City of Rheda-WiedenbrückCoordinates: 51 ° 50 ′ 0 ″ N , 8 ° 18 ′ 19 ″ E
|Height :||approx. 70 m|
|Area :||10.57 km²|
|Residents :||21,315 (Jan 1, 2014)|
|Population density :||2,017 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||January 1, 1970|
|Postal code :||33378|
|Area code :||05242|
Location of Wiedenbrück in Rheda-Wiedenbrück
Wiedenbrück was an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia , which was merged with the city of Rheda and the surrounding communities of Batenhorst , Lintel , Nordrheda-Ems and St. Vit to form the city of Rheda-Wiedenbrück in 1970 as part of the municipal reform .
The formerly independent cities of Rheda and Wiedenbrück are separated from each other by the federal motorway 2 , which does not form the historical border between the two districts.
The first original parish church is believed to have been here in 785. Excavations show the emergence of a transept basilica by 900 at the latest. The dendrochronological examination of two tree coffins that were found north of the Aegidius Church resulted in the years 907/923 and 926/42.
In 952, King Otto I granted the Osnabrück bishop market , coin and customs rights for Wiedenbrück. From the year 985 a certificate issued in Wiedenbrück by Otto III. known for the monastery in Meschede. Some historians suspect that there was a royal court here at that time, but this cannot be proven.
In 1225, Bishop Engelbert von Osnabrück received the Gogerichte zu Wiedenbrück and other cities. This is one of the starting points for the development of the Osnabrück Monastery into a territorial state of the Bishop of Osnabrück. The oldest coins from Wiedenbrück have come down to us from around 1230. In 1231 Wiedenbrück had the status of a civitas (semi-autonomous administrative unit) or was so called; Lay judges were elected to the jurisdiction and a seal announced. The Neustadt was founded in 1249, and Reckenberg Castle was first mentioned a year later .
Around 1462, the first city constitution in Wiedenbrück based on the model of Osnabrück was drawn up. 1543 was Wiedenbrück by Hermann Bonnus , a representative of the bishop Franz von Waldeck , reformed . In 1565 Wiedenbrück was considered predominantly Lutheran. In the same year, the boundaries between the Reckenberg district, to which Wiedenbrück belongs, and the neighboring Rheda were established in the Bielefeld recess ; for the first time two independent areas of jurisdiction were recognized.
After the first steps towards a Counter-Reformation were taken in 1624/25 , Wiedenbrück was occupied by the Danes in 1626 during the Thirty Years' War . When Bishop Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg took office in 1628, he continued the Counter Reformation.
In 1637, one of the oldest grammar schools in the region was built in Wiedenbrück, the grammar school Marianum , a six-class Latin school and the forerunner of the later Wiedenbrück high school . The Franciscan monastery was founded in 1644 by Bishop Franz Wilhelm. Three years later, Wiedenbrück was captured by the Swedes in July 1647, but after the fortress was razed, it was cleared after two months. When the Peace of Westphalia was negotiated in Münster and Osnabrück in 1648 , it prescribed the alternating sequence of a Catholic and a Lutheran bishop from the House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg for the Osnabrück Monastery.
In 1664, at the request of Ernst August I, the re-fortification of the city began. The last city copper coins were minted in 1716.
In 1726 a new office building was built on the Reckenberg.
As a result of the conversion of the bishopric into the principality of Osnabrück, Wiedenbrück was initially added to Kur-Hannover in 1802 . In 1807 the city fell to the Kingdom of Westphalia . The chapter of the Collegiate Foundation was abolished in 1810; the Reckenberg office with Wiedenbrück was ceded to Prussia after the Congress of Vienna and in 1816 assigned to the new province of Westphalia . Wiedenbrück separated from the Diocese of Osnabrück ; the Catholic parishes of the former Osnabrück office Reckenberg came to the diocese of Paderborn .
Since 1816 the city was the seat of the Wiedenbrück district named after it .
In 1940 the government at the time confiscated all bronze bells so that their valuable metal could be used by the armaments industry. The bells of St. Aegidius had to be removed in February 1942. Only one bell (the smallest bell in St. Mary's Church) was allowed to remain in the city.
As part of the municipal reform, Wiedenbrück was merged with the neighboring town of Rheda and other communities to form the new town of Rheda-Wiedenbrück on January 1, 1970. In 1973 the new Gütersloh district was established , the seat of the district administration remained in Wiedenbrück until 1997.
Culture and sights
The St. Aegidius Church is the Catholic parish church in the historic town center.
Catholic Church of St. Mary . Because of the attached convent of the Franciscan (OFM) , this church is called by the locals as "Father Church" or "Franciscan Church". St. Marien is a pilgrimage church. The church was extensively renovated in 2008.
Catholic Church of St. Pius . The church of the second, younger Catholic parish.
Franciscan monastery The monastery has existed in Wiedenbrück since 1644. It was founded in 1644 by Bishop Wartenberg. In 2006 the nationwide novitiate moved from Nuremberg to Wiedenbrück. The Franciscans are also the keepers of the famous Wiedenbrücker Kreuztracht on Good Friday .
St. John is a Syrian Orthodox Church.
Evangelical cruciform church near the Reckenberg.
The cityscape , which was once famous for its unity , was disrupted many times by demolitions and new buildings. However, the redesign of the inner city towards new buildings in the seventies did not go as far as in the district of Rheda . The loss of the Schönhof , which was important for the city's history and which had to give way to the expansion of the waterway in 1968, is felt to be particularly painful . It was then rebuilt in the Westphalian Open Air Museum in Detmold . In the recent past efforts have been made to carry out urban repairs and it has been possible to better fit in the necessary new buildings.
The number of older residential buildings in the historic city center is still considerable. These are mostly gable- front half-timbered hall houses , some of which are carved. Characteristic of these buildings is the high two-storey hall, which is accessed through a large gate on the street. Despite their resemblance, at first glance, to the rural timber-frame house , one can hardly speak of arable bourgeois houses here . According to the latest findings, they do not represent a further development of the hall house, but arose from the so-called Einhaus, which initially only had one large room. Later this was made smaller by built-in rooms. In addition, these buildings were mostly inhabited by craftsmen. Agriculture was only operated as a sideline and mainly served for self-sufficiency. In contrast to the farmhouse, the cattle were housed in separate buildings on the rear property. Like other Westphalian small towns (see Blomberg ), Wiedenbrück was primarily a town of handicrafts and partly also of trade, but not an agricultural town in the true sense of the word.
- Katthagen 2 . Three-story gabled house with carved panels, marked 1624.
- In hall 2 . Erected in 1567, with a hollow and carved fan rosettes. Rebuilt in 1963
- In hall 4 . Three-storey building, 1513 d. Gabled house. The ground floor z. T. massively renewed. The gable triangle and upper floor protruding over lugs
- Church square 1 . Mid-16th century entablature with rich ornamentation. Utlucht inscribed 1610.
- Kirchstrasse 10 (Fox Cave). Erected in 1686 after the great fire. With Utlucht and a pretty baroque portal.
- Klingelbrink 25 . Inscribed in 1582, but changed significantly. With richly decorated archway.
- Mönchstrasse 12 . 1665.
- Rietberger Strasse 6, 8 . Old artist's house, with elaborate exterior carvings, half-timbering. Behind it, in Hoetgergasse, the new Wiedenbrücker Schule Museum in the workshop of the Künstlerhaus
Numerous well-preserved half-timbered buildings from the early 17th century can be found in Langen Strasse . Assembly numbers 27-35 are particularly beautiful. The following should be emphasized about older individual buildings:
- Long Street 12 . Gabled house with Utlucht and Taubandknaggen from 1583.
- Long street 27. (pilgrims' house). Currently the oldest half-timbered house in Wiedenbrück from 1417. It has been rebuilt several times. Major renovation in 1602. Considered the second oldest half-timbered house in Westphalia.
- Lange Strasse 38. (House Ottens). Mighty gabled house with storage floor, built in 1635. The compartments were painted to imitate brick. After a change of ownership and due to massive damage, the tallest half-timbered house in the old town was completely renovated from 2009 to 2011 at great expense.
- Long Street 41 . The archway allegedly reinserted after a renovation is marked 1598.
- Lange Straße 50 (former local history museum). Gabled house with richly carved archway and figural lugs, marked 1591. Rebuilt in 1782
- Long Street 55 . Four-column construction with Auslucht, this marked in 1565. Completely renewed around 1980.
- Lange Straße 60 (Ankervilla), currently the second oldest known house in the city, was built in 1468. It now serves as a cafe.
- Long Street 72 . Marked 1614. The compartments are filled with bricks in the decorative association.
- Long Street 88 . 1592 designated. On the gable Taubandknaggen, the archway and the threshold carved with tendrils.
- Long Street 89 . marked 1616.
- Long Street 93 . 1559 designated. With z. T. carved quarter-circle ankle bands and dovetail fasteners.
- Long Street 95 . Inscribed 1607.
- Marktplatz Historic town hall (with registry office).
Sculptures and sights in public spaces
The fountain sculpture on the market square of Wiedenbrück shows a person praying. The base bears the engraved inscription “Praying Farmer” between the two water basins.
The statue was donated by Ernst Osterrath , the Wiedenbrücker honorary citizen (1901), who was district administrator of the district of Wiedenbrück from 1882 to 1892, 1898–1902 Upper Government Councilor for Schleswig and since 1902 “Lecturing Council” in the Prussian Ministry of Culture in Berlin. Here he met the academic sculptor Bernhard Heising from Wiedenbrück , whose work interested him very much and whose statue (1902) of the important farmer's leader Schorlemer-Alst in Münster in front of the state house he admired. Since Heising's commitment to the labor movement (as a working student he had largely financed his studies) was known to him and he wanted to donate a similarly large monument to his hometown Wiedenbrück as a token of his friendship and gratitude, he gave Heising the seemingly paradoxical task of creating a "praying worker" close. In his work, Heising programmatically shows that workers can turn to God in their free time (hence the Tyrolean pipe) in their own garden when the Angelus is rung, provided that working hours, property and religious environment are moderate. In the vernacular, however, the “worker” was quickly only called “farmer”.
The sculpture was officially inaugurated together with the market fountain on November 1, 1903. The history of Wiedenbrück as a craft town with its many guilds and the deep religiousness of the population are expressed in this work of art.
The fountain figure experienced an eventful history. During the First World War it was dismantled for the extraction of armaments and should be melted down. It escaped this fate because it was discovered by chance in a Berlin foundry by the Wiedenbrück merchant Felix Plöger and brought to Wiedenbrück unharmed.
During the Second World War, the figure was dismantled again and actually melted down. A plaster cast made as a precaution made it possible to restore the popular figure. In 1950 it was unknown in Wiedenbrück that the family of the Heising zu Bad Driburg descendants had guarded the original large plaster model for bronze casting for many years. The sculptor Bernd Hartmann made a new cast based on the later plaster cast, which was inaugurated in December 1951 at its old location.
Three mill wheels, which were reconstructed based on the historical model, are reminiscent of the “New Mill”, a flour mill that stood here from 1250 to 1969, on the corner of Mühlenwall and Rektoratsstraße. The combination of three mill wheels was and is very rare.
The mill wheels were built by mill builder Karl Rohlfing ( Stemwede ). Each of the wheels has a diameter of almost five meters, with a total of around 2500 screws for this construction. The mill wheels are driven by the "Umflut", an old artificially created branch of the Ems , which flows around the historic city center of Wiedenbrück and formed part of the former city fortifications.
The monument was donated to the city by Franz-Josef Krane and inaugurated on June 8, 2007. In the summer of 2008, the outline of the mill building was incorporated into the paving of the mill wall. This redesign cost the city € 50,000. On September 5, 2008, a millstone was set up on the square, which was used in the distillery "Auf dem Schilde", which burned down in 1888.
The mill wheels are secured by armored glass, as it has been found that children like to climb the wall and try to reach for the mill wheels.
War memorial 1864–1871
In the immediate vicinity of the mill wheels is the war memorial, which was erected on June 4, 1893 by the Wiedenbrück Warrior and Landwehr Association. The monument shows Kaiser Wilhelm I and is dedicated to the “brave fighters for Germany's unity and greatness”. According to the inscription "The heroic deaths for king and fatherland" died in the campaigns of 1864–1866, eight men from Wiedenbrück in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 . They are listed by name. The design of the monument comes from the Westphalian sculptor and Viennese art professor Caspar Ritter von Zumbusch . The Emperor statue by sculptor Christoph screens of bright yellow Wrexener - Sandstone and the base of Franz Anton Goldkuhle in red Solling executed -Sandstein. Both sculptors come from the Wiedenbrück school .
On the wall of St. Aegidius Church (Wiedenbrück) , the names of the citizens who were victims of the two world wars and the Nazi tyranny are listed on a transparent board. The names of the deported Jewish people from Wiedenbrück are also listed. In front of it stands a pillar by the sculptor Hubert Hartmann as a memorial against war, tyranny and displacement .
Since the Middle Ages, the city was surrounded by a city wall and an upstream Zwinger . Only the so-called powder tower on Mühlenwall remains of this system . He is a semi-circular shell tower of brick with low pants nicks , who with the help of arquebuses could be defended. It probably dates from the 15th or early 16th century. The still preserved flood (see above - "New Mill") belongs to the former weir systems together with the Ems.
The Flora Westfalica is the former site of the State Garden Show (from 1988) with a connecting character between the districts.
Honorary citizen (selection)
- 1901 Ernst Osterrath (1851–1925)
sons and daughters of the town
- Fritz Burmann (1892–1945), painter
- Peter Winkelnkemper (1902–1944), politician
- Bernd Hartmann (1905–1972), sculptor and church artist
- Horst Klein (1910–1947), lawyer and SS leader
- Hermann-Josef Rapp (* 1944), forester and conservationist
- Peter Meyer (* 1949), manager and former ADAC president
- Ralph Brinkhaus (* 1968), tax advisor and politician, elected parliamentary group leader of the Union in the Bundestag (CDU) in September 2018
- Schöne from Wiedenbrück is a regional apple variety.
- Paul Breimann: Wiedenbrück and its old town . Wiedenbrück o.J.
- Günter Brüning: Kreisheimstätte Wiedenbrück 1953–2003 - house and apartment for everyone. Publishing house for regional history, 2004, ISBN 3-89534-497-4 .
- Franz Flaskamp (ed.): The baptismal register I (1625/32) of the Westphalian parish of Wiedenbrück. Sources and research on the nature and history of the Wiedenbrück district, issue 42, printed and published by Wilhelm Hanhardt, 1938.
- Heinrich Graefenstein: Rheda-Wiedenbrück - The twin cities (illustrated book). Publisher H. Gieselmann, Bielefeld 1996
- Heribert Griesenbrock: Wiedenbrück - Franciscan monastery and Marienkirche. (Schnell, Kunstführer 1768) Schnell & Steiner, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7954-5479-4 .
- Peter Johanek (Ed.): Handbook of the historical sites of North Rhine-Westphalia. Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-520-27303-9 , pp. 889-892.
- Uwe Lobbedey: St. Aegidius zu Wiedenbrück. Westfälischer Heimatbund, Münster 1988. (Westfälische Kunststätten, issue 49)
- Annelore Michels: Wiedenbrück - Pictures tell of the past. Geiger-Verlag, 1997, ISBN 3-89570-362-1 .
- Josef Temme: Life pictures Wiedenbrücker houses. Volume 1–5, Verlag für Regionalgeschichte, Bielefeld 2009, ISBN 978-3-89534-766-5 .
- Georg Wagner: Village school teacher from back then - the elementary and rectorate school teacher Hermann Wagner (1878–1920) from Wiedenbrück and his family. Waxmann, 1990, ISBN 3-89325-969-4 .
- 1200 years of the Christian community in Wiedenbrück. Published by the parish of St. Agidius in Rheda-Wiedenbrück, 1985, p. 57.
- City of Rheda-Wiedenbrück
- Local history association Wiedenbrück
- Flora Westfalica
- Wiedenbrück in the Westphalia Culture Atlas
- ↑ Archived copy ( memento of the original from February 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Martin Bünermann: The communities of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1970, p. 110 .
- ↑ Archived copy ( Memento of the original dated December 5, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.