Railway Directorate

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As Eisenbahndirektion (ED), Bundesbahndirektion (BD) or Reichsbahndirektion (RBD / Rbd) in will Germany and Austria the plant line carrying a rail or a track area of a major railway company , respectively. Your organization is determined by the respective railway company or the state railway . In the German area they were intermediate authorities or regional administrative units in the hierarchy of state railway administrations. With the establishment of the Deutsche Bahn AG in 1994, the system of the German railway directorates was abolished. Their previous tasks were transferred to new "business areas".


State railways railway directorates

Classification in the state hierarchy

The railway directorates of the German state railways were usually subordinate to a specialist ministry, more rarely to an independent general directorate. In Prussia, for example, this was the “Ministry of Trade, Industry and Public Works”, and from 1878 the “Ministry of Public Works”, which was separated from it. The otherwise largely independent, from 1895 a total of 20 "Royal Railway Directorates" (KED) were subordinate to him. In contrast, the Royal Saxon State Railways were subordinate to the Saxon Ministry of Finance.

In Bavaria the five "Railway Operations Directorates " were subordinate to the "General Directorate of the Royal Transport Authorities" until 1886, then to the "General Directorate of the Royal Bavarian State Railways " and from 1906 to the "State Ministry for Transport Affairs".

Baden is listed as a smaller country with only one central control center . There was a railway directorate in Karlsruhe only from 1882 . Previously, the state railway construction was assigned to the Ministry of the Interior, whereas the operation was assigned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the meantime, the senior management of water and road construction was responsible for the state railways , and then the senior management of the posts and railways .

Internal structure

Royal Railway Directorate Berlin

At an advanced stage of the organization, the railroad directorates were mostly subordinate to the state leadership with regard to finances. This concerned in particular the tariff structure (regular tariffs, special tariffs for certain areas), the withholding or the transfer of generated financial income as well as the granting of additional funds for deficit compensation or for special railway constructions (stations, new routes, electrification).

In this given framework, the directorates organized operations for the routes assigned to them. For this purpose, departments were often set up internally with the assignments “Finance and Personnel”, “Timetable, Tariffs, Operations” and “Construction, Maintenance and Vehicles”.


A railway directorate could also have several operations offices, main workshops or depots assigned to it at different locations, each of which was assigned to certain routes. It could happen that in a larger city or a railway junction several works offices were represented by different railway departments next to each other, especially in the capital Berlin .

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon gives a breakdown of the “Königl. Directorates of the State Railways in Berlin "in eleven partly external" operating offices "for the designated routes to:

After the restructuring of April 1, 1895, the management had Berlin

  • nine operational inspections,
  • three machine inspections,
  • a telegraph inspection,
  • four traffic inspections and
  • thirteen workshop inspections.

In addition to the President, the workforce consisted of 15 members of the Board of Directors, ten unskilled workers, an accounting director, an accounting officer and 580 office workers.


In Prussia, the administrations of the larger state railways were transformed into independent directorates, which were referred to as the "Royal Railway Directorates", "KED" for short and later as the "Railway Directorates" ("ED") of the Prussian State Railways . With its extensive railway network, most of the German railway directorates and deeply differentiated structures were located here. The railway directorates were directly subordinate to the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Public Works, from 1878 to the separate Ministry of Public Works . In addition to the railway, he was also responsible for building canals and roads , making it a kind of transport ministry.


As of 1907, after the administrative reform of 1895 and the merger with the Hessian State Railways and the nationalized Hessian Ludwigsbahn in 1897 , the Prussian State Railways had the following directorates:

Establishment date Directorate comment
November 5, 1849 Bromberg as "Royal Direction of the Ostbahn zu Bromberg"
January 1, 1852 Berlin as the former “Kgl. Direction of the Lower Silesian-Märkische Railway "
April 1, 1880 Cologne on the left bank of the Rhine , Frankfurt / Main , Hanover , Magdeburg
May 1, 1882 Erfurt
January 1, 1883 Katowice
March 1, 1884 Altona
April 1, 1895 Breslau , Cassel , Danzig , Elberfeld , Essen , Halle (Saale) , Koenigsberg , Münster , Poznan , Saarbrücken , Stettin
April 1, 1897 Mainz as the directorate of the Prussian-Hessian Railway Community
April 1, 1907 Railway Central Office Berlin in the range of a KED

The division made in Prussia with the restructuring of 1895 was essentially taken over by the subsequent Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft , the Deutsche Bundesbahn and the Deutsche Reichsbahn .


The regional Bavarian state administrations of the Royal Bavarian State Railways were initially referred to as Railway Offices and Upper Railway Offices; the latter were located in Augsburg , Bamberg , Ingolstadt , Kempten , Munich , Nuremberg , Regensburg , Rosenheim , Weiden and Würzburg . They were subordinate to the “General Directorate of the Royal Transport Authority” until 1886 and then until 1906 to the “General Directorate of the Royal Bavarian State Railways”. From 1906 the "Railway Operations Directorates" were created, which were subordinate to the "State Ministry for Transport Affairs". They included the Augsburg, Ludwigshafen / Rhein , Munich, Nuremberg, Bamberg, Regensburg and Würzburg divisions, which were taken over by the Reichsbahn after 1920, with the exception of Bamberg (assigned to Nuremberg).


In Saxony there were several organizationally separate "state railways" until 1869. The directorates were located in Dresden and Leipzig , and for a short time also in Chemnitz .

On April 1, 1847, the “Royal Direction of the Saxon-Bavarian State Railroad” was founded in Leipzig, which from October 1, 1853 became the “Royal Direction of the Western State Railway”. In 1858 the Leipzig management also took over the routes of the Niedererzgebirgische Staatsbahn , which had been administered since 1851 by the Chemnitz-based “Royal Directorate of the Chemnitz-Riesa State Railway”. The “Royal Direction of the Saxon-Bohemian State Railroad” was founded in Dresden on August 1, 1848, and a little later became the “Royal Direction of the Saxon-Bohemian and Saxon-Silesian State Railways”, and from December 14, 1852 into the “Royal State Railroad Direction” "And from October 1, 1853 the" Royal Directorate of the Eastern State Railways ". The networks of the western and eastern state railways were spatially separated and only connected via the lines of the private Leipzig-Dresden railway company .

It was not until the completion of the Dresden – Werdau railway line that a direct connection existed between the two state railway networks from April 1, 1869. In administrative terms, the two previously separate directorates were therefore merged from July 1, 1869 into the “Royal General Directorate of the Saxon State Railways”.

Remaining regional railways

According to Meyer's Konversations-Lexikon from 1888

German Reichsbahn

The 1920 as the top management of German state railways founded, initially until 1921 as German Imperial Railways designated German Reichsbahn took over essentially first the directorates of the German state railways ; these acted as intermediate authorities in the Reichsbahn structure. In 1924, the Deutsche Reichsbahn was converted into the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft as part of the Dawes Plan , without this having any noticeable impact on its organizational structure. In the 1930s, the DRG (from 1937 again in direct state administration as the Deutsche Reichsbahn ) assigned individual smaller directorates to larger directorates or divided them into several directorates.

The Reichsbahndirektion (RBD and Rbd) were responsible for the operational and traffic management as well as all technical tasks. They were subordinate to departments such as works offices, traffic offices, machine offices, surveying offices, repair shops and, if necessary, new building offices.

Exceptions were all areas of responsibility that were reserved for the Reich Ministry of Transport, the Reichsbahnbaudirektion, the Reichsbahnzentralamt, the senior management (later general management) and the "managing directorates". Certain transactions were only conducted by the "managing directorates" and could not be carried out by the Reichsbahndirectors. The “managing directorates for the workshop sector” directed and supervised the activities of all workshops in the repair shops of their group district, which counted as offices, while the other local Reichsbahndirectors had nothing to do with the administration of the workshops.

Each Reichsbahndirektion was usually divided into five specialist departments, which corresponded to the railway departments of the Reich Ministry of Transport .

  1. Department I traffic and tariff planning
  2. Department II Construction and Operations Department
  3. Department III mechanical engineering and purchasing department
  4. Division IV Finance and Legal
  5. Department V Human Resources

Reich Railway Directorates

Map of the Reichsbahndirektion Kassel, (previously: Eisenbahndirektion Cassel)

The German State Railroad Company decreed in 1927 over 30 Reichsbahn, of which six directorates directly the Reichsbahn headquarters, but the non- Bavarian Group Administration were subordinated. From 1938 after the annexation of Austria four, later three Reichsbahndirectors were added, finally in 1939 after the invasion of Poland two directorates in the parts of Poland annexed as Reichsgaue Wartheland and Danzig-West Prussia and the Free City of Danzig :

The Reich Railway Directorates of the Bavarian Group Administration, which was repealed in 1933:

After the annexation of Austria in the course of the takeover of the BBÖ on March 18, 1938:

After the annexation of the Free City of Danzig and the former Polish territories on December 1, 1939, Reich Railway Directorates established:

The railway lines of the Sudetenland were assigned to the neighboring Reichsbahndirections Breslau, Oppeln, Dresden and Regensburg, the lines in the Memel area of the RBD Königsberg.

Deutsche Reichsbahn (after 1945)

In addition to the divisions taken over from the previous organization, the Deutsche Reichsbahn set up four further divisions, which took over responsibility instead of the divisions in the former East German regions and the Federal Republic of Germany , with the identification letters being retained. The Deutsche Reichsbahn continued to use the name "Reichsbahndirektion" until it was incorporated into Deutsche Bahn AG in 1994.

Each Reichsbahndirektion was headed by a president who was subordinate to the Ministry of Transport . The Reichsbahndirektion was subordinated to a Reichsbahnamt, local departments for the main branches of machine management, wagon management, railway systems, security and telecommunications and departments with special tasks for the district . According to the main branches of service, the Reichsbahndirektion was divided into administrations headed by an administrative manager and into functional departments (e.g. planning, management and training, main accounting and statistics). The demarcation of the Reichsbahndirections from one another took into account the route network and the territorial structure of the GDR.

Reich Railway Directorates

List of the directorates of the Deutsche Reichsbahn

German Federal Railroad

When the Deutsche Bundesbahn was founded , the former "Reichsbahndirektiven" were called the Federal Railway Directorate . Their offices arose essentially from the former Reichsbahndirectors, excluding those on the territory of the German Democratic Republic and the former eastern territories.

According to the Federal Railroad Act, the railroad directorates were subordinate to the twenty-member administrative council of the Federal Railroad, whose members were appointed by the federal government. In accordance with the Federal Railways Act , the administrative board decided on the presidents of the railway directorates [...] in agreement with the board, as well as the establishment, relocation, abolition or significant organizational change of a railway directorate or a central office of the Deutsche Bundesbahn and a significant change in its districts. According to the law, organizational changes also had to be made in agreement with the "locally involved supreme state transport authorities". In the end, however, the Federal Minister of Transport reserved the right to approve it.

Federal railway directorates

The German Federal Railways was divided into the following directorates in the state in 1993 (in brackets are the codes of the management and indicators of operational services, the construction and mechanical engineering departments had - increased by 50 Code):

Up to this point in time the following directorates had been dissolved and assigned to the remaining directorate districts:

In addition, there were offices such as the Federal Railroad Central Offices in Munich and Minden as well as other central offices whose territory extended over several directorates.

There were libraries at the directorates, each containing 10,000 to 40,000 volumes at the end of the 1960s.

When Deutsche Bahn AG was founded in 1994, the directorates were abolished and their tasks were transferred to the new business areas.

Table overview

In the following, all former German railway directorates are listed in a common table with their affiliation in different time periods. For some of the railway directorates in this table, earlier construction dates are given in the literature; these then mostly concern the directorates of the former private railways.

Columns of the time periods:
1 = Länderbahn until 1866 (1866 annexation of several countries by Prussia)
2 = Länderbahnen 1866–1895 (1895 administrative reform of the Prussian State Railways )
3 = Länderbahnen 1895-1920 (1920 takeover of the Länderbahnen into the Deutsche Reichsbahn )
4 = Deutsche Reichsbahn (company) 1920–1945/49 (1945/49 German division)
5 = Deutsche Bundesbahn / Deutsche Reichsbahn 1949–1994 (1991–1994 merger of DB and DR to form Deutsche Bahn AG )

Länderbahn abbreviation

Railway directorates
1 2 3 4th 5 place founding comment
Pr Pr Pr DR - Bromberg November 5, 1849 previously "Kgl. Direction of the Eastern Railway to Bromberg "
- Pr Pr DR - Katowice January 1, 1883
- - Pr DR - Wroclaw April 1, 1895 -
- - Pr DR - Danzig April 1, 1895 -
- - Pr DR - Koenigsberg April 1, 1895 -
- - Pr DR - Poses April 1, 1895 -
- - Pr DR - Szczecin April 1, 1895 -
- - - DR - Opole -
- - - DR - East / Frankfurt O. -
Central Germany
Pr Pr Pr DR DR Berlin January 1, 1852 formerly “Kgl. Direction of the Lower Silesian-Märkische Railway "
- Pr Pr - - Berlin Oct 15, 1875 Kgl. Military Railway Directorate
- Pr Pr - - Berlin July 15, 1878 "Kgl. Directorate of the Berlin City Railway ”, dissolved in 1882
- - Pr ?? ?? Berlin April 1, 1907 Kgl. Central Railway Office with the rank of KED
- Pr Pr DR DR Magdeburg April 1, 1880 dissolved on October 1, 1931, to RBD Halle / Saale, Berlin, Altona and Hanover; from August 18, 1945 set up again for the former RBD Hanover
- Pr Pr DR DR Erfurt May 1, 1882 -
- - Pr DR DR Halle (Saale) April 1, 1895 -
DR DR Dresden August 1, 1848 from July 1, 1869 combined with Leipzig to form the "Royal General Directorate of the Saxon State Railways"
- - Leipzig April 1, 1847 Royal direction of the Saxon-Bavarian State Railroad, dissolved from July 1, 1869 and merged with Dresden.
- - - - Chemnitz? October 1, 1853 “Royal Directorate of the Chemnitz-Riesa State Railway”, dissolved again in 1858 and assigned to the Leipzig directorate.
MFFE MFFE DR DR Schwerin 1873 formerly “Grand Ducal General Railway Directorate in Schwerin”, previously in Malchin
- - - - DR cottbus October 1, 1945 for the former RBD East
- - - - DR Greifswald October 10, 1945 for the former RBD Stettin
- - - - DR Wittenberg 15th of August until September 30, 1945 as a replacement for the RBD Hamburg
DH Pr Pr DR DB Altona January 1, 1887 from April 1, 1937 renamed RBD Hamburg ( Greater Hamburg Law )
Br Br - - - Braunschweig December 1, 1838 Royal management of the Brunswick railways, dissolved in 1869, assigned to the Prussian management of Magdeburg
- Pr Pr - - Cologne on the right bank of the Rhine. April 1, 1880 formerly “Royal Direction of the Cöln-Minden Railway to Cologne”; Dissolved on April 1, 1895, transition to Cologne on the left bank of the Rhine.
- Pr Pr DR DB Cologne left Rhine. April 1, 1880 formerly "Royal Direction of the Rhenish Railway to Cologne", on April 1, 1895 combined to form KED Cöln
- - Pr DR DB Cassel April 1, 1895 dissolved on December 31, 1974, to BD Frankfurt
- - Pr DR DB Elberfeld / Wuppertal September 14, 1850 formerly "Royal Directorate of the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahngesellschaft"; dissolved on December 31, 1974, to BDen Cologne and Essen
- - Pr DR DB eat April 1, 1895 -
Hann Pr Pr DR DB Hanover March 13, 1843 formerly "Royal Hanover Railway Directorate"
- - Pr DR DB Muenster April 1, 1895 dissolved on December 31, 1974, to BDen Essen and Hanover
- - Pr DR DB Saarbrücken / Trier April 1, 1895 No successor to the Saarbrücken Railway Directorate on May 22, 1852
- - Pr DR DB Mainz April 1, 1897 Kgl. Prussia. and Grand Duke. Hessian ED
dissolved on April 30, 1972, at BDen Karlsruhe, Frankfurt and Cologne
?? Pr Pr DR DB Frankfurt (M) April 1, 1880 -
Nas Pr - - - Wiesbaden 1853 dissolved from April 1, 1880, at Frankfurt
- GOE GOE DR - Oldenburg April 1, 1867 "Grand Ducal Railway Directorate Oldenburg", repealed on January 1, 1935, to RBD Münster and Hanover
- - Bay DR DB augsburg 1907 previously "Bahnamt" in 1845, "Oberbahnamt" in 1876
dissolved on June 1, 1971, to BD Munich
- - Bay DR DB Bamberg 1902 previously "Bahnamt" in 1845, "Oberbahnamt" in 1876, repealed in 1920, subordinated to the Nuremberg RBD
- - Bay DR - Ludwigshafen / Rhine - (repealed on April 1, 1937, to RBDen Mainz and Saarbrücken)
Bay Bay Bay DR DB Munich 1851 initially "General Directorate of the Royal Transport Authority" and "General Directorate of the Royal Bavarian State Railways"
- - Bay DR DB Nuremberg ?? -
- - Bay DR DB regensburg ?? dissolved on June 1, 1976, to BDen Munich and Nuremberg
- - Bay DR - Wurzburg ?? repealed on January 1, 1931, to RBD Nuremberg
?? ?? DR DB Stuttgart ?? -
- bath bath DR DB Karlsruhe 1872 The State Railways was previously assigned to the Higher Directorate of Water and Road Construction, then to the "Higher Directorate of Post and Railways".



The organization in Austria was based first on an ordinance of February 26, 1882. According to the KK Ministry of Commerce there was a KK Direction for State Railway Operations in Vienna (Vienna- Fünfhaus , Schönbrunnerstrasse 2), to which a State Railway Council was attached. These included the kk Ober-Bahnbetriebsämter , which were assigned to monitor operations, construction, rail maintenance and train transport within a certain district (locations: Vienna , Linz , Salzburg , Steyr , Villach , Innsbruck and Spalato )

In Hungary the central administration was in the hands of a directorate in Pest with a director at the head, who was assisted by sub-directors for the individual branches of service. The latter exercised the administration within their sphere of activity with a certain degree of independence and at the same time acted as speakers on the board of directors. The operational service, the construction, the maintenance of the railway as well as the train transport for demarcated service areas of 150–600 km were carried out by operations and traffic management (according to the railway operations offices in Prussia).

With an ordinance of June 23, 1884, the kk General Directorate of the Austrian State Railways in Vienna was created (Wien- Innere Stadt , Hegelgasse  7), which was subordinate to the Minister of Commerce , to which kk Railway Operations Directorates were added to manage the local operations service according to traffic needs (locations: Vienna, Linz, Innsbruck, Villach, Budweis , Pilsen , Prague , Krakow , Lemberg , Pola and Spalato). The State Railway Council established in 1882 (with 50 members) now served the Minister of Commerce in assessing economic issues in the area of ​​railway transport. In 1896 the Kk Ministry of Railways was founded, in which the previous General Directorate as well as the sections of the Ministry of Commerce dealing with railway issues were absorbed. The kk state railways no longer had an independent general directorate, but were controlled directly by the ministry. In 1896, under the Ministry, there were 11 State Railway Directorates in Innsbruck , Cracow, Lemberg, Linz , Olomouc , Pilsen, Prague, Stanislau , Trieste , Villach and Vienna .

Republic of Austria

Building of the Federal Railway Directorate in Innsbruck

With the dissolution of the Imperial and Royal State Railways after the end of the monarchy, the Austrian Federal Railways was founded for the railways that remained on the territory of the republic , initially as the German-Austrian State Railways , from November 21, 1919 as the Austrian State Railways and finally with the current name from April 1, 1921 designated. The directorates of the former kk state railways were taken over, initially as the state railroad directorate , then referred to as the federal railroad directorate after the establishment of the federal railways . In total there were four directorates under the newly established general directorate in Vienna, in which the corresponding sections of the former railway ministry were incorporated:

The Deutsche Reichsbahn took over the four Federal Railway Directorates after the annexation of Austria in 1938 as Reich Railway Directorates, but dissolved the Innsbruck Directorate on July 14, 1938. Their route network went to the neighboring departments of Augsburg, Linz, Munich and Villach.

After 1945, the re-established ÖBB set up the management structure from the time before 1938 and the Innsbruck Federal Railway Directorate was re-established. In the course of the reorganization of the ÖBB group structure in 2005, the directorates were dissolved.


German Eastern Railway

After the occupation of Poland , the German State Railroad (DRB) placed the railway lines in the General Government under the general management of the Eastern Railway ("Gedob") based in Krakow on November 1, 1939 . The majority of the staff of the Deutsche Ostbahn came from Germany , Polish nationals were only allowed to work in the lower ranks. From April 1, 1940, President of Gedob was Adolf Gerteis . Most of the rolling stock on the Eastern Railway came from the former Polish State Railways (PKP).


  • M. Heller (arrangement): Deutsche Reichsbahn. Overview map February 1938 . (Reprint). GVE-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-89218-938-1 .
  • Hansjürgen Wenzel: End of the war and railway organization. In: Railway courier. No. 5/1995, ZDB -ID 1209714-7 , pp. 44-49.
  • Michael Reimer, Volkmar Kubitzki: Railways in Poland 1939–1945. The history of the general management of the Ostbahn. Transpress, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-613-71213-X .

Individual evidence

  1. Meyers Konversationslexikon. by 1888.
  2. ^ Organizational structure of the Royal Bavarian State Railways
  3. ^ Jürgen Bergholter: The libraries of the German Federal Railroad . In: The Federal Railroad . tape 39 , no. 21 , 1965, p. 762-763 .
  4. Staatsarchiv Augsburg ( Memento of the original from March 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.gda.bayern.de
  5. ^ KK Ministry of Commerce. (...) Board members of the kk Ober-Bahnbetriebs-Ämter. In:  Staats Handbuch , year 1884, p. 107 (Volume II). (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / shb.
  6. RGBl. 1882/25, ordinance of the Ministry of Commerce regarding the organization of state railway operations on the western state railways and private railways operated by the state. In:  Reichsgesetzblatt for the kingdoms and states represented in the Reichsrathe , year 1882, pp. 35–46. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / rgb.
  7. ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . by 1888.
  8. ^ KK Ministry of Commerce. (...) KK General Direction of the Austrian State Railways in Vienna. In:  Staats Handbuch , year 1885, p. 113 (Volume II). (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / shb.
  9. RGBl. 1884/103, ordinance of the Minister of Commerce, concerning the organization of the State Railway Administration in the kingdoms and countries represented in the Imperial Council, as well as the locations of the Railway Operations Directorates to be established in accordance with this organization. In:  Reichsgesetzblatt for the kingdoms and states represented in the Reichsrathe , year 1884, pp. 245–255. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / rgb.
  10. RGBl. No. 16/1896 (= p. 21 f.)
  11. ^ Announcement by the Minister of Railways of July 28, 1896 , RGBl. No. 129/1896 (= p. 459)
  12. Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (Ed.): Official Gazette of the Reichsbahndirektion Mainz of August 6, 1938, No. 36. Announcement No. 488, p. 213.


  1. Today the area around Mariahilfer Straße 130.