Reich Railway Directorate Schwerin
The Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin was an administrative district of the Deutsche Reichsbahn .
The Schwerin Railway Directorate was established in 1889 under the name of the Grand Ducal General Railway Direction (GGED) as the supreme administrative authority of the Grand Ducal Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway .
After the November Revolution it was simply called the Railway Directorate of the State Railway, now known as the Mecklenburg State Railway.
After the conclusion of the State Treaty on the formation of the Reichseisenbahnen and the transition of the railroad from Mecklenburg (-Schwerin) to the German Reich, the name Eisenbahndirektion Schwerin (ED) was used from April 26, 1920 and from July 6, 1922 Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin (Rbd). of the Deutsche Reichsbahn .
Significant routes in this period were:
- the Rostock - Bad Kleinen - Schwerin - Hagenow Land route
- the route Lübeck - Bad Kleinen - Güstrow - Neubrandenburg (- Stettin )
- the route of the former Lloyd-Bahn ( Denmark -) Warnemünde - Rostock - Neustrelitz
On January 1, 1938, the lines of the nationalized Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn (LBE) were taken over, with the exception of the Hamburg - Bad Oldesloe section.
In July (or September?) 1945, the parts of the route to the west of the demarcation line ( zone boundary ) were given to the Rbd Hamburg . In return, on October 1, 1945, routes north of the Elbe and east of the demarcation border were taken over by the Rbd Hamburg, which were briefly subordinate to a Rbd Wittenberge , which existed for only one month .
On October 6, 1945, sections of the route were transferred to the Greifswald district with the Neubrandenburg and Waren (Müritz) depots.
With Renate Fölsch worked in the period from 1975 to 1982 as vice president from 1982 to 1990 president for the first time in East Germany and after reunification in Germany a woman as president of a railway administration. In October 1989 a "round table" was founded by opposition members in the Rbd-Haus. President Renate Fölsch put the demands of the round table on the house management to remove the leading, dominant political department of the SED. The political department under the leadership of Comrade Kleindienst was deprived of its authority and the party leadership of the SED in the Rbd House was dissolved. Service operations continued in a disciplined and orderly manner despite the political unrest.
On October 15, 1990, the area of the former Greifswald Rbd (former part of Stettin Rbd) was completely assigned to the Schwerin Directorate.
On January 1, 1994, it was dissolved and divided into newly created regional areas as part of the railway reform . At the same time as the privatization of DB and DR, a new state supervisory authority for the federal railways was established. Some competent employees of the former Reichsbahndirektion who had previously been checked by the Gauck authorities were appointed to the Federal Railway Authority , in the Schwerin branch. Among them were two members of the round table.
Political structure after 1945
- Political Department of the Rbd
- Party leadership SED Rbd House
- Works union management Rbd-Haus
- Kampfgruppe Hundredschaft Rbd-Haus
Orders, awards, badges
- Badge of the best movement of the Rbd district Schwerin ,
Service structures after 1945
The political department of the Rbd (which was subordinate to the political headquarters of the DR in Berlin) had no “actual” management tasks, only control functions. She enforced the demands of the SED leadership. In 1953 a fighting group of the working class was founded in the Rbd-Haus by the political department. Later on, the Schwerins railway services also set up a combat group association. The armament included mot rifle equipment. The equipment room was on Dr.-Külz-Strasse, the weapons, armored rifles, grenades, LMG, MPi and pistols were in the armories of the transport police .
The management was divided into service branches:
President with the President's Office
- Inspection of the President
- Main Department I.
- Party secretary of the SED
- Works union leadership of the Free German Trade Union Federation (FDGB) and its social institutions
- Press Office of the President
Vice President Operations, Locomotives, Car Management, Traction Power with
Staff for operational management of the Rbd with the temporary staff of the main service branches (for crisis situations)
- Chief dispatcher management (Odl)
- Use of locomotives
Administration of mechanical engineering : Departments of locomotive service, locomotive maintenance, traction current, technical systems
The infrastructure for locomotive service, shunting technology, maritime transport, rescue technology, freight transport systems, passenger transport, weighing technology was provided and maintained by the Ta (technical systems) department, subordinated to the Ta groups of the Bw'e. The investments and reconstructions were prepared independently with the help of railway construction offices (EVDR).
- Tank systems, steam locomotive coal systems, sand and sand drying systems, water cranes , crane systems, hoists for auxiliary train technology, freight elevators
- Track scales, drinking water supply systems, systems for in-house mineral water production, printing and paper cutting machines
- Industrial trucks, forklifts, electric carts, lifting platforms, container cranes and container stacking vehicles (Painers), EDK 500 railway slewing cranes and the like. 1000, crawler cranes RK 3
- Shunting technology, track brakes, floor conveyor technology, push-pull systems, compressed air filling systems for trains, turntables, rotation angles
- Boiler houses and district heating systems, interim heating systems with steam locomotives, snow plows, snow blowers
- Trajectory bridges and refueling of railway ferries
- Laboratory for in-house controls of the departments
The subordinate departments were: Bahnbetriebswerk (Bw), Kraftwagenbetriebswerk (Kbw), Heavy Current Mastery (Stm), Locomotive Deployment Unit (Tst)
- Bw Schwerin with Tst Bad Kleinen and Parchim
- Bw Rostock
- Bw Rostock seaport
- Bw Wismar
- Bw Güstrow with EDK 1000 crane and snow thrower
- Wittenberge depot with locomotive operations center Wittstock, Pritzwalk, Neustadt (Dosse), Meynburg
- Bw Hagenow Land Tst Ludwigslust and crane workshop Hagenow
- Bw Neuruppin with forklift workshop and equipment workshop for aid trains of the DR
- Kbw Rostock
- Kbw branch in Schwerin
Railway power plants (Bsw)
Administration of wagon management with railway company car works (Bww) and wagon repair department (what)
- Bww Schwerin with Was Hagenow-Land
- Bww Rostock
- What Bützow
Administration of operations and traffic
- Central station (Hbf)
- Train station (Bf)
- Freight station (Gbf)
- Marshalling yard (Rbf)
Vice President Systems with Administration of Railway Systems
- Railway maintenance depots (Bm)
- Building construction masters (Hbm)
- Bridge construction masters (Bbm)
Management of signaling and telecommunications systems
- Signal and Telecommunications Mastery (SFM)
- Vice President Economics u. Materials management
- General Ledger Accounting
- Basic resource accounting
- Station ticket offices
- Legal Department
- Political Department
- Staff for operational management
- Management and Education Department
- Labor department, u. a. also responsible for the children's holiday camp of the Rbd Haus in Plau am See (was also a combat group object)
- Materials management department with the Directorate Procurement Office (Dbs), Dbs Schwerin u. Wittenberg
- Department for Rationalization and New Management
- Main department investments with construction management Rostock seaport
- General Administration
- Medical service, human and veterinary doctors
- Work and Production Safety Inspection (IAPS)
- Printing house of the Schwerin department, they printed picture timetables, timetables, company books etc. a. for the Deutsche Reichsbahn
- Property management with the post office and the break
- Rba Rostock
- Rba Guestrow
- Rba Wittenberge
President of the Management
- Bruno Schramm 1949–1957
- Friedrich Vieser –1965
- Joachim Buhlke 1965–1982
- Renate Fölsch 1982–1990
- Wolfhard Noack October 12, 1990–1991
- Gerhard Schweinsberg 1991 - October 31, 1997
On January 1, 1994, the Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin ceased operations, the administrative apparatus was transferred to Deutsche Bahn Aktiengesellschaft with the areas of local transport, long-distance transport, DB Cargo and network.
- Horst Gibner became DB Group representative for the state of Mecklenburg
In the pre-war period, the Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin mainly used light locomotives. In 1936, for example, there were 37 locomotives of the 91 19 series (formerly Mecklenburgische T 4) and 35 locomotives of the 75 4, 10-11 series . The reasons for using these locomotives were the lower train density and the lighter trains compared to other administrative districts. The total number of steam locomotives in 1936 was 222 machines and rose to 234 machines by 1940.
During the Second World War, many locomotives were relocated to other locations outside of Mecklenburg. At the same time, foreign and damaged locomotives came into the inventory. At the end of 1947, there were 167 foreign locomotives and 21 damaged locomotives in the inventory.
After the war, the foreign locomotives were returned and the damaged locomotives refurbished. In addition, new locomotives , such as the class 23 10 and class 50 40 in particular , came to the Reichsbahndirektion Schwerin. At the end of the 1960s, the replacement of all steam locomotives in Mecklenburg with diesel locomotives began. The new diesel locomotives in the Schwerin administrative district initially included shunting locomotives such as the V 15 and V 60 series . Later, larger diesel locomotives ( series V 180 , series V 200 or series 130 ) were added. The scheduled use of steam locomotives in Mecklenburg finally ended with the retirement of the 50 series in the mid-1980s.
The building of the Reich Railway Directorate
The building, inaugurated on August 12, 1898, was used as a functional building by approx. 800 employees until 1996 for the purpose of managing 23,000 railway workers from the entire railway administration. It is a three-story red brick building, a former two-tower winged building decorated with classical sandstone ornaments. In 1922–1925, a four-storey, plastered supplementary building that did not impair the facade was added. The three-storey administration building had a canteen in the basement, a vault (steel door approx. 40 cm thick, Reichsbank reserves used to be stored here), several air raid shelters with an entrance to the underground bunker, which was located under the forecourt on the left. In the event of war, the management could be forwarded to the underground bunker, all prerequisites were in place. The bunker was removed in the 90s. The Reichsbahnsparkasse was in the entrance hall on the ground floor. The representative staircase with granite columns and wide stairs brought the visitor on the first floor into the large conference room. A high lead-glazed room decorated with wood paneling and historical city, port and train station images. A coat of arms frieze of all cities on the Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway completes the wall paneling to the coffered ceiling. On the same floor, in the same style, there is a small conference room with a connecting door to the presidential room, which used to have a wrought-iron balcony facing the forecourt. The second floor had special rooms for a vice president and the political department. The Soviet traffic command had seized a side wing in 1945, from here it regulated its military transports. In the stairway to the third floor there is a lead-glazed window several meters in size with the ducal coat of arms of Mecklenburg. This largest coat of arms of Mecklenburg was secured at the request of the civil rights activists of the round table of the Rbd in the autumn of 1989 and restored in 1990 in accordance with monument conservation. The political greats of the working class made no sense to these beauties. A very elaborate crystal chandelier was hung to complement the end of the stairwell on the third floor. Opposite the staircase was the management's specialist library. The company kitchen in the cellar of the house took care of the physical well-being, staff from the management and the offices as well as the drivers were able to receive food almost around the clock. In the 1980s, a company canteen with a bowling alley was built on Dr.-Külz-Strasse. This kitchen construction gave way to the branch office of the Federal Railway Office for Railway Systems in MV that exists there today.
Social facilities of the Rbd-Haus Schwerin at the Schwerin site
There were various cultural institutions, such as the railway workers 'clubhouse, with its Theodor-Körner-Ensemble (formerly head Hans Wegner), the union library and the railway workers' sports field, the BSG Lokomotive , also known as the Frisian sports field.
Part of the social measures was the opportunity to send railway children to the company's own holiday camps in the summer.
- Rbd Haus and Rba Güstrow owned a holiday camp in Plau am See.
- The Rba Wittenberge had its summer camp in Bad Stuer am Plauer See.
- The holiday camp of the Rostock Rba was located in Kühlungsborn West.
- An in-house kindergarten was built on Mittelweg, near the former KIB-Vorwärts.
- Karl Julius Harder: Memories of Mecklenburg . In: Lok-Magazin . No. 74 . Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, W. Keller & Co. , 1975, ISSN 0458-1822 , p. 354-361 .
- Map of the Rbd Schwerin
- Map of the Rbd Schwerin from 1936
- Theodor Körner Ensemble (formerly director Hans Wegner)
- Lothar Schultz: The time of the steam locomotives in Mecklenburg . Ostseedruck Rostock, 1988, pages 6-8.
- Jürgen Gerner: Clubhouse of the railway workers Schwerin. In: de.everybodywiki.com. April 2020, accessed April 28, 2020 .