coat of arms
|mayor||Patrick Welman ( CDA )|
|Seat of the municipality||Oldenzaal|
|21.98 km 2
21.59 km 2
0.39 km 2
|Residents||31,834 (Jan 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1448 inhabitants / km 2|
|Important traffic route|
|Website||Homepage of Oldenzaal|
Location and economy
Oldenzaal is 10 km east of Hengelo and 15 km west of Bad Bentheim on the Autobahn 1 Amsterdam - Osnabrück and the railway line between the same cities. The city has a train station with train connections to Hengelo. Between 2010 and 2013 trains ran every hour between Hengelo and Bad Bentheim, which stopped in Oldenzaal. Due to the low number of passengers, this project was discontinued on December 7, 2013. Operations resumed in January 2018.
Because of its proximity to the border with Germany , many transport companies settled in the city when customs clearance was still required. Because of the competition from Poland , this industry has meanwhile declined. Some companies in the food industry have also set up shop in Oldenzaal. Otherwise there is a lot of small business. Also the tourism is of some importance.
There is agriculture in the area. In the past mainly white cabbage was grown here, called boeskool in the local dialect . This is reminiscent of a statue in the city center and the recipe Oldenzaalse boeskool , in which finely chopped white cabbage is first boiled and then fried with butter, onions and bacon, seasoned with nutmeg and cumin and served warm.
The place name in the Middle Ages was Aldensele , which means "old hall, old manor house, old settlement, manor country". The Prüm Abbey in the Eifel owned 893 extensive estates with a manor house. Their bailiff was the Count of Kleve in 1222 . In 954, Balderich von Utrecht , bishop of the diocese , which at that time exercised secular power over Overijssel , had a stone church built there, today's St. Plechelmus Church.
The German Emperor Heinrich III. granted Oldenzaal 1049 the right to hold a weekly market and a fair on October 21 of each year. Oldenzaal was granted city rights in 1249. In the late Middle Ages , Oldenzaal joined the German Hanseatic League . The bishop of Utrecht often came to visit; the city was an important ecclesiastical center with several monasteries . However, due to the lack of a port, it never became a big city.
Early modern age
The Reformation hardly influenced the Oldenzaaler. When the general Moritz von Nassau had conquered the city for the Protestant Netherlands in 1597 during the Eighty Years War , the recapture by Count Spinola in 1605 was felt more like a liberation. During this time Philip Rovenius settled in the city. Later it was his bishopric. The population who remained Catholic could freely practice their faith under Spanish rule. Catholic refugees also immigrated from Deventer, among others . Religious freedom ended when Oldenzaal had to surrender to the troops of the Republic of the United Netherlands in 1626. By 1810, Calvinism became the dominant religion. Even the old Plechelmus church was reformed.
19th and 20th centuries
During the First Coalition War , Oldenzaal was occupied and robbed by French troops in the winter of 1794/1795; the citizens had to pay high contributions . The city also suffered from the subsequent Napoleonic Wars at the beginning of the 19th century. The importance of Oldenzaal declined sharply until around 1850 the city received its share of the Twente textile industry . The railway connection to Hengelo and Salzbergen also brought economic advantages. The wealthy Palthe family founded a nationwide chain of laundries from Oldenzaal.
Even before the Second World War , the German Gestapo spied on the population of Oldenzaal with the help of the Dutch Nazis , the “National Socialist Movement” ( Nationaal-Socialistische Bewegungsing ). A famous example is the persecution of the German Jesuit father Friedrich Muckermann , who fled to Oldenzaal. The Oldenzaaler Druckerei Brüggemann continued to print his fonts that were banned in Germany. After the invasion on May 10, 1940, many (potential) opponents (German emigrants , trade unionists, Jews , Social Democrats , Communists ) were arrested, and some were immediately shot. The Second World War left Oldenzaal almost untouched.
Around 1965, the textile industry died because of competition from Asia , which temporarily triggered high unemployment . When Rijksweg 1 was completed around 1990 , new businesses settled down again.
In the early morning of August 18, 1988, the community was also an intermediate stop for the hostage drama in Gladbeck . All the bus hostages except Ines Voitle and Silke Bischoff were released there. The drama continued behind the German border with a BMW getaway car .
The St. Plechelmus Basilica (in it there is the largest carillon in Europe), whose tower characterizes the cityscape, is a hall church in late Romanesque style, with later Gothic additions. Inside there are numerous reliquaries and an extremely massive, baroque sermon pulpit from the former Franciscan church in Rheine
Most of the Oldenzaal city center was demolished in the 1950s. Nevertheless there are still some historical houses left. In one of them there is the local museum "Palthehuis", including a pharmacy from the early 19th century. The house dates from the middle of the 17th century and is now the former home of the Palthe family in the 18th century.
The area around the city is a slightly hilly and wooded park landscape. There are several hotels and campsites in Oldenzaal. Southwest of the city is the local recreation area "Het Hulsbeek", a lake surrounded by several forest areas, where you can do water sports, among other things.
Every year in August there is the city festival De boeskool islös , ("The white cabbage is (from the ground) loose", that is: harvested), with market, sport and music events.
The Oldenzaal Station is located on the double track and electrified Almelo-Salzbergen railway that from Hengelo to Rheine leads. It is served every half hour by the Keolis Nederland BV shuttle trains to Hengelo. In addition, the trains of the Grensland Express to Bad Bentheim stopped there every hour from December 2010 to December 2013 . Since February 2018 the RB 61 Wiehengebirgs-Bahn has been on its way to Bielefeld at the same rate .
Oldenzaal is located at the A 1 , of Amsterdam German border and there as A 30 via Osnabrück to Bad Oeynhausen leads where they on the A 2 applies. In addition, the Rijkswege N 343 and N 342 cross in Oldenzaal . The N 342 ensures the connection to Nordhorn .
The nearest airport is Luchthaven Twente , which is about 5 km from the center.
sons and daughters of the town
- Warner Willem Amsinck (1542-1618), the progenitor of the hamburgischen Patrizierfamilie Amsinck
- Mieke Telkamp (1934-2016), singer
- Theo Pahlplatz (* 1947), football player
- Raimond van der Gouw (* 1963), soccer goalkeeper
- Ellen van Langen (* 1966), middle-distance runner
- Martin van Drunen (* 1966), musician
- Rudie Kemna (* 1967), racing cyclist
- Björn Kuipers (* 1973), soccer referee
- Jan Vennegoor of Hesselink (* 1978), football player
- Maarten de Jonge (* 1985), racing cyclist
- Derk Boerrierter (* 1986), football player
- Tim Breukers (* 1987), football player
- Patrick Gerritsen (* 1987), soccer player
- Jules Reimerink (* 1989), soccer player
- Juliët Lohuis (* 1996), volleyball player
in order of appearance
- Henk Johannes Maria Wuistink: De rechtsgeschiedenis van de stad Oldenzaal en van de mark Berghuizen dead 1795 . van Gorcum, Assen 1962.
- A. Stappers-Vürtheim: Twaalf eeuwen Oldenzaal . Lotgerink, Oldenzaal 1971.
- Gerhardus Weustink: Oldenzaal in de tweede wereldoorlog . Witkam, Enschede 1980.
- Gerard Vaanholt (Ed.): Oldenzaal. Veertien eeuwen divorced . Stichting Oldenzaalse Musea, Oldenzaal 2018, ISBN 978-90-811455-2-7 .
- Website of the municipality (Dutch)
- Tourist information website (German, Dutch)
- Website of the Museum Het Palthehuis (Dutch)
- Website about the recreational lake Het Hulsbeek (Dutch, German)
- Website of the festival "De Boeskool islös" (Dutch)
- Nieuwe burgemeester in Oldenzaal. In: rijksoverheid.nl. Rijksoverheid, November 26, 2018, accessed February 1, 2019 (Dutch).
- Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand . In: StatLine . Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Dutch)
- Archived copy ( Memento of the original dated January 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- RB 61 - Keolis Germany. Accessed March 30, 2018 (German).
- Jürgen Sudhölter: Secret Hanseaten triangle between Wiedenbrück , Oldenzaal and Valmiera . In: Heimat-Jahrbuch Kreis Gütersloh, Jg. 2007, pp. 44–51.
- Illustration by Frans Hogenberg from 1605: ( digitized version )
- Antonius Marinus van Lommel: Brevis descriptio status, in quo est Ecclesia Catholica in partibus Belgii ab haereticis occupatis. Anno 1616 . In: Archief voor de geschiedenis van het bisdom Utrecht , Vol. 1 (1874), pp. 208–226, here p. 226.
- Gladbeck: How the hostage drama escalated . In: buten un inside . ( butenunbinnen.de [accessed on November 2, 2018]).
- Rheine, yesterday-today-tomorrow, issue 1/78, publisher: Stadt Rheine