Henry the Proud
Heinrich the Proud (* 1102 or 1108; † October 20, 1139 in Quedlinburg ) was from 1126 to 1138 as Heinrich X. Duke of Bavaria and from 1137 until his death in 1139 as Heinrich II. Duke of Saxony . He was also Margrave of Tuscany . He came from the house of the Guelphs and was a candidate ( pretender to the throne ) for election to the Roman-German king in 1138 .
Heinrich was the son of Duke Heinrich IX. the black of Bavaria and Wulfhild of Saxony and older brother of Welf VI. From his marriage to Gertrud von Sachsen , daughter of King Lothar III. from Supplinburg on May 29, 1127, Henry the Lion emerged.
Through her marriage to Gertrud von Sachsen, Emperor Lothar III. From Supplinburg's only daughter, Heinrich received the Supplinburg , Brunswick and local allodial goods in Saxony after his death . This shows the beginnings of the Guelph power expansion in the north of the empire, of which the Saxon Welfenquelle, which was built between 1132 and 1137 in Lüneburg, bears witness to the history of memorials. Heinrich supported Lothar in the fight against the Hohenstaufen and accompanied him on his second Italian campaign in 1136/37. Here Heinrich was enfeoffed with the Margraviate of Tuszien and received the Mathildic goods from the Pope . In 1137, shortly before his death, Lothar also gave him the Duchy of Saxony and designated him as his successor. According to Otto von Freising , after being appointed Duke of Saxony, he boasted that his possessions stretched from Denmark to Sicily : "A mari usque ad mare, id est a Dania usque in Siciliam."
Nevertheless - probably due to Heinrich's lofty nature and his previous abundance of power - not he, but the Staufer Konrad III. elected. Heinrich delivered Konrad the imperial regalia received from Lothar, but refused - as Konrad demanded - to renounce one of his duchies. When Heinrich refused to pay homage to the new king, Konrad outlawed him, giving Bavaria the bear to Leopold IV of Austria , Saxony to Albrecht . Heinrich was able to assert himself against all attackers and even against King Konrad in Saxony, but died suddenly on October 20, 1139 in Quedlinburg. He was next to his in-laws Lothar III. and Richenza von Northeim are buried in the Kaiserdom Königslutter . Heinrich is highly respected in the Regensburg Imperial Chronicle of the 1140s.
- Sigmund Ritter von Riezler : Heinrich X., the proud . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, pp. 462-466.
- Kurt Reindel : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 8, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1969, ISBN 3-428-00189-3 , p. 343 f. ( ).
- Bernd Schneidmüller : The Guelphs. Reign and memory (819–1252). Stuttgart 2000, pp. 162-182.
- Lutz Partenheimer : Albrecht the Bear, Konrad III. and the party of Henry the Proud in the fight for the Duchy of Saxony (1138-1142) (= Communications of the Association for Anhaltische geography . no. 4 ). 1995, ISSN 1430-3647 , p. 80 ff . ( uni-potsdam.de [PDF]).
- Otto von Freising, Chronica, lib. VII, cap. 23.
- Wilhelm Störmer : Heinrich the lion - A European prince of the high Middle Ages. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 73 (2010), pp. 779–789, here: p. 788.
Duke of Saxony
Duke of Bavaria
|Engelbert von Spanheim||
|Ulrich von Attems|
|SURNAME||Henry the Proud|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Heinrich X. of Bavaria; Heinrich II of Saxony|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, Margrave of Tuszien|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1108|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 20, 1139|
|Place of death||Quedlinburg|