Biennials are exhibitions, festivals or shows that take place every two years . The term is derived from the biennium , a term for a period of two years. In contrast, triennials take place every three years and quadriennials every four years.
The original Biennale was the idea of a Mayor of Venice , who had organized a world exhibition of fine arts every two years under the title La Biennale di Venezia since 1895 . For this world show, country pavilions were built in a garden area to this day.
For some years now, the shipyards with their halls from the 16th century have also been used as exhibition space, which are normally restricted military areas. As the number of participating nations also increased, their exhibition venues are spread across the city through churches, palazzi and embassies.
São Paulo Biennial
The São Paulo Biennial has been the second largest and second oldest art biennial in the world since 1951. It takes place in the Cicillo Matarazzo pavilion designed by the architect Oscar Niemeyer in Parque do Ibirapuera in São Paulo , Brazil .
In 1958, inspired by the international biennials in São Paulo and Venice, Raymond Cogniat , then the commissioner of the French pavilion at the Venice Biennale, suggested to André Malraux , Minister of Information and later Minister of State for Cultural Affairs , that an exhibition should also be organized in Paris . The aim was to present a panorama of the young international art scene. The Paris Biennale was actually launched in 1959 and, despite a few interruptions, has been revived again and again. In October 2006 the XV. Biennale De Paris took place, in which almost 100 projects from more than 20 countries took part.
Other well-known biennials
- Aachen : International Chorbiennale
- Athens : Athens Biennale
- Bad Homburg vor der Höhe and the Rhine-Main area : view axes
- Berlin : Berlin Biennale
- Wroclaw : Media Art Biennale WRO
- Bucharest : Bucharest Biennale
- Busan : Busan Biennale
- Casablanca : Casablanca Biennale
- Chengdu : Chengdu Biennale
- Gera : Höhler Biennale
- Gwangju : Gwangju Biennale
- Halle (Saale) : Werkleitz Biennale , festival for art and media
- Havana : Bienal de La Habana
- Hildesheim : Light Biennale
- Idanha-a-Nova (Portugal) Boom Festival
- Istanbul : Istanbul Biennale
- Cairo : International Cairo Biennale
- Lyon : Le Biennale de Lyon
- Meißen : Porcelain Biennale
- Mönchengladbach : Ensemblia , festival for music, theater, dance, art
- Montréal : Biennale de Montréal
- Moscow : Moscow Biennale
- Munich : Munich Biennale , international festival for new music theater
- New York: Whitney Biennial
- Ouagadougou : FESPACO
- Porto Alegre : Bienal do Mercosul
- Prague : Prague Biennale
- Rotterdam : International Architecture Biennale
- Remscheid : Bergische Biennale for New Music
- Seville : Bienal Internacional de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla
- Shanghai : Shanghai Biennale
- Singapore : Singapore Biennale
- Sydney : Biennale of Sydney
- Ulaanbaatar : Mongolia 360 °
- Vienna : Vienna Biennale for Art, Design and Architecture
- Wiesbaden : Wiesbaden Biennale
- Manifesta , European Biennale of Contemporary Art, at changing locations
- Jörg Scheller , Beat Wyss : Comparative Art History: The Biennale Principle . In: Clarissa Ricci (Ed.): Starting from Venice. Studies on the Biennale . Et al. Edition, Milan 2011, ISBN 978-88-6463-024-3 .
- Marieke van Hal (Ed.), Solveig Øvstebø (Ed.), Elena Filipovic (Ed.): The Biennial Reader. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2010, ISBN 978-3-7757-2610-8 .
- art - The art magazine 08/03 Venice Biennale
- Asian biennials from Busan to Yokohama . In: art - Das Kunstmagazin , 8/2008
- The Biennial Foundation website (English)
- Directory of Biennials on the Biennial Foundation website
- Ifa Biennial Database ( Memento from November 15, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Institute for Foreign Relations , as of 2014
- Susanne Boecker: Biennials - the central place for the understanding of works of art. In: Kunstforum International. Vol. 207, March – April 2011, pp. 382–385. (Review of: The Biennial Reader. 2010)