Henry the Proud

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Detail from the family tree of Henry the Lion
Heinrich the Proud (right) next to his in-laws Lothar and Richenza, grave sculpture from 1708 in the Kaiserdom Königslutter

Heinrich the Proud (* 1102 or 1108; † October 20, 1139 in Quedlinburg ) was from 1126 to 1138 as Heinrich X. Duke of Bavaria and from 1137 until his death in 1139 as Heinrich II. Duke of Saxony . He was also Margrave of Tuscany . He came from the house of the Guelphs and was a candidate ( pretender to the throne ) for election to the Roman-German king in 1138 .


Heinrich was the son of Duke Heinrich IX. the black of Bavaria and Wulfhild of Saxony and older brother of Welf VI. From his marriage to Gertrud von Sachsen , daughter of King Lothar III. from Supplinburg on May 29, 1127, Henry the Lion emerged.

Through her marriage to Gertrud von Sachsen, Emperor Lothar III. From Supplinburg's only daughter, Heinrich received the Supplinburg , Brunswick and local allodial goods in Saxony after his death . This shows the beginnings of the Guelph power expansion in the north of the empire, of which the Saxon Welfenquelle, which was built between 1132 and 1137 in Lüneburg, bears witness to the history of memorials. Heinrich supported Lothar in the fight against the Hohenstaufen and accompanied him on his second Italian campaign in 1136/37. Here Heinrich was enfeoffed with the Margraviate of Tuszien and received the Mathildic goods from the Pope . In 1137, shortly before his death, Lothar also gave him the Duchy of Saxony and designated him as his successor. According to Otto von Freising , after being appointed Duke of Saxony, he boasted that his possessions stretched from Denmark to Sicily : "A mari usque ad mare, id est a Dania usque in Siciliam."

Nevertheless - probably due to Heinrich's lofty nature and his previous abundance of power - not he, but the Staufer Konrad III. elected. Heinrich delivered Konrad the imperial regalia received from Lothar, but refused - as Konrad demanded - to renounce one of his duchies. When Heinrich refused to pay homage to the new king, Konrad outlawed him, giving Bavaria the bear to Leopold IV of Austria , Saxony to Albrecht . Heinrich was able to assert himself against all attackers and even against King Konrad in Saxony, but died suddenly on October 20, 1139 in Quedlinburg. He was next to his in-laws Lothar III. and Richenza von Northeim are buried in the Kaiserdom Königslutter . Heinrich is highly respected in the Regensburg Imperial Chronicle of the 1140s.


Web links

Commons : Heinrich X.  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files


  1. Otto von Freising, Chronica, lib. VII, cap. 23.
  2. ^ Wilhelm Störmer : Heinrich the lion - A European prince of the high Middle Ages. In: Journal for Bavarian State History 73 (2010), pp. 779–789, here: p. 788.
predecessor Office successor
Lothar Duke of Saxony
Henry IX. Duke of Bavaria
Engelbert von Spanheim Margrave of
Tuscany 1136–1139
Ulrich von Attems