of 16.5% were employed in trade, hospitality, transport and storage and 55.7% in other services. Of the total of 41,639 employees, 68% were working full-time at this time. The city of Düren and the district belong to the chamber district of the Aachen Chamber of Crafts and the Aachen Chamber of Commerce .
Today there are five large commercial areas in Düren. The “Im Großen Tal” industrial park is located north of Birkesdorf with a direct connection to the A4 and B56 and offers space for more than 150 companies on a good 90 hectares of usable space. The “Talbenden / Rurbenden” industrial park in Huchem-Stammeln, with an area of 34.5 hectares, belongs to the city of Düren and the neighboring community of Niederzier . Düren shares the 50 hectare “Stockheimer Landstraße” industrial area with the Kreuzau community, known as the “Automeile” because of the companies located there. On the 6.9 hectare site of the former Peill & Putzler glassworks, there is now an industrial park. a. the Düren Society for Employment Promotion is housed. Chemical and processing companies can be found in the Niederau industrial park in Krauthausen .
As the “city of markets”, Düren also distinguishes itself through its trade. Most retailers have their business premises in the city center, the shopping area of which extends from Kaiserplatz and Markt to Josef-Schregel-Strasse in the north. Important shopping streets are Kölnstrasse and Wirtelstrasse . The StadtCenter Düren has been a shopping center near the train station since 2005.
In 2003, urban planner Hans-Joachim Hamerla designed the “Downtown Action Concept” to better market the city. This was followed by the master plan developed from the end of 2013 with various building measures that have been carried out since 2015, especially the redesign of Kölnstrasse, Markt and Bismarckquartier. The Kaiserplatz has been redesigned since summer 2019. The CityMa association and IG City take care of the city's image. Their tasks also include events such as the annual “Düren lights up” campaign (see events ). The city founded WIN.DN GmbH for economic development .
The Stadtwerke Düren supply the city and some neighboring communities with water, electricity and gas. The water, which is comparatively soft, comes from several dams and waterworks in the area. The Eifel-Rur water association is based in Düren. He is responsible for the area around the Rur between Heinsberg, Aachen, Düren and the northern Eifel and looks after the dams in the region. As a municipal service provider, the Düren service company takes care of waste disposal, street cleaning and the municipal cemeteries.
Family businesses had a major influence on economic development and still shape the image of the city today. One of the most important families is the Schoeller family . The Schoellershammer paper mill in Krauthausen was founded by Heinrich Wilhelm Schoeller. The Anker Gebr. Schoeller company in Birkesdorf is based on a cloth factory and a carpet office owned by Leopold Schoeller , who also comes from the family . The Hoesch family dealt primarily with iron and steel . Julius Hoesch turned to a different industry and founded the company named after him, which is now based in the Hoven district. Two companies emerged from the Kufferath family. GKD - Gebr. Kufferath , based in Mariaweiler, is a globally successful supplier of technical fabrics. Andreas Kufferath's temporarily competing company was taken over by Bellmer . The Heimbach Group , which was founded by Thomas Josef Heimbach in 1811 and is active worldwide as a manufacturer of paper machine clothing, is also based in Mariaweiler . The paper industry is also a major customer for Carl Krafft's machine factory. The family company was founded in 1870 as an iron foundry and later specialized in the manufacture of rollers and cylinders.
Queck Stahlbau, based in Lendersdorf, built the Saar Polygon and supplied components for the Formula 1 Yas Marina Circuit in Abu Dhabi . Building services Peterhoff began as a family business in building cleaning and is now also active nationwide in security services. Duria eG , founded by Düren doctors in 1991, operates nationwide as a provider of electronic practice management systems . The Streetscooter electric vehicle developed in Aachen has also been produced in Düren by the automotive supplier Neapco since 2018 .
Two daily newspapers appear in Düren . The Dürener Zeitung is a regional edition of the Aachener Zeitung . Its history began in 1872 under the name Dürener Sonntagsblatt for the city and the surrounding area , before it joined the Aachener Volkszeitung, the forerunner of the Aachener Zeitung, in 1947. The Dürener Nachrichten is the local edition of the Aachener Nachrichten . The first edition of the Aachener Nachrichten appeared on January 24, 1945 before the end of the war. Today both newspapers are published by the Aachen newspaper publisher . Except for the local section and some pages of the jacket , the contents of the print edition are identical. In addition, there is the DN week , which appears on Wednesdays, and Super Sunday , which are distributed to all households as free advertising newspapers, as well as the Dürener Illustrierte magazine . In addition to the newspaper publisher's websites, various online portals offer news from Düren.
Radio Rur is the local radio station for the Düren district. It has been broadcasting since September 1992 and is based in the Pleußmühle . In addition to the supporting program of the Radio NRW network, there is local news and the program of the First Düren Broadcasting Association, which broadcasts on the open channel.
Various locations in the city of Düren have already been the setting for television and film productions. From 2007 to 2010, the series “Die Kinderärzte von St. Marien”, shot in the St. Marien Hospital , was broadcast on RTL . The film Barefoot with Til Schweiger includes a scene that was shot in 2004 on platform 21 of the Düren train station. House 5 of the LVR-Klinik Düren , also known as the preservation house, served as a backdrop for the crime series Tatort and the action series Alarm for Cobra 11 . Scenes for the series Babylon Berlin were also shot there and a casting took place in the Endart.
Four public clinics are available in Düren for the medical care of the population . The Düren hospital on Roonstrasse is operated jointly by the city and district. Its history goes back to the 15th century and the present hospital was built at the beginning of the 20th century. The hospital has a health center that offers various sports courses and its own “Klinik-Pänz” day care center.
The St. Marien Hospital in the Birkesdorf district is sponsored by Caritas West . It was originally run by Franciscan nuns and opened under its current name in 1876 after a preservation school was converted. The children's clinic at St. Marien Hospital gained national recognition through the RTL series “The Pediatricians of St. Marien”. The St. Augustinus Hospital in Lendersdorf was donated by Benno Schoeller at the end of the 19th century and handed over to Caritas by the Cellitinnen in 1999 . Today the Düren rehabilitation center is also located there. The three clinics in Roonstraße, Lendersdorf and Birkesdorf are also academic teaching hospitals of RWTH Aachen University .
The LVR-Klinik Düren specializes in psychiatry and psychotherapy and its catchment area extends beyond the Düren district to the Aachen city region and the Rhein-Erft district . House 5, known as the preservation house, and several other buildings on the extensive clinic grounds are listed as historical monuments.
There is also the Paulus private clinic, which is housed in the so-called Medicenter on Arnoldsweilerstraße in addition to various medical practices.
Fire brigade, police and other authorities
The main station of the Düren fire brigade has been located on Bruxelles Strasse next to Bundesstrasse 56 since 1981 . Since 2018 there has been an additional west ambulance station on Monschauer Strasse. A move of the Hauptwache to Veldener Straße is planned for 2022 in order to improve the operations.
The fire brigade is divided into a full-time part and the volunteer fire brigade with its youth fire brigade . There are six fire engines in Düren, made up of thirteen groups. In addition to the fire fighting train in the middle, the other fire fighting trains are grouped according to districts. The Düren fire brigade has around 560 active members who use 63 emergency vehicles including the rescue service. Its history goes back to the establishment of the first volunteer fire brigade in 1872.
The main police station in Düren is at the intersection of Aachener Strasse and August-Klotz-Strasse. With the guards in Kreuzau and Jülich, it belongs to the Düren district police authority, which has around 460 employees. According to the crime statistics, there were 16,109 criminal offenses in the Düren district in 2018 and with around 53% the second-best clear-up rate in history. There was an increase in violent crime, while there were fewer thefts and break-ins.
The Düren District Court is located on August-Klotz-Strasse. It is responsible for the city of Düren and the southern district and belongs to the regional court district of Aachen and the higher regional court district of Cologne. The court consists of 33 departments for various tasks.
The tax office is located in a building from the 1950s on the corner of Goethestrasse and Holzstrasse with other offices in the neighborhood. The Düren office is subordinate to the Regional Finance Directorate Rhineland in Cologne. The Federal Employment Agency has its headquarters in Düren on Moltkestrasse, where the associated career information center can also be found. The unemployment rate in Düren was 6.5% in September 2019.
Sports and event facilities
The home games of the volleyball Bundesliga team SWD Powervolleys Düren have been taking place in the Arena Kreis Düren since September 2004 and the hall is used for school sports. Concerts and other cultural events are also held here. This means that the arena is also a replacement for the city hall, which has now been demolished . The most famous stadium in Düren is the Westkampfbahn . The sports facility on Mariaweilerstraße was opened in 1914 and is characterized by a wooden grandstand. In addition to 1. FC Düren , the American football team Düren Demons also plays here . There are also tennis courts and other sports facilities on the premises.
The last remaining indoor swimming pool in Düren is the Jesuitenhof , located right next to the arena . The swimming pool, which is operated by the Düren service company, has a 25-meter pool, a teaching pool, a fitness area and a sauna. The bathroom is to be replaced by a new building in the same location, the completion of which is planned for 2021. You can also swim in the Düren bathing lake and in the Echtzer lake . The GC Düren golf course is located in the Gürzenich district. The course was initially laid out with nine holes in the 1970s and expanded to 18 holes in 1996.
In addition to the arena, there are other multifunctional halls for events in Düren. These include the Haus der Stadt, the Komm cultural center in the Pleußmühle, the festival hall in Birkesdorf and the Rurtalhalle in Lendersdorf.
In December 2018, a four-star hotel was opened on Bismarckstrasse. There are also various smaller hotels and holiday apartments in Düren. In 2018, almost 87,000 overnight stays were recorded in the city, which is an increase of 6.5% compared to the previous year.
There are a total of 33 general education schools in Düren . For the primary level, 19 urban primary schools are available in the city center and the city districts , 17 of which are open all-day schools (OGS). The primary schools Grüngürtel and Arnoldsweiler, Derichsweiler and Gürzenich as well as Lendersdorf and Niederau each form a network with two locations. The Free Christian School is also a private institution. At the secondary level, more than a third of the students in Düren attend a grammar school. There are five high schools in the city.
- The high school at Wirteltor is the largest school of its kind in Düren with around 1,100 students. Its history began in 1828 with a science-oriented boys' school. It has been a European school since 2008 .
- The collegiate grammar school is based on a Latin school and became an ancient language-humanistic grammar school in 1826.
- The Burgau grammar school, founded in 1969 with around 750 students, is much younger . It is characterized by its bilingual teaching in French and has been called the European School since 2010.
- The Rurtal-Gymnasium was founded in 1880 as a secondary school for girls and began co-education in 1975 .
- Until 2018 only girls were admitted to the Episcopal St. Angela School . The 2018/19 school year saw the first male classes, but these are taught separately. Since then, the school has been sponsored by the Aachen diocese .
Düren has three secondary schools. One of them belongs to Angela School together with the high school. There are also the secondary schools on Bretzelnweg and Wernersstraße. The two remaining secondary schools are the Burgauer Allee secondary school in Düren-Süd and the Matthias-Claudius-Schule in Birkesdorf. The two comprehensive schools in Mariaweiler and Düren-Ost are named after Anne Frank and Heinrich Böll . For pupils with special educational needs there is also the Bürgewald School in Birkesdorf, which has a secondary location in the Kreuzau district of Stockheim . Visually impaired pupils are taught at the Louis Braille School in Düren , which is run by the Rhineland Regional Council.
Early childhood education takes place in the numerous day care centers. In addition to sixteen church and ten municipal day-care centers, there are fourteen workers' welfare institutions in Düren , two each for life support and social services for Catholic women, as well as a day-care center run by the district administration and a curative day-care center in Rölsdorf.
There are three vocational colleges for professional development : the commercial schools on Euskirchener Strasse, the Nelly-Pütz vocational college and the technical college. In addition, there are various further training facilities in Düren for special purposes. Visually impaired people can visit the Düren vocational training center . In 1980, the central "Vocational Training and Trade Promotion Institution" (BGE) was founded for inter-company apprenticeship training in the professions of metal technician , plant mechanic , welding technician , painter and varnisher as well as vehicle varnisher , whereby advancement qualifications to master craftsmen are offered for the professional fields of painters and varnishers and car varnishers. Furthermore, in 2003 the HKW Aachen set up the "Training Center for Motor Vehicle Technology" (TraCK), which is responsible for training and further education in the automotive industry.
In addition to professional training, the educational institutions of the Catholic and Protestant communities, the Rur-Eifel adult education center and the Düren music school offer a wide range of courses for people of all ages.
Düren can be reached from Aachen and Cologne via the federal motorway 4 . The exit is located in the north of the urban area. In addition, three federal highways lead to Düren. The B56 crosses the A4 in the north and leaves the urban area east of Niederau. From Langerwehe or Merzenich you can get to Düren via the B264 . The B399 leads from Gey via Birgel and Rölsdorf before it joins the B264 at Gürzenich.
The central bus station (ZOB) is right next to the Düren train station. The Düren district railway operates around 30 bus routes. From January 2020, the new company Rurtalbus will take over bus transport in Düren and offer more connections.
On the railway line between Cologne and Aachen is Düren as Inselbahnhof connected to the railway network. The regional express trains RE1 ( NRW-Express ) and RE9 ( Rhein-Sieg-Express ) of Deutsche Bahn stop there every hour . The Euregiobahn (RB20) also runs in the direction of Aachen . In the direction of Cologne you can also take the S13 and S19 S-Bahn . Trains have stopped in Düren since September 6, 1841. Since December 2002 this no longer includes long-distance trains. In 2009 there was a brief experiment with the stop of an Intercity Express on the Aachen – Berlin route. Since then, efforts to connect to long-distance traffic have been in vain.
The Rurtalbahn GmbH also takes care of rail transport in the vicinity . The trains, which are operated by the Dürener Kreisbahn, run from Düren station on two routes in the direction of Heimbach and Jülich .
In addition to the Dürener Kreisbahn, another railway company existed for a long time: Dürener Eisenbahn AG (DEAG). From 1893 it operated a meter-gauge line from Düren station in a north-westerly direction to Birkesdorf, which was later extended in stages to Inden . After passenger traffic continued to decline, rail operations were discontinued in 1965 when an important part of the freight traffic was lost.
Several large cycle paths lead through Düren.
- The 180 kilometer long RurUfer cycle path , which stretches from the High Fens to Roermond , reaches the urban area in the south between Niederau and Lendersdorf and leaves it in the north at Merken. The paths are signposted on both sides of the Rurufers.
- The railway cycle path runs along the rails of the Cologne – Aachen high-speed line. In Düren, the section of the route coming from Aachen goes from the market square to the train station and from there on towards Merzenich.
- The Düren section of the moated castle route runs from Derichsweiler along the western part of the city and then via Lendersdorf to Burgau Castle in Niederau, before heading to the neighboring town of Kreuzau to the south.
- The green route begins at the Düren train station and leads past the market and Leopold-Hoesch-Museum over Tivolistraße to the Rur. There she follows the RurUfer cycle path towards Jülich.
- The Kaiser route leads from Derichsweiler over the Annakirmesplatz and then along the Rur to the south through the city.
- The NRW soccer route crosses Düren from Birgel in the west to the green belt in the east.
The list of honorary citizens of Düren includes eight people. In addition to the first Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck and the Reich President Paul von Hindenburg , other politicians are Emmerich Stürtz , August Klotz , Heinrich Spies and Josef Vosen . The other two honorary citizens are the dean Franz Anton Vaßen and the local poet Josef Schregel . Except for Hindenburg and Spies, all honorary citizens are immortalized in street names.
sons and daughters of the town
The list of personalities of the city of Düren includes the previous mayors and city directors. In addition to the politicians, the well-known entrepreneurs also shaped the development of the city. These include the Schoeller and Hoesch , Thomas Josef Heimbach , Leopold Peill and Rudolf Schenkel families .
The earliest-born personalities in the list are Cologne mayor Lambert van Duren and the 14th century Jewish scholar Isaak ben Meïr from Düren . Bishop Simon von Düren, born around 1400, and the terracotta sculptor Statius von Düren, born around 1520, also bear their origins in their names . After the politician Matthias von Inden from the 16th century, the doctors Johann Clöben and Heinrich Mulartz were born in the 17th century . The Benedictine Theodor van Gülpen , the publisher Carl Christian Jügel , the theologian Johann Wilhelm Kals and the secret writer Arnold Robens are recorded with birth dates in the 18th century .
The mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet stood with Alexander von Humboldt and Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy . Another prominent scientist was the economist Hermann Heinrich Gossen , who formulated laws on marginal utility . Friedrich Prym was also active in mathematics , while his brother Eugen Prym dealt with oriental languages. Also brothers with different interests were the animal photographer Carl Georg Schillings and the theater director Max von Schillings . Joseph van der Giese and Josef Schregel appeared as local poets . Adam Siepen became known for painting with his feet. All of these personalities were born in the 19th century.
The prominent Düren residents of the 20th and 21st centuries come from politics, sports, entertainment and science. In addition to the mayors and incumbent Paul Larue, the politicians include the members of the German Bundestag, Karl Lauterbach , Dietmar Nietan and Thomas Rachel . The diplomat Friedrich-Carl Bruns and Selmin Çalışkan , who is also active at Amnesty International , are (are) engaged in international cooperation. The sporty Düren family includes many footballers such as Karl-Heinz Schnellinger , Toni Schumacher and Georg Stollenwerk, as well as Deniz Naki and Johanna Elsig today . Manfred Donike and his son Alexander became known through cycling , while Ernst Müller and Manfred Zielonka were successful in boxing. Swimmer Ute Hasse and canoeist Annemarie Zimmermann won Olympic medals. Simon Ernst is active in the handball Bundesliga. Claudia Neumann works as a sports reporter. The personalities from entertainment and art also offer a broad spectrum. The two comedians Kalle Pohl and Paul Panzer (bourgeois Dieter Tappert) come from Düren as well as the musician Florian Peil from the band Kasalla and the pianist Lars Vogt . Margot Eskens (Schlager), Ina Hagenau (Pop) and opera tenor Stefan Schwer became known for their singing . Sybille Schmitz appeared as an actress. Ernst Ohst and Jean Schmitz are well-known painters. Guido M. Breuer , Andreas Drouve and gastronomic critic Heinz Horrmann are active as authors and writers. Peggy Porschen is a successful pastry chef from Düren . Well-known contemporary scientists are linguist Helmut Gipper and macroeconomist Paul JJ Welfens .
Personalities related to Düren
Emperor Charlemagne is one of the personalities who lived or still live in Düren . In addition to various local politicians, the Green MP Oliver Krischer is known. Well-known artists with a relationship to Düren are Kaća Čelan and Erna Flecke-Schiefenbusch , who are employed in the theater , author Majella Lenzen , Ulrich Rückriem, known for his steles, and opera singer Rudolf Schock . Soccer player Oliver Bierhoff and archer Christina Schäfer are successful in sport . Also prominent and associated with Düren are the former Medical Association President Jörg-Dietrich Hoppe , the priest Fritz Keller , who is venerated as a martyr , and the rocket technician Gerhard Zucker .
Due to their special characteristics, the Düren originals were given a place in the city's history. Some of them can be seen at a fountain in Wirtelstrasse and the KG Dürener Originale association commemorates them. Plaques and memorial plaques on houses in Düren remember special personalities.
- Sponsoring association Stadtmuseum Düren e. V. (Ed.): Düren's Golden Years 1871–1914. Book accompanying the III. Department of the permanent exhibition on city history . Hahne & Schloemer, Düren 2014, ISBN 978-3-942513-22-7 .
- Alexander Mainz: The old Düren in the picture . 5th completely revised and improved edition. Verlagsgruppe Mainz, Aachen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8107-0043-8 .
- Paul Hartmann, Edmund Renard: The art monuments of the Düren district . Düsseldorf 1910.
- Ulrich Coenen: Architectural treasures in the Düren district . 2nd Edition. Mainz, Aachen 1989, ISBN 3-925714-27-8 .
- Hans J. Domsta: Seal and coat of arms of the city of Düren and its districts . Düren History Association , Düren 1985.
- Hans J. Domsta: Timeline of the history of Düren 747–1997 . Düren History Association, Düren 1998.
- Erwin Gatz: St. Anna in Düren . Cooling, Mönchengladbach 1972, ISBN 3-87448-074-7 .
- Josef Geuenich: History of the paper industry in the Düren-Jülich economic area . Hamel, Düren 1959.
- Josef Heinrichs: Dürener Platt . Düren 2001.
- Helmut Krebs: Düren . Sutton, Erfurt 2003, ISBN 3-89702-565-5 .
- Heike Kussinger-Stankovic: Düren - the face of a city in the 1950s . In: Contributions to the history of the Düren country . tape 27 . Düren History Association, 2006, ISSN 0343-2971 .
- Heinrich Otten: The reconstruction of Düren . Bonn 1998.
- Egon Schiffer: Düren despair and hope . A personal experience report about the destruction and reconstruction of my city Düren 1944–1948. Hahne and Schloemer, Düren 2006, ISBN 3-927312-76-2 .
- Horst Wallraff: National Socialism in the Düren and Jülich districts . Tradition and “Thousand Year Reich” in a Rhineland region from 1933 to 1945. 2nd edition. Düren 2000, ISBN 3-927312-30-4 .
- Wilhelm Bruell: Chronicle of the city of Düren . With 12 woodcuts ue lithographed Map. Vetter, Düren 1895, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-30590 .
- Mathias Michael Bonn: Collection of materials on the history of Düren and its immediate vicinity . Knoll, Düren 1835, urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-22926 .
- Peter Adolf Linde, Arnold de Bruyn: Description and history of the city of Dueren. Schiffers, Aachen 1823. Digitized
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- Official website of the city of Düren
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- Düren tourism
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