It has been held annually on the Theresienwiese in the Bavarian capital since 1810 (however, the festival was canceled 25 times including 2020 ). The organizer is the city administration of Munich (Department for Labor and Economics). For the Oktoberfest, some Munich breweries brew a special beer that must have an original wort of at least 13.5% and contain around 5.8 to 6.4 percent alcohol by volume . In 2018, Oktoberfest generated sales of 1.2 billion euros including overnight stays.
The first Oktoberfest
On the occasion of the wedding of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria and Princess Therese on October 12, 1810, numerous private and public celebrations took place in Munich, including a horse race on October 17. The Oktoberfest goes back to this. Presumably in memory of the scarlet fever race last held in 1786 , which first took place in front of the Karlstor in the 15th century and later became part of the Jakobidult , Andreas Michael Dall'Armi, in his role as Major of the National Guard , proposed a horse race with an exhibition and a show for public homage the bridal couple in front. It has been handed down that the original idea that led to this project came from the wage coachman and NCO of the National Guard Franz Baumgartner. However, this assumption about the origin of the festival is considered controversial.
The fairground, which was outside the city at the time, was chosen because of its natural suitability. The Sendlinger Berg (today Theresienhöhe ) served as a grandstand for the 40,000 spectators of the race. The fairground remained undeveloped except for the king's tent. The visitors were fed above the grandstand on the hill, where “Traiteurs” u. a. Offered wine and beer. Before the race began, there was a homage to the bridal couple and the royal family in the form of a procession of 16 pairs of children, with traditional costumes that represented the possessions of the Wittelsbach family, the nine Bavarian districts and other regions. Afterwards, a choir of holiday school students sang before the festival race with 30 horses on a 11,200 shoe (3270 meter) long racetrack followed. The winner was the horse of the presumed initiator Franz Baumgartner, who received his gold medal from racing champion and State Minister Maximilian Graf von Montgelas .
Development into a folk festival
After the Oktoberfest was canceled in 1813 because Bavaria was involved in the Napoleonic Wars , the festival grew from year to year from 1814 onwards. Climbing trees, bowling alleys and swings were added to the racecourse. The first carousel was set up in 1818 . Several lottery tickets attracted the poor city dwellers in particular, as there was porcelain, silver and jewelry to be won. In 1819 the Munich city fathers took over the management of the festival. From now on, the Oktoberfest should be celebrated every year as planned.
The almost 20 meter high statue of Bavaria has towered over the festival meadow since 1850 . In 1853 the Hall of Fame at the foot of the Bavaria was completed. In the following years some festivals were canceled. This was due to two cholera epidemics in 1854 and 1873, the Prussian-Austrian War in 1866 and the Franco-German War in 1870.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Oktoberfest developed more and more into the popular festival known all over the world today. It was extended in time and brought forward to the last days of September, which were mostly nice and warm because of Indian summer . Since then, only the last Oktoberfest weekend falls in October.
From 1880 onwards, the city administration approved the sale of beer. The beer was served in small stalls. In order to create more seats for the visitors and space for a band , the landlord Georg Lang from Nuremberg secured five stalls through straw men in 1898 and built his “beer castle” here. Large beer halls soon followed at the festival . At the same time, it attracted more and more showmen and carousel owners, who provided additional entertainment. The first roast chicken opened in 1881 . In 1885 the outdoor areas of the festival grounds were illuminated electrically for the first time. The 16 arc lamps used were installed by the electrical engineering factory J. Einstein & Cie and were considered a sensation at the time. The first electrically operated amusement park followed in 1892 and in 1901 the first festival tents were electrically illuminated.
In 1904 the post office and telegraph office (probably for the first time) set up public telephones:
- “On the occasion of this year's Oktoberfest in Munich, a post office and telegraph company with telephone service and public telephone station will be set up on the festival site from September 19 to October 12. The same has to deal with the administration of postage stamps and telephone tickets, acceptance and delivery of letters and telegrams and to be open to public transport from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. "
In 1910, the Oktoberfest celebrated its 100th anniversary and there were 12,000 hecto liters poured beer. In the Bräurosl , the largest beer tent at the time, there was already space for 12,000 guests. Today the Hofbräu-Festhalle with 10,000 seats is the largest beer tent at the Wiesn.
From 1914 to 1918 the festival was canceled due to the First World War . In 1919 and 1920 only a small “autumn festival” was celebrated; In 1923 there was no Oktoberfest because of the galloping inflation , in November 1923 the Rentenmark was introduced. There was no Oktoberfest in 1924 either.
During the Nazi era , the Nazi propaganda used the Oktoberfest. In 1933 the price for the Maß beer was set at 90 pfennigs. Jews were forbidden to work at the Oktoberfest. In 1935 the 125th anniversary was staged pompously; among other things with a big anniversary parade (motto: "Stolze Stadt - Fröhlich Land" should stand for the alleged overcoming of the layers and classes; it demonstrated the conformity and the consolidated power of the Nazi regime). The Gauleitung transferred the artistic direction for the anniversary parade to the NS painter Albert Reich . 1938 - in March Hitler had annexed Austria and won all along the line at the Munich conference on the Sudeten question - the Oktoberfest was renamed "Großdeutsches Volksfest". The Nazi regime transported a large number of Sudeten Germans to the festival area.
There was no festival during the Second World War from 1939 to 1945. In the post-war period from 1946 to 1948 there was an “autumn festival”. The first Oktoberfest after the war took place in September 1949.
In 1950 the event was opened for the first time by Thomas Wimmer (Lord Mayor from 1948 to 1960) with the traditional tapping of the barrel in the Schottenhamel festival tent . In the course of the following decades the Oktoberfest developed into the largest folk festival in the world. With the exception of the 150th anniversary in 1960 and the 200th anniversary in 2010, the horse race was no longer held after the war.
1980 bomb attack
On the evening of September 26, 1980, a bomb exploded at the main entrance of the festival area ( public lavatory at Bavariaring ). 13 people died, over 200 were injured, 68 of them seriously. The attack is considered to be one of the worst terrorist attacks in German history. For a long time, the crime was considered not to be fully resolved. The Attorney General at the Federal Court of Justice resumed the proceedings in December 2014 and closed them again in July 2020. The act has since been regarded as a right-wing extremist attack by a lone perpetrator.
In the period from 1811 to 2020, the Oktoberfest was canceled a total of 25 times, mostly because of wars, but twice because of cholera . In 2020 the Oktoberfest was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic (for the first time since 1949). To help showmen, market merchants and cultural workers, the “Summer in the City” festival was planned with rides spread across the city.
The Oktoberfest has attracted millions of visitors every year over the past few decades. The guests are increasingly coming from abroad, mainly from Italy, the USA, Japan and Australia. There has been a trend towards traditional costumes in recent years : many Oktoberfest visitors come in lederhosen or dirndls .
The excessive consumption of alcohol by some of the visitors has long been an issue. In order to avoid that the atmosphere at the Oktoberfest more and more resembles the atmosphere at Ballermann (Mallorca), the responsible organizers developed the concept of the Peaceful Oktoberfest in 2005 . The tent operators are encouraged to only play traditional brass music until 6 p.m. and to limit the music volume to 85 dB (A) SPL . This is to keep the Oktoberfest attractive for families and older visitors. After 6 p.m., hits and pop music are also played.
Some of the Munich residents and the guests, as well as some in the press, have now referred to the festival as an annoying mass drink that has nothing to do with a folk festival.
On the occasion of the 200th anniversary, a historic Oktoberfest ("Oide Wiesn") was organized for the first time in 2010 at the southern end of the Theresienwiese on the area of the central agricultural festival . It also opened the day before the actual Oktoberfest began with the mayor tapping the keg. Historical rides, marquees and other historical attractions such as a stick fish roast , a chain carousel or a cotton candy stand were presented on the five hectare fenced-in area . In addition to the museum, an animal tent and the racecourse can be visited for an admission fee. The animal tent includes a petting zoo and is looked after by the Hellabrunn Zoo and the Bavarian Farmers' Association. The Munich City Museum took on the design of the museum tent. The Jubiläumswiesn was accompanied by an artistic and cultural program in which, for example, the Biermösl Blosn appeared. The music bands in the Herzkasperl marquee , which is comparatively small with 850 seats , managed without a loudspeaker system. The festival tent was named after a well-known stage character of the actor Jörg Hube, who died in 2009 . The six Munich breweries Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbräu, Löwenbräu, Paulaner and Spaten presented a jointly brewed, dark special beer that was made according to a historical recipe from the beginning of the 19th century. Accordingly, the beer mugs in the festival tents bore the label Münchner Bier and not the company logo of an individual brewery. In contrast to the rest of the Oktoberfest, the “Oide Wiesn” closed at 8 p.m. Instead of the 300,000 guests expected by the city administration, far more than half a million visitors came. The area had to be temporarily closed several times, as usually only beer tents, due to overcrowding.
In the years that followed, the traditional Oktoberfest continued under the name “Oide Wiesn”, but in a reduced form, based on the concept of the then economic advisor and current mayor of the city of Munich Dieter Reiter . Since then, for example, the racecourse has not been used. The entrance fee has been reduced to three euros. The historical marquee was enlarged by 2000 places and the old rides were preserved. The "Oide Wiesn" became a permanent establishment. Every four years, during the Bavarian Central Agriculture Festival (most recently in 2016), it could not be set up due to lack of space.
According to the city council resolution of October 16, 2012, the entry fee for the “Oide Wiesn” 2013 was again three euros. For the first time, re-entry was possible with this ticket. The historic rides cost one euro in 2013. Inside the musician's tent, the number of seats increased from 1000 to 1500; in the outdoor area it rose from 800 to 1000. The City of Munich supported the Schaustellerstiftung with 200,000 euros to run the museum tent, the velodrome and a children's program.
In 2013 the site expanded and beautiful entrances were added. In addition, the museum tent of the Munich City Museum / Schaustellerstiftung was represented again as in the anniversary year 2010 (nn 2011). The velodrome was enlarged and the contract for the musicians' tent was awarded to Fraunhofer host Beppi Bachmaier and operated the tent under the name “Herzkasperlzelt” as in 2010. At the Oiden Wiesn 2011, the Reichert family still ran the musicians tent under the name “Zur Schönheitskönigin”.
Spelling and meaning of "Wiesn"
The Oktoberfest is usually called Wiesn in Bavarian (from "Theresienwiese"). The gender of Wiesn is female ( the Wiesn , in Bavarian d 'Wiesn ), the number is singular. Since Wiesn is the Bavarian form of meadow (singular) and not of meadows (plural), an apostrophe in the spelling would be incorrect ( Wies'n suggests the plural word Wies e n with an omitted e). The “d '”, on the other hand, is an abbreviation of “de”, Bavarian for “die”, and thus the apostrophe is correct there.
The term Wiesn is sometimes only used for the Oktoberfest, sometimes for the Theresienwiese itself (see circus ). During the Oktoberfest, the Theresienwiese is officially referred to as a festival meadow , for example on the public transport signs that have been specially installed for the festival.
Entry of the Oktoberfest hosts and breweries
The history of the arrival of the Oktoberfest restaurateurs and breweries as the festive prelude to the Oktoberfest goes back to the year 1887, when the innkeeper at the time, Hans Steyrer, moved from his inn on Tegernseer Landstrasse with his staff, a brass band and a load of beer to the Theresienwiese for the first time . In its current form, the move has essentially been taking place since 1935, when all breweries took part in the move for the first time. Since then, the procession has been led by a woman in a yellow and black monk's robe, who represents the Munich child . Since 1950 the incumbent mayor of Munich has followed him in the coach of the Schottenhamel family. They are followed in turn by the magnificently decorated horse-drawn carts and floats of the breweries as well as the carriages of the other hosts and showmen. The procession is accompanied by the band of the festival tents. Only breweries from Munich are allowed, which currently limits the number of beer brands to six: Augustiner , Hacker-Pschorr , Hofbräu , Löwenbräu , Paulaner and Spaten .
After the Oktoberfest landlords have moved in on carriages from the city center to the festival meadow , the Lord Mayor starts the first beer keg in the Schottenhamel festival tent at 12 noon . With the tapping and the traditional cry: “O'zapft is! To a peaceful Oktoberfest ”(“ It's tapped! To a peaceful Oktoberfest ”), the Oktoberfest is considered to have opened. Then twelve gunshots are fired on the stairs of the Bavaria . This is the sign for the other innkeepers to be allowed to start serving. Traditionally, the Bavarian Prime Minister receives the first measure. Then the first barrels are tapped in the other festival tents and beer is served to the Oktoberfest visitors.
Every year, many eagerly wait to see how many blows the mayor will strike before the first beer flows out of the first barrel. The best performance is two strokes ( Ude , 2005, 2008–2013; Reiter , 2015–2019), but 17 or 19 strokes were also required ( Wimmer , 1950), there is no clear indication.
Costume and Riflemen
In honor of the silver wedding anniversary of King Ludwig I of Bavaria and Princess Therese , a costume parade took place for the first time in 1835. In 1895 the local writer Maximilian Schmidt organized another parade with 1400 participants in 150 groups in traditional costumes. This has been held annually since 1950 and is now one of the highlights of the Oktoberfest and one of the world's largest parades of its kind. On the first Sunday of the Oktoberfest, 8,000 participants in their historical festive costumes march from the Maximilianeum on a seven-kilometer route to the festival meadow.
This move is also led by the Münchner Kindl (now a woman); He is followed by the dignitaries of the city council and the city administration and the Free State of Bavaria, mostly the Prime Minister and his wife, traditional costume and rifle clubs , music bands, marching bands, colorful flag throwers and around 40 carriages with festively decorated horse and carts. Most of the clubs and groups come from Bavaria, but also from other German federal states, from Austria, from Switzerland, from northern Italy and from other European countries. The entry of the Oktoberfest hosts and the traditional costume and rifle parade is organized by the Munich festival ring .
There are 14 large and 15 smaller marquees to choose from. According to the festival's operating rules, only beer from traditional Munich breweries may be served at the Oktoberfest. The Munich breweries Spatenbräu , Augustiner , Paulaner , Hacker-Pschorr , Hofbräu and Löwenbräu are currently represented with festival tents. Since the tents have sometimes had to be closed due to overcrowding in recent years, the city of Munich has set up a Oktoberfest barometer on its website that predicts the respective occupancy of the tents.
|tent||for the first time
|Beer price 2019
|Crossbowman tent||1895||7,420||5,820||1,600||11.70||Peter Inselkammer family||Paulaner|
|Augustiner Festival Hall||1898||8,500||6,000||2,500||11.40||Manfred Vollmer & Thomas Vollmer||Augustiner brew|
|Pschorr-Bräurosl||1902||8,250||6,490||1,760||11.80||Georg Heide & Renate Heide||Hacker-Pschorr|
|Fischer-Vroni||1904||3,862||3,162||700||11.70||Johann Stadtmüller & Silvia Stadtmüller||Augustiner brew|
|Hacker marquee||1907||9,378||6,838||2,540||11.80||Christl Roiderer & Toni Roiderer||Hacker-Pschorr|
|Marstall marquee||2014||4,082||3,200||882||11.80||Siegfried Able & Sabine Able||Spatenbräu|
|Hofbräu festival tent||1955||9,051||6,017||3,034||11.70||Margot Steinberg & Günter Steinberg||Hofbräu Munich|
|Käfer Wiesn-Schänke||1971||3,413||1,383||2,030||11.80||Michael Käfer & Clarissa Käfer||Paulaner|
|Löwenbräu marquee||1910||8,500||5,700||2,800||11.80||Stephanie Spendler||Löwenbräu|
|Ox roast||1881||7,546||5,900||1,646||11.50||Annelies Haberl & Antje Schneider||Spatenbräu|
|Festival hall Schottenhamel||1867||9,030||6,288||2,742||11.75||Christian Schottenhamel & Michael Schottenhamel||Spatenbräu|
|Schützen marquee||1876||6.158||4,923||1,235||11.80||Eduard Reinbold family||Löwenbräu|
|Kuffler's wine tent||1984||2,500||1,920||580||15.90||Roland Kuffler, Doris Kuffler & Stephan Kuffler||Paulaner|
|Paulaner marquee||1898||8,365||6,385||1,980||11.80||Arabella Schörghuber & Peter Pongratz||Paulaner|
There are a total of 127 restaurants, of which 27 tents offer a total of around 120,000 seats, of which the Oide Wiesn has three festival tents (“Tradition”, “Herz-Kasperl Festzelt” and “Zur Schönheitskönigin”) with a total of around 12,500 seats.
Beer mugs and thefts
Those used in the marquees beer mugs are no longer made today sound , but from glass to Schank fraud at least impede. They are the property of the respective breweries. In the 1980s and 1990s in particular, beer mug thefts became rampant and the security staff at the marquees were instructed to keep an eye out for thieves. The Festwirtevereinigung has filed criminal charges against beer mug thieves for years. Beer mugs that are officially bought as souvenirs are marked with a colored sticker to make them easier to distinguish.
In 2019, 96,912 beer mugs were seized by the security staff at the tent exits (2018: 101,000).
For several years now, the song that is most often played and sung in the beer tents has been declared a so-called Wiesn hit by the tabloids . Numerous print media and radio stations regularly ask their target groups to choose appropriate pieces of music in the context of the event. Since many Wiesn visitors are not always familiar with the texts, there is a Wiesn singing primer with the most popular songs. Some websites and internet portals also offer lists of the current Oktoberfest hits, including the lyrics, some with additional background information.
Although the term as such only emerged in the mid-1980s, the song “Schützenliesel”, composed by Gerhard Winkler with text by Fred Rauch and Fini Busch , with its characteristic three bangs from 1952 , is often the first Oktoberfest hit these days , at least the post-war period.
At the Oktoberfest there are around 200 fairground operators , of which almost 80 are rides . Many showman families have been represented at the Oktoberfest since the beginning of the 20th century. In addition to the popular nostalgic attractions, there are new operators every year, which provide state-of-the-art technology for thrills.
A ferris wheel was first erected in 1880 and at that time it was 12 meters high. Since 1979 Willenborgs Ferris Wheel with a height of 48 meters has been one of the most famous attractions and offers passengers a view over the festival meadow. The showman has been regularly represented at the Wiesn since the 1930s with a wide variety of rides, since 1960 for the first time with a steel ferris wheel.
The crinoline is a traditional round carousel that has been at Oktoberfest since the 1920s. The round shape and the swaying movement are reminiscent of a crinoline . The carousel was still being moved with muscle power until 1938. In that year, a small balcony was added to the outer wall of the carousel for the original crinoline brass band . The ride is usually accompanied musically by this brass band, but also by selected guest artists.
The witch or illusion swing is a historic ride that was first presented in America at the end of the 19th century by Harris Wheels and first set up at the Oktoberfest in 1894: Two opposite benches for about eight people each are arranged on a large swing. the passengers have the impression that this swing rolls over several times during the journey. As a proven antique that requires special attention and care, it no longer travels from festival to festival, but is only represented at the Oktoberfest and the Straubing Gäubodenvolksfest.
The toboggan is a tower slide that was first set up in 1906. The current Toboggan has been around at the Oktoberfest since 1933. The term comes from the language of the Canadian Algonquin Indians and describes a light snow sled . The passengers are transported to a height of around eight meters by means of a high-speed conveyor belt. From the top of the tower you slide down again at high speed in a wooden channel that winds around the tower. The special attraction for the spectators are the attempts by the passengers to step onto the conveyor belt. In this case, unlike on an escalator, the handrail does not move with you and if you hold on, your feet will inevitably be pulled away.
The devil's wheel was first set up at the Oktoberfest in 1910. It is a horizontal, rotatable wooden disc about five meters in diameter. The visitors are asked to sit or lie down on it and to stay on this disc for as long as possible as the speed increases. Ride staff try to “bow down” the participants with the help of a straw sack or to pull them down with a lasso. A commander who comments on the events with coarse Bavarian humor makes the devil's wheel an attraction for the audience. During the day, boxing matches are held on the bike between volunteer spectators.
“Theschichtl”, named after its founder Michael Augustschichtl (1851–1911), has been an integral part of the Oktoberfest since 1869. Magic and curiosities are presented in brief presentations. The Shift became famous for the decapitation of a living person using a guillotine , which is still performed today (with one of the spectators as the decapitation victim). So far, more than 9000 spectators have been "beheaded". The saying “Let's go at the Shift” is still widely known, at least in the Munich area. Characteristic is the humorous public abuse of the audience walking past the tent on a stage in front of the entrance. An announcer in short leather trousers and an officer's jacket decorated with leopard skin teases the audience in Bavarian dialect and recruits new visitors for the next performance.
Pitt's wall of death
Pitt's death wall consists of a large, wooden, cylindrical wall about twelve meters in diameter and eight meters high. Motorcyclists race on its inner wall , held only by centrifugal force , up to the top edge where the spectators are standing. They perform all kinds of acrobatic tricks. The company has been at the Oktoberfest since 1932 and the motorcycles also come from this time.
The more modern rides include round rides, ramp rides and running rides, a wild water run and several roller coasters , including the Olympia Looping , the largest mobile roller coaster in the world with five loops.
Dates / opening times
Due to the often cool weather in October, Oktoberfest has started in September since 1872. Since then, it has opened on the Saturday after September 15, and traditionally the festival ends on the first Sunday in October. The following rule has been in effect since 2000: If October 1st or 2nd is a Sunday, the festival is extended until the Day of German Unity on October 3rd. This means that the festival lasts at least 16 and at most 18 days. In 2010 an additional Oktoberfest Monday was added due to the bicentenary.
|2000||16 Sep until October 3rd||Small Oktoberfest with ZLF a ; two days longer b (Tuesday) = 18 days||6.9 million|
|2001||22 Sep until October 7th||5.5 million|
|2002||21 Sep until October 6th||5.9 million|
|2003||20 Sep until October 5th||6.3 million|
|2004||Sep 18 until October 3rd||With ZLF a||5.9 million|
|2005||17 Sep until October 3rd||Great Oktoberfest; one day longer b (Monday) = 17 days||6.1 million|
|2006||16 Sep until October 3rd||Great Oktoberfest; two days longer b (Tuesday) = 18 days||6.5 million|
|2007||22 Sep until October 7th||6.2 million|
|2008||20 Sep until October 5th||175th Oktoberfest; with ZLF a||6.0 million|
|2009||19 Sep until October 4th||5.7 million|
|2010||Sep 18 until October 4th||200 years of Oktoberfest; an additional three hectares of the historical Oktoberfest; one day longer c = 17 days||6.4 million|
|2011||17 Sep until October 3rd||again with Oider Wiesn (formerly historical Wiesn); one day longer b (Monday) = 17 days||6.9 million|
|2012||22 Sep until October 7th||without historic Oktoberfest, but with ZLF a (125th ZLF)||6.4 million|
|2013||21 Sep until October 6th||with Oider Wiesn||6.4 million|
|2014||20 Sep until October 5th||with Oider Wiesn||6.3 million|
|2015||19 Sep until October 4th||with Oider Wiesn||5.9 million|
|2016||17 Sep until October 3rd||without Oider Wiesn, but with ZLF a (126th ZLF); one day longer b (Monday) = 17 days||5.6 million|
|2017||16 Sep until October 3rd||with Oider Wiesn ; two days longer b (Tuesday) = 18 days||6.2 million|
|2018||22 Sep until October 7th||with Oider Wiesn||6.3 million|
|2019||21 Sep until October 6th||with Oider Wiesn||6.3 million|
|2020||no Oktoberfest||planned from 19 Sep until October 4th without Oide Wiesn, but with ZLF a , canceled on April 21st|
|2021||Sep 18 until October 3rd||with Oider Wiesn|
The festival tents open at 9 a.m. on the first Saturday of the Oktoberfest, but beer is only sold from 12 p.m. after the first tap. During the week the tents are open from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 p.m., on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays from 9:00 a.m. to 11:30 p.m. The serving of beer ends at 10:30 p.m. (however Käfer Wies'n Schänke and Kufflers Weinzelt at 1:00 a.m., the last serving is there at 0:30 a.m.).
The stalls and rides usually open at 10:00 a.m. and close at 11:30 p.m., on Saturdays at midnight. The Oide Wiesn opens daily from 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m., last entry is at 9:00 p.m. the serving hours are daily from 10:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m.
The Theresienwiese is 42 hectares in size. The area of the festival area is 31 hectares (26 hectares for the Kleine Wiesn ), that of the Oiden Wiesn 3.5 hectares.
The average number of visitors a year is just over six million (2019: 6.3 million). The Jubiläumswiesn set the previous visitor record in 1985 with 7.1 million visitors. There are seats available for 100,000 people. Every year around 12,000 people work at the Wiesn, 1,600 of whom are waiters. 7.3 million liters of beer were sold in 2019. Electricity consumption was 2.84 million kilowatt hours and water consumption was 105,000 cubic meters.
As the organizer, the city of Munich generated direct income from the hosts and showmen in the amount of 3.85 million euros in 2009, compared with costs of 4.2 million euros.
During the two weeks of the event in 2018, the 6.3 million visitors gave 1.2 billion euros
In 2009 there were also six million visitors; they spent around 830 million euros in the city. Compared to the period before the recession, this corresponded to a decrease of 120 million euros. According to the Munich economic department, the average visitor in 2009 spent 54 euros on each visit. In total, the visitors ate half a million chicken and 25 tons of fish. The beer consumption was 6.6 million liters. A total of 65,000 hectoliters of beer were served in 2014.
In 2009 and 2010, Bank Unicredit / HVB published a study on the price development at the Oktoberfest in the period since 1985. Based on the assumed calculation basis, the " Wiesn visitor price index (WBPI)" (costs for two liters of beer, half a chicken and Hin - and return journey by local public transport), the study comes to an increase in the price index of 140 percent by 2009 and 152 percent by 2010.
The increase in costs for the underlying Wiesn visit is almost twice as high as general national inflation. The beer price rose the most, at around four percent annually, more than twice as fast as outside the festival. Based on the facts available to them, the authors of the study came to the conclusion that the Oktoberfest was a special economic zone .
According to a study by the state capital Munich, the beer prices of other large gastronomic companies in the Munich area in 2010 were between 6.60 and 8.40 euros for a Maß. In comparable tents at the nearby Rosenheim Autumn Festival , the price of Maß beer cost 7.40 euros in 2010, after having averaged 6.80 euros in the years 2007 to 2009. From 2009 to 2010 the WBPI rose by 3.4 percent and was thus again significantly above the inflation trend in Germany.
While the petrol price for a liter of super petrol increased by 347 percent between 1950 and 2010, the increase in the price of beer at the Oktoberfest was 942 percent in the same period.
|Augustiner Festival Hall||6.39||6.65||6.65||6.95||7.10||7.35||7.80||8.20||8.50||8.70|
|Bräurosl festival hall||6.39||6.70||6.70||6.95||7.15||7.40||7.85||8.25||8.55||8.80|
|Hacker festival hall||6.54||6.80||6.80||7.10||7.10||7.40||7.90||8.30||8.60||8.80|
|Heilmaier, roast chicken||6.29||6.60||6.60||6.85||6.95||7.20||7.50||7.90||8.10||8.40|
|Heimer, roast duck||6.29||6.45||6.65||6.85||7.00||7.20||7.60||8.00||8.30||8.60|
|Hochreiter, to the bratwurst||-||-||-||-||-||-||7.80||8.10||8.60||8.60|
|Käfer Wiesn Schänke||6.54||6.80||6.80||7.10||7.10||7.45||7.90||8.30||8.60||8.80|
|Löwenbräu festival hall||6.49||6.80||6.80||7.10||7.25||7.45||7.90||8.30||8.60||8.85|
|Nuremberg bratwurst Glöckl||6.34||6.60||6.60||6.90||7.10||-||-||-||-||-|
|Munich dumpling||-||6.50 (new)||6.60||-||6.95||7.20||7.70||8.50||8.60||8.90|
|Ochsenbraterei / Spatenbräu festival hall||6.47||6.75||6.75||7.10||7.10||7.40||7.85||8.25||8.60||8.75|
|Paulaner Festhalle (Winzerer Fähndl)||6.44||6.70||6.70||6.95||7.10||7.40||7.85||8.25||8.60||8.80|
|Wildmoser chicken and duck roast||5.98||6.50||6.50||6.70||6.90||7.20||7.50||7.95||8.30||8.50|
|To the Stiftl||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||7.80||8.25||8.70|
difference from previous year
|-||+ 4.2%||+ 0.42%||+ 4.16%||+ 2.03%||+ 3.73%||+ 5.57%||+5.12%||+ 3.81%||+ 2.5%|
|Augustiner Festival Hall||8.95||9.30||9.60||9.80||10.10||10.40||10.70||11.10||11.40|
|Bräurosl festival hall||9.10||9.40||9.80||9.95||10.30||10.60||10.90||11.40||11.80|
|Fish batha||-||-||9.50||9.85||10.30||k. A.||10.80||11.10||11.40|
|Hacker festival hall||9.10||9.40||9.80||9.95||10.30||10.60||10.90||11.40||11.80|
|Heilmaier, roast chicken||8.80||9.20||-||-||-||-||10.80||10.95|
|Heimer, roast duck||8.90||9.20||9.50||9.70||10.10||k. A.||10.70||10.90|
|Hochreiter, to the bratwurst||8.90||9.30||9.70||10.10||10.40||10.70||10.85||11.40||11.70|
|Käfer Wiesn Schänke||9.10||9.50||9.80||10.00||10.30||10.60||10.90||11.50||11.80|
|Löwenbräu festival hall||9.20||9.50||9.85||10.10||10.35||10.60||10.80||11.50||11.80|
|Munich dumpling||-||-||9.70||9.90||10.10||k. A.||10.80||10.90||11.30|
|Ochsenbraterei / Spatenbräu festival hall||8.95||9.20||9.70||9.90||10.20||10.45||10.70||11.20||11.50|
|Paulaner Festhalle (Winzerer Fähndl)||9.10||9.40||9.80||9.95||10.30||10.60||10.95||11.50||11.80|
|Wildmoser chicken and duck roast||8.80||9.20||9.50||9.80||10.20||10.50||-||-|
|To the Stiftl||8.95||9.40||9.70||9.95||10.30||10.60||10.90||10.90||11.50|
difference from previous year
|+ 3.8%||+ 3.9%||+ 3.6%||+ 2.6%||+ 3.17%||+ 3.11%||+ 2.55%||+ 3.67%||+ 3.11%|
The annual announcements of price increases cause intense discussions in the local press every year. Traditionally, the innkeepers always reply that with the price increases only the increasing costs are passed on to the beer consumers. The price increases did not affect beer consumption. This rose from 0.68 measure / head in 1981 to 1.17 measure / head in 2009. Another ongoing issue is poor pouring. A “particularly skilled” bartender managed to pour 289 liters of beer from a 200 liter keg. The association opposes fraudulent pouring against such records . He regularly demands that the officially permissible difference between a measure and a liter of no more than 0.1 liters, the so-called tolerance limit of the Munich district administration department, be removed. In September 2008, club president Jan-Ulrich Bittlinger declared that a beer mug at the Oktoberfest could contain a maximum of 0.9 liters of beer. The 1-liter measure is still as rare as winning the lottery at Oktoberfest. The city of Munich is to blame for this because it officially allows Oktoberfest hosts to cheat guests by 0.1 liters or more than 0.80 euros per measure. According to Bittlinger, the innkeepers are grateful for this rule. With an average price of 8 euros per liter, 6 million liters of beer sold in 16 days and an average filling volume per beer mug of just 0.9 liters, Oktoberfest visitors would suffer an estimated 4.8 million euros. On the first Saturday of the Oktoberfest in 2008, the association tested 250 beer mugs in different tents. The Augustiner Festival Hall achieved the negative record. Twelve beer mugs contained less than 0.8 liters of beer.
In 2009 the association declared that the prices for a measure of wheat beer between EUR 9.00 and EUR 13.60 were “pure greed” and damaged the character of the Oktoberfest as a folk festival. How the city of Munich, which is responsible for the appropriateness test , can call 13.60 euros appropriate for a liter of beer, is a mystery. At Oktoberfest 2015, Maß beer cost an average of 10.22 euros and was therefore no longer available for less than 10 euros for the first time.
Sales of a marquee
For a long time there was only speculation about the turnover of a marquee and the profit of the Oktoberfest host. In 2014, as part of a tax fraud trial against the well-known landlord Sepp Krätz , it came out that his tent Hippodrom had a total turnover of 3.3 million euros in 2012. After deducting all expenses, a net profit of 1.5 million euros remained. Since the hippodrome was a relatively small tent, it is believed that the larger marquee operators make an even higher profit.
1,067 stand operators applied for the Oktoberfest 2019, of which 551 were approved (51.6%). 231 operators were active in the sale of goods, 167 as showmen and 146 as catering operations, of which 17 were large tents and 21 medium-sized businesses, and seven as service operations.
Security at the Oktoberfest
The Public Security is genonmmen seriously at the event. Since the 1960s, for example, a daily morning check of all buildings by explosive dogs from the state police for explosives has been carried out.
In 2004 the authorities' courtyard was set up near the Bavariaring, where the police , the Munich fire brigade , the medical service under the direction of the Aicher Ambulanz Union and the district administration department are stationed. A separate police station will be set up for the Oktoberfest and can be reached on the emergency number 500 32 20. Due to the large number of Italian visitors to the Oktoberfest, police officers from the Italian police from Bolzano have been on site since 2005 . The Bavarian Red Cross had been responsible for the medical service at the Wiesn for decades, but was replaced by the Aicher Ambulanz Union in 2018 after a total of 133 years, as it was able to make the organizers the more economical offer. The American Red Cross was represented from the 1940s to the 1990s . On behalf of the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft, there is additional protection for the Theresienwiese subway station by the Johanniter Accident Aid . An emergency doctor's vehicle and a fully equipped hospital ward with a small operating room are available in the courtyard. The use of sliding stretcher bars with privacy tarpaulins has proven to be effective in order to make rapid progress in the crowd. The provision in the public rescue service will be increased during the Oktoberfest, additional rescue vehicles are available to the control center.
Since 2010, a general ban on dogs and animals has been in effect as a "general safety measure". Since then, the typical Munich Zamperl are no longer allowed to enter the festival grounds. In 2012, a glass bottle ban was issued due to the increasing number of cuts.
The security concept has been adapted repeatedly over the past decades. After the bomb attack in 1980, the main entrance to the Wiesn was redesigned in 1981. In 2008, the Theresienwiese was closed to the public for the first time during the construction of the Oktoberfest. In 2009 there were extensive barriers and access controls during the festival. The background to this was the threat of attacks by Islamists . In 2010, an expanded security concept was implemented. Among other things, it provides for three blocking rings around the Theresienwiese, access controls and a flight ban over the festival meadow. In addition, in the anniversary year 2010, as part of the expanded security concept, 52 concrete advertising pillars each two meters high were set up at the driveways and entrances to the festival meadow for the first time in order to prevent a scenario in which the attacker could try to drive vehicles loaded with explosives onto the Theresienwiese. In 2011, 170 firmly anchored, partly retractable security bollards were installed at all the driveways and entrances to Theresienwiese, which are intended to prevent vehicles from being forced into the festival area in the future. The Bavariaring is closed in order to gain space in an emergency and so that the security forces can act better. In the event of a crowd, the police can redirect the flow of visitors at short notice by radio reports or close underground or S-Bahn stations. In 2014 the police recorded 2,205 sorties.
Since 2016, there has been a general ban on backpacks and bags and a two-meter high security fence around the festival area for the first time due to the increased risk of terrorism. In 2016, 450 files were in use, almost twice as many as in the previous year. In order to reduce the number of thefts, fights and sexual assaults around the Oktoberfest, measures to protect visitors have been expanded in recent years. In 2003, for example, the “ Safe Wiesn for girls and women ” campaign started.
Technical accidents are rare in the history of the Oktoberfest. The rides are checked intensively in advance. The task of technical testing is traditionally carried out by the “Cable cars and temporary structures” department of today's TÜV Süd . Nevertheless, occurred on 30 September 1996 on the Euro-Star - roller coaster , a rear-end collision, in which there were 30 injured. The cause was the unnoticed wear of the safety brake of the approaching train. At that time, the Munich public prosecutor's office initiated proceedings for negligent bodily harm against an engineer from TÜV Munich, which was discontinued.
43 kilometers of cable supply the Wiesn with electrical energy via 18 transformer stations, some of which are underground . The total energy consumption of the Oktoberfest is around three million kilowatt hours (excluding assembly and dismantling). This corresponds to around 13% of the daily electricity requirement in Munich. A large marquee requires an average output of 400 kilowatts, larger rides 300 kilowatts. A four-kilometer network of gas pipes was laid to supply the tents with natural gas. The gas consumption is 180,000 cubic meters for the kitchen and 20,000 cubic meters for heating the beer gardens. Most of the marquees and fairground rides (2007: 61%) use the green electricity offered by Stadtwerke München.
Since even a brief power failure could lead to a mass panic, the entire power supply was applied twice and is fed separately. Even the lamps in the individual marquees are supplied by two different transformer stations. Despite these precautionary measures, there was a power failure lasting several hours on September 25, 2007 after a cable duct was flooded during heavy rainfall. Since the electricity went out in the morning hours, there were supply bottlenecks in the catering industry, but not a mass panic.
In order to ensure sufficient capacity in the cellular networks , a number of mobile transmitter masts are set up on the Oktoberfest grounds and, since 2005, in a festival tent.
According to its own information, the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft transports around three million visitors to and from the festival grounds. The Theresienwiese underground station (U4 / U5) is particularly crowded in the evenings on Friday and Saturday evenings . The frequency is three minutes at peak times and the underground station has to be closed occasionally due to overcrowding after the beer tents are closed. In order to guarantee the smooth operation and the safety of the passengers, the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft and the Deutsche Bahn are increasingly using security personnel. At the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft, external transport masters from Amsterdam, Bochum (Bogestra), Hamburg (Hochbahn), Düsseldorf (Rheinbahn), Nuremberg (VAG), Stuttgart (SSB) and Vienna (Wiener Linien) are working for the time of the event to be able to meet.
There are major disruptions in road traffic. Since numerous Oktoberfest visitors come home by car despite drinking alcohol, the Bavarian police carry out large-scale alcohol controls. Ring roads and motorways in the Munich area are closed except for one lane, which leads to backlogs. In 2019, 774 intoxicated road users were stopped, 414 of them were on an e-scooter .
Many Italians travel with caravans, especially on the middle Oktoberfest weekend (this weekend is therefore referred to as the “Italian weekend” by Munich residents). This prompted the city administration to impose a camping ban in large parts of the city and to set up separate parking spaces outside the city center, but in the area of local public transport . Large areas are available, for example, near the Allianz Arena . Nevertheless, the parking situation around Theresienwiese is tense. As a result, the effort for controls and towing services is high.
In 2010, as part of the new security concept, the taxi ranks were relocated and are now located outside the locking rings at a slightly greater distance from the festival grounds.
Litter and toilets
Every year, almost 1000 tons of residual waste are generated at the Oktoberfest . Every morning cleaning staff take away the garbage and spray the paths clean. The cleaning is partly paid for by the city of Munich and partly by the sponsors.
After the queues in front of the toilet facilities became so long in 2004 that the police had to regulate access, the number of toilets was increased by 20% in the following year. There are now around 1,800 toilets and urinals available.
Some Oktoberfest guests go to the toilets to make phone calls undisturbed. For this reason, there were plans in 2005 to install Faraday cages or jammers on the toilets, thereby preventing telephoning. However, jammers are not permitted in Germany and the Faraday cages (in the form of copper networks) are too expensive. Therefore, only prohibition signs were put up instead. The reason for this is that the toilet spaces are unnecessarily "confiscated".
Since 1952 there has been a new poster for the Munich Oktoberfest every year on the initiative of the municipal official Heinz Strobl . The city's Department of Labor and Economics itself calls this competition. Since 2000 it has been a closed competition, decided by the city council. The official Oktoberfest poster bears the Oktoberfest logo, is used for advertising around the world and has graced the limited collector's mug since 1978 . At the Oktoberfest itself, the Heinz Chicken Roast will be showing almost all of the posters it has made over the decades in its tent.
On the occasion of the 200th anniversary, the Ministry of Finance issued a special stamp of 55 euro cents on September 9, 2010 . The design comes from Michael Kunter from Berlin.
A youth brand of the German Post Office from 1978 shows a gas balloon with Wilhelmine Reichard on the 10th Oktoberfest in 1820th
- Experienced innkeepers only need an average of one and a half seconds to fill a beer mug .
- Letters that are put in letter boxes set up at the Oktoberfest are given a special stamp by the Post.
- An attraction that does not exist at other folk festivals is the flea circus . He has been at the Wiesn since 1948 and a "team" of around 60 fleas entertains the children in particular.
- Since 2009, the Theresienwiese has been cordoned off during the construction and dismantling of the festival. The city of Munich wants to avoid liability claims in the event that visitors have an accident at the construction site.
- From balloon vendors to roller coaster, the insurance sums of entrepreneurs vary from a few ten thousand euros to ten million euros.
- In 1832 the Oktoberfest was postponed specially for a Greek delegation who were planning a similar festival in Athens . It was supposed to be a sports festival and an agricultural exhibition, which then also took place in Greece as the Olympics . This gave rise to the modern Olympic Games in 1896.
- From Albert Einstein is said that he had helped and 1896 (according to other sources 1886) build the Wiesn in the family-owned electric company "Electrical Factory J. Einstein & Cie" marquee Schottenhamel screwed incandescent bulbs. Evidence of this was not found despite intensive research.
- There were two notable fires: On September 27, 1887, the Palatinate wine shop and 18 tents and stalls burned because of an overturned kerosene lamp; Landlord Julius Frey was killed. On October 4, 2002, there was a major fire in the Glöckle Wirt tent, which destroyed the tent.
- On April 21, 2020, Oktoberfest was canceled for autumn due to the coronavirus pandemic . Instead, a replacement Oktoberfest , also called WirtshausWiesn , is celebrated.
A waitress with three liters of beer. She wears a Bavarian dirndl .
Similar folk festivals were based on the example of the Munich Oktoberfest. The largest include the Oktoberfest in Qingdao (China) with around three million visitors annually, the Oktoberfest in Kitchener in Canada with around 700,000 visitors annually and the Oktoberfest Blumenau in Blumenau in Brazil with around 600,000 visitors annually. The USA , Australia , Russia , Namibia and Japan also celebrate according to the German model. At the Oktoberfest Zinzinnati , the residents of Cincinnati have been commemorating their German ancestors every year since 1976 and named the festival based on the German pronunciation. With over 500,000 visitors annually, it is the largest Oktoberfest in the USA.
In Germany there are various regional variants of the Oktoberfest. The largest is the Oktoberfest Hanover , which is the second largest Oktoberfest in Germany with around 600,000 visitors annually.
From September 23 to October 2, 2011, the first “ Wiener Wiesn ” on the Kaiserwiese between Praterstern and Riesenrad in front of the Wiener Prater with three festival tents was attended by 150,000 people.
The Cannstatter Volksfest with around four million festival visitors has a similarly long history.
Literature and film
- Ödön von Horváth : Kasimir and Karoline (1932). ISBN 978-3-15-018614-5 .
- Christoph Scholder : Oktoberfest. Thriller (2010) ISBN 978-3-426-19888-9 .
- Oktoberfest (Germany, 2005): Director: Johannes Brunner
- Oktoberfest 1900 (Germany / Czech Republic, 2020), director: Hannu Salonen
- Maria von Welser (text), Wolfgang Rattay (photos): Munich Oktoberfest. Bummel, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-88781-004-X .
- City of Munich (Ed.): 175 years of Oktoberfest. 1810-1985. Compiled by Richard Bauer and Fritz Fenzl . Bruckmann, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-7654-2027-1 .
- Reiner Stolte: Chronicle of the Munich Oktoberfest. Brogl, Heidelberg 1999, ISBN 3-934444-04-0 (comic)
- Reiner Stolte: The History of the Munich Oktoberfest - The History of the Munich Oktoberfest. Utz, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-8316-1168-8 (comic)
- Brigitte Veiz: The Oktoberfest, mass, intoxication and ritual. Social psychological considerations of a phenomenon. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2006, ISBN 3-89806-484-0 (also diploma thesis Ludwig Maximilians University Munich 2001).
- Ulrich Chaussy : Oktoberfest. An assassination attempt. Luchterhand, Darmstadt / Neuwied 1985, ISBN 3-472-88022-8 .
- Florian Nagy et al. a .: Oktoberfest. Between tradition and modernity. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-937090-20-7 .
- Florian Dering and Ursula Eymold: Oktoberfest 1810–2010: Closed due to overcrowding. Süddeutsche Zeitung / Library, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86615-780-4 .
- Official website of the Oktoberfest
- Official website of the Munich city portal for Oktoberfest
- Sources and representations about the Munich Oktoberfest , in the culture portal bavarikon
- Ursula Eymold: Oktoberfest In: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns , June 18, 2013
- Wiesn history: The Oktoberfest through the ages In: BR online , September 24, 2013
- Tips for disabled people on rollingplanet.net
- Braune Wiesn: How Hitler stole the Oktoberfest In: Der Spiegel , September 25, 2008
- million dollar Oktoberfest , t-online.de, accessed on September 25, 2019.
- Munich City Administration > Oktoberfest, accessed on September 17, 2017.
- Wiesnbier , wiesnkini.de, accessed on March 28, 2014.
- Wiesnbier 2013 , wiesnkini.de, accessed on March 28, 2014.
- The business behind the Oktoberfest - the construction and dismantling of a beer tent alone costs one to two million euros. In: Der Tagesspiegel . September 21, 2019, accessed September 24, 2019 .
- Oktoberfest in numbers .
- Gerda Möhler: "The Munich Oktoberfest." 1981.
- The first Oktoberfest 1810 , wiesnkini.de, accessed on August 24, 2014.
- This is where they invented toast. Retrieved October 21, 2018 .
- Jürgen Weisser: "Between Lustgarten and Lunapark: the Volksgarten in Nymphenburg (1890-1916) and the development of the commercial amusement gardens." Herbert Utz Verlag, 1998, ISBN 3-89675-449-1 , p. 121.
- Florian Dering, Ursula Eymold, Natalie Bayer: "The Oktoberfest: 1810 - 2010." Official Festschrift of the City of Munich, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 2010, p. 130.
- 17 large and 21 small tents
- Ordinance and notification sheet for the Royal Bavarian Transport Authority, No. 70 of September 17, 1904.
- helium.com ( Memento from September 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- "How Hitler stole the Oktoberfest." Einestages.spiegel.de (with 22 photos)
- Laura Kaufmann: Oktoberfest in Munich: Historical cancellations of the Wiesn. Retrieved April 21, 2020 .
- Süddeutsche Zeitung: Corona in Bavaria: Oktoberfest 2020 canceled. Retrieved April 21, 2020 .
- Timo Lokoschat : Wiesn: The worst time of the year! Abendzeitung München, September 19, 2014, accessed on September 22, 2014 .
- Munich City Museum
- 200 years Oktoberfest - That was the Jubiläumswiesn 2010 and the historic Oktoberfest ... ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on September 27, 2015.
- Archive link ( Memento from October 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Herzkasperl festival tent
- Oktoberfest balance sheet - more booze, beer corpses and brawls ( memento from October 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), Stern October 5, 2010, accessed on September 27, 2015.
- Dominik Hutter: The "Oide Wiesn" lives on. Süddeutsche Zeitung of December 2, 2010.
- Süddeutsche Zeitung of February 15, 2011.
- "Oktoberfest 2013 - Oide Wiesn, young culture" , Sueddeutsche.de of October 16, 2012.
- Oktoberfest History - History of the Oktoberfest ( Memento from March 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Oide-Wiesn.de from October 2013.
- facts about the Oktoberfest .
- Palms at the Wiesn , accessed on 2020-07-15
- Entry of the Oktoberfest restaurateurs and breweries at the Munich Oktoberfest .
- Oktoberfest , accessed on October 25, 2019.
- shot for the 174th Wiesn , sueddeutsche.de , September 22, 2007.
- O zapft is: A ritual begins with 17 strokes , focus.de
- Curious Oktoberfest facts - 19 strokes , sueddeutsche.de
- Maximilian Schmidt: “My hike through 70 years. Second part. “Reutlingen, 1902 (1st – 5th edition), pp. 247–260.
- Lost and reappeared , Bayerische Staatszeitung, July 15, 2011.
- München.de: "Wiesn History - On the History of the Oktoberfest: Tradition and History"
- Oktoberfest barometer of the city of Munich
- oktoberfest.de: The official beer price 2019 at Oktoberfest , accessed on September 26, 2019.
- Wiesn in numbers
- muenchen.de: The Wiesn balance sheet 2019. Retrieved on October 8, 2019 .
- Wiesn classics: Oktoberfest hits from then to now , oktoberfest-live.de, accessed on September 2, 2014.
- FAZ: It all started with Fürstenfeld on September 16, 2002 (accessed on September 22, 2020)
- Monacensia Literature Archive and Library: Schlager , Literaturportal Bayern, November 19, 2016.
- cf. 1950–1963 , website willenborg-riesenrad.winston-inc.com with a historical overview. ( Memento from May 21, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- cf. "Dear old crinoline - chronicle" , website with a historical overview.
- Astrid Becker: “175. Wiesn-Oktoberfest-Originals ” , sueddeutsche.de
- Franz Freisleder: Oktoberfest-Original Helden der Wiesn , sueddeutsche.de, September 17, 2004.
- "Shift at the Oktoberfest - Budenzauber" , sueddeutsche.de, September 29, 2009.
- Christian Mayer: "Wiesnurgesteinschichtl - And the ax falls forever." Sueddeutsche.de, September 26, 2007.
- cf. Pitts Death Wall - History ( August 15, 2011 memento on the Internet Archive ), website with historical outline.
- Festival program for the Jubiläumswiesn 2010 ( Memento from July 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- muenchen.de: All the numbers: Do you know the Wiesn records? Retrieved October 8, 2019 .
- "Six million visitors to the Wiesn: The world as a guest in Munich" , abendzeitung.de, September 14, 2010.
- "Wiesn: Oktoberfest Money Machine" , focus.de, September 17, 2010.
- “Oktoberfest million dollar business - How the Munich Volksfest boosts the economy” , dirndl.com, accessed on February 13, 2015.
- "Oktoberfest: Wiesn prices rise faster than inflation" , focus.de, September 29, 2009, accessed on October 7, 2011.
- Oktoberfest 2010: No risk of deflation ( memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), hypovereinsbank.de, September 15, 2010, accessed on October 7, 2011.
- price at the Wiesn
cf. z. B. "Oktoberfest declared a special economic zone" , Passauer Neue Presse , September 30, 2009.
"Munich - Wiesn prices rise twice as fast as inflation" , Spiegel Online, September 29, 2009.
- "Beer price comparison: Where the expensive measure is cheapest" , focus.de, August 31, 2010.
- cf. z. B. "Herbstfest Rosenheim 2010 from August 28th-12th September 2010 “ , Ganz-muenchen.de; "That is why the Wiesn-Maß is getting more expensive" , Herbstfest-rosenheim.de, August 17, 2010.
- cf. z. B. Martin Greive: “Inflation gallops at the Oktoberfest” , welt.de, September 18, 2010.
- "Oktoberfest 2010 - the price development for beverages - beer prices, lemonade and table water prices" , Ganz-muenchen.de
- cf. z. B. Rathaus Umschau from May 17, 2002 cited after 2001–2002 "Oktoberfest 2002 - the price development of beverages" , Ganz-muenchen.de, May 17, 2002, as well as Rathaus Umschau from May 13, 2003 cited from "Oktoberfest 2003 - the price development for beverages ” , Ganz-muenchen.de
- cf. z. B. Rathaus Umschau of May 13, 2003, quoted from "Oktoberfest 2003 - the price development of drinks" , Ganz-muenchen.de
- Ganz-muenchen.de , 2004, accessed on September 21, 2012.
- unless otherwise stated cf. z. B. Overview of all beer prices ( Memento from September 7, 2006 in the Internet Archive ), oktoberfest2005.de, accessed on September 27, 2015.
- unless otherwise stated, cf. z. B. Oktoberfest - Wiesn 2007, gastroguide-muenchen.de ( Memento from August 3, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- unless otherwise stated, cf. Oktoberfest - Wiesn 2007 ( Memento from August 3, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- cf. z. B. "Oktoberfest 2010 - the price development for beverages - beer prices, lemonade and table water prices" , Ganz-muenchen.de
- 2006 , accessed on September 21, 2012.
- 2007 , accessed September 21, 2012.
- 2008 , accessed September 21, 2012.
- 2009 , accessed September 21, 2012.
- "Oktoberfest 2012 - the price development for beverages" , Ganz-muenchen.de, 2012, accessed on September 21, 2012.
- "Wiesn reservation costs up to 85 euros" , oktoberfest-live.de, accessed on August 26th.
- Archive link ( Memento from October 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- beer prices
- beer prices
- Beer prices Beer prices
- oktoberfest.de: “Cheers! These are the beer prices for Oktoberfest 2019 ” , accessed on September 26, 2019.
- "Bierpreis zur Wiesn 2013" , Ganz-muenchen.de, accessed on August 26, 2014.
- cf. z. B. Evening paper of September 16, 2006.
- Oktoberfest beer: Bottom draft is'! ( Memento from July 23, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), stern.de, September 26, 2007.
- 1-liter measure remains as rare as winning the lottery - 4.8 million euros in damage due to undercutting at Oktoberfest ( Memento from July 17, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), Association against Fraudulent Pouring eV, September 20, 2008.
- cf. z. B. “Beer drinkers association castigates the Beckstein-Maß” , welt.de, September 21, 2009.
- see 13.60 euros for 1 wheat beer measure - VGBE demands upper price limit for beer ( Memento from July 17, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), Association against fraudulent pouring out, May 18, 2009.
- "Oktoberfest - Wiesn-Maß is becoming more expensive" , Spiegel Online, May 21, 2009.
- "The Oktoberfest 2015 in numbers" , muenchen.tv
- "Be a millionaire in two and a half weeks" .
- Behind the scenes at the Wiesn: Zwangzwangzig Stunden Wiesn "(1960). Bavarian television , accessed on October 11, 2020 (YouTube recording (0: 0 to 0:25)).
- aicher-ambulanz.de , accessed on January 4, 2019.
- Security at the Munich Oktoberfest ( Memento from October 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on September 27, 2015.
- cf. z. B. Oktoberfest 2010 - security concept stricter than ever ( memento from April 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), br-online.de, September 14, 2006.
- "170 bollards should protect the Oktoberfest" , tz .de, accessed on March 20, 2014.
- cf. z. B. Oktoberfest - “There is never one hundred percent security” , sueddeutsche.de, July 27, 2010.
- "Safety Fence and Backpack Ban" , br.de, August 17, 2016.
- Is that all? Amazement about lax Wiesn controls .
- Press release of the Munich Public Prosecutor's Office I: Lengthy investigations into the Eurostar accident at the Oktoberfest in 1996 completed ( Memento from November 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), January 19, 2000.
- This is what SWM and MVG do for the Oktoberfest
- Oktoberfest 2018: The use of the MVG in numbers
- Oktoberfest 2017: The use of the MVG in numbers
- WORLD: After Oktoberfest: Drunk on e-scooters - hundreds of driver's licenses collected . October 7, 2019 ( welt.de [accessed October 8, 2019]).
- Oktoberfest posters
- Website of the chicken roast with pictures of the presentation ( Memento from May 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Ministry of Finance: Presentation of the special postage stamp "200 Years of Oktoberfest"
- cf. z. B. Evening paper of September 16, 2006.
- Lord sacrament! How innkeepers are insured at Oktoberfest ( Memento from September 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), General Association of the German Insurance Industry
- “Rumors - Did Einstein work at the Oktoberfest?” Sueddeutsche.de
- "Am Münchner Oktoberfest" , jhva.wordpress.com, October 4, 2013.
- 27.09.1887: Fire at the Oktoberfest
- When the Oktoberfest caught fire
- Oktoberfest 2002 - background information about the fire at Glöckle Wirt on October 4th, 2002 (2nd Oktoberfest Friday)
- Bavaria: Oktoberfest canceled this year due to coronavirus . In: FAZ.NET . ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed April 21, 2020]).
- https://www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de/bayern/muenchen-feiert- 670414
- Oktoberfest-Zinzinnati ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- 150,000 thirsty “Wiener Wiesn” visitors , wien.orf.at, October 2, 2011.