Government commission of the Saar region
The government commission ( French : Commission de gouvernement du Bassin de la Sarre ) was an authority that in the years 1920 to 1935 the Saar area (French: Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre , literally translated as "Saar basin area") on behalf of the League of Nations managed. The legal basis was Articles 45 to 50 and the Annex to the Versailles Peace Treaty (which came into force on January 10, 1920). The government commission took over government power in the Saar area on February 27, 1920, replacing the previous French military administration . Their activity ended with the return of government power to the German Reich on March 1, 1935.
The Government Commission should not be confused with the Saarland Administrative Commission, which headed the civil administration of Saarland from 1946 to 1947.
According to Section 16 of the Annex, the government commission had five members, namely a German who had to come from the Saar area, a French and three other members who were not allowed to be either German or French. The members of the government commission were appointed by the League of Nations Council.
|Victor Rault||February 26, 1920||March 18, 1926||France|
|George Washington Stephens||March 18, 1926||June 8, 1927||Canada|
|Ernest Wilton||June 8, 1927||April 1, 1932||United Kingdom|
|Geoffrey Knox||April 1, 1932||March 1, 1935||United Kingdom|
|Alfred von Boch||1920||1920|
|Julius Land||1923||1924||Representing Jacob Hector|
|Richard Deans Waugh||1920||1923||Canada|
|Léon Albin Moltke-Huitfeldt||1920||1924||Denmark|
|George Washington Stephens||1923||1927||Canada|
|Carlos Espinosa de los Monteros||1924||1924||Spain|
|Ernest Wilton||1927||1932||United Kingdom|
|Leon R. von Ehrnrooth||1928||1935||Finland|
|Geoffrey Knox||1932||1935||United Kingdom|
The government commission of the Saar region worked through its administrative organization, which corresponded to that of a government. It was divided into the following areas:
The General Secretariat was the authority that supported the government commission in its work. It compiled the agenda of the government commission, kept the minutes, passed the resolutions on to the other authorities and ensured compliance. The General Secretariat published the Official Journal, carried out correspondence with the League of Nations and is the private secretariat of the President of the Government Commission. The influence of the head of the general secretariat in the rank of ministerial director was correspondingly great .
State Commissioner at the National Council
The government commission was not responsible to the National Council but to the League of Nations. Accordingly, the members of the government commission did not appear before the regional council. The State Commissioner at the State Council ensured communication between the State Council and the government commission.
Directorate of the Interior
The Interior Directorate had the function of an interior ministry . It consisted of two departments. The director of the interior and the cabinet was responsible for the municipal supervision of the city of Saarbrücken, the police in the Saar area and the Landjägercorps. The director of transport was responsible for the municipal supervision of the other municipalities, the passport system and the issuing of driving licenses.
Department of the member of the Government Commission for Public Works, Railways, Post and Telegraphs
This member of the government commission had the functions that the Reich Post Office had in relation to the post office, it was superordinate to the Saar Railway Directorate and corresponded to the Minister for Public Works . Two ministerial directors worked in this department, one responsible for administration and the other for technical departments such as the building construction department.
Department of the member of the Government Commission for Finance and Economic Affairs
The department of the member of the government commission for finances and economic affairs had the function of a finance ministry and the economy ministry . Among them were the cabinet of the minister , the directorate of finance , the directorate of the administration of direct and indirect taxes and the directorate of the economic affairs , the mining authority and the aviation department. One of the tasks was the supervision of the financial administration in the Saar area .
Department of the member of the government commission for justice, culture and education
The department of the member of the government commission for finances and economic affairs had the function of a justice ministry and the education ministry . It consisted of the Directorate for Justice Administration and the Directorate for Culture and Education.
See also court organization in the Saar area .
Department of the member of the Government Commission for People's Welfare, Agriculture and Forestry, Employment Office and Insurance
This department consisted of the Directorate for Public Welfare, Agriculture and Forestry, the Directorate for Employment Office and the Directorate for Insurance.
- Hans Westhoff: Law and Administration in the Saar Area, Trier 1934, pp. 15-25.
- Jürgen Hannig: Report of the government commission of the Saar area to the League of Nations Council of June 1, 1920 . In: Die Saarregion , Frankfurt am Main 1995, No. 58, p. 81 f. ISBN 3-425-07225-0 .
- Johann Gottfried Herder Research Council : Journal for East Research: Countries and Peoples in Eastern Central Europe . tape 27 . NG Elwert, 1978.
- Hans-Walter, Herrmann, Georg Wilhelm Sante: History of the Saarland, Territories-Ploetz: special editions, history of the German states, color light images for regional studies of the Saarland (= series of publications on political education . Volume 3 ). Ploetz, 1972, ISBN 978-3-87640-048-8 .
- Maria Zenner: Parties and politics in the Saar area under the League of Nations regime 1920–1935 , Diss. 1966, pp. 420–423.