Cookbooks are non-fiction books or specialist books and describe the preparation of food in recipes . They can be roughly divided into three categories:
- Sober, detailed recipe collections for professional chefs,
- Textbooks with standard recipes for beginners, which also provide a general introduction to kitchen techniques and offer knowledge of goods ("school cookbooks"),
- Books for amateur cooks, usually lavishly illustrated, often also anecdotally discuss ingredients and food culture.
The cookbook emerged from the medical literature of antiquity and the medical and dietetic literature of the Middle Ages . The term “recipe” for the cooking instructions indicates the connection between the art of healing and nutrition. In the chemical industry, too, “recipe” stands for a list of chemical substances for the preparation of another chemical substance. In ancient Greece, for example, doctors wrote not only prescriptions for medicines, but also for dishes ( diet ).
Development of the German cookbook literature
Both trained chefs with a good reputation and experienced housemothers wrote cookbooks. Often there was a lack of mutual recognition. Usually a new cookbook was published with the claim to be better, more practical and more tried and tested than the previous ones. Cookbooks were and are only partially taken note of.
There was also a wide gap between claims and reality in many areas - for example in general information, for example in the case of menus suggested in cookbooks before the First World War with two warm meals a day, each in several courses.
In terms of cooking technology, there are two historical sections to be distinguished in German-speaking countries. The medieval kitchen alienated the ingredients strongly, spiced over and overcooked, added spicy dips and sauces. In addition, the medical aspect played a major role in food preparation. The first German recipe collection, the Book of Good Food , is an appendix to a veterinary medicine book, and for example the Salzburg cookbook from the 15th century, which can probably be assigned to a monastery kitchen, is a manuscript bound together with human and veterinary texts. The information was kept rather short at that time. Quantities, temperatures and times were mostly missing completely, because the writing was for experienced or learning cooks who could prepare dishes even after imprecise information or who learned about it from a teacher.
German handwritten fixings of recipes from the Middle Ages are rare - not only because parchment was too expensive a raw material for such relatively mundane purposes, but also simply because cooks at that time usually could neither write nor read, i.e. they could not use books. Recipe collections were created in monasteries and aristocratic courts, but - like the Salzburg cookbook mentioned above - more for unusual recipes and Lent dishes. The method of preparation of medieval cuisine is much easier to understand if you consider that all dishes were assigned certain effects that - properly mixed and tempered - should create a healthy balance within a person.
At the end of the 17th century, the more modern French and Italian cooking styles found increasing expression in German cookbook literature. The dishes were served in a more natural way, while enhancing their own taste. The art of sauce was also introduced. Therefore, apart from the linguistic aspect, it is easier to familiarize yourself with a cookbook from this period than one from the 14th / 15th centuries. Century.
In the earlier cookbooks you will find instructions on the order and arrangement of dishes, the structure of a blackboard and menu suggestions for different occasions. Special topics such as carving, healing, perfuming or the like were also often discussed. addressed. The old German authors did not exactly copy from each other, but because the standard rules from older sources, such as the Apicius cookbook or the Taillevent , were followed, the recipes were strikingly similar. Also frequent copying, misunderstandings, etc. made some things difficult to understand. Until the 17th century, the yield of cookbooks was still relatively low. Then it gets bigger and bigger.
In the 19th century, the editions were already relatively large and some “housemothers” became cookbook authors. The appearance of the cookbook was also more varied and complex. The illustrations are sometimes only decorative accessories or of little informational value. From the time the empire was founded in 1871, the tone of the cookbooks became more national. Weights and measures were standardized, and a conversion table was often included. Products from national colonies are increasingly presented to the readers and even tips are given on how to run a household in the colonies.
Especially from the turn of the 20th century until around 1960, forewords often pointed out how important and commendable it is that women devote themselves exclusively to the household and the family. The flood of cookbooks in the 20th century is no longer manageable. Its most important feature is the increasing number of images, especially in the second half of the 20th century. Some books can even be accused of neglecting the instructions compared to the illustrations.
The transition from the medieval spelling to the modern form can also be seen in the formulation of the introductory recipe, which remains the same within a book: The introductory phrase "Item" or "Wiltu make ..." changed to "Take ..." (Latin recipe ) and then to the well-known phrase used by Henriette Davidis "Take ..."
Important works in chronological order
The oldest cookbooks come from the Orient. The earliest known Indian is Vasavarajeyam , which is written in ancient Sanskrit and could be up to 3500 years old.
The Chinese Liji ( Book of Rites ) originated around 500 to 100 BC. Among other things, it contains detailed descriptions of menus and dishes, including, for the first time, recipes for “Eight Delicacies”. However , these early recipes have nothing to do with dishes of the same name that are still on the menu of Chinese restaurants today.
In European antiquity , the genre of cookbooks developed together with the professionalization of the chef's profession, as found in Greek comedy , for example . The Roman cookbook De re coquinaria by Apicius comes from the turn of the century . It has been passed down through use to this day and was still the most popular recipe collection in the then known European world in the Middle Ages. Apicius was considered a rich man who valued the good life. He is said to have killed himself when his assets were no longer sufficient to maintain his usual luxurious lifestyle. However, he is probably not the author of the book. A chef named Caelius probably wrote this cookbook and used the famous name.
One of the earliest medieval cookbooks from Europe is the Liber de Coquina , written around 1300 . The oldest known German records are rather accidentally assembled recipe collections, which formed special chapters of broader, especially medical, collections, such as the Würzburg cookbook daz buch von gute spîse , the first part of which was created around 1350 and is therefore the oldest surviving German Cookbook applies. The recipes recorded in the collective manuscript of the cleric Hanko Döbringer created in 1389 are also among the oldest German-language recipes. Around 1390 the Forme of Cury was published , a collection of 205 recipes by cooks at the court of King Richard II of England . In the anonymous work Ménagier de Paris from the end of the 14th century, there are not only recipes but also extensive information on running a household and preserving food.
During the Abbasid period (750–1258) cooks were highly regarded in the Arab world . The oldest Arabic recipe collection, the Kitab al Tabikh wah Islah al-Aghdhiyah al-Ma 'Kulat, has come down from this period . It should u. a. Contains recipes from the brother of the Caliph Harun ar-Raschīd .
Late Middle Ages and Renaissance
During the Renaissance and with the emergence of the bourgeoisie, simpler, bourgeois courts began to be written down. At that time, however, “bourgeois” meant the wealthy bourgeoisie who were in contact with kings and counts.
One of the first bourgeois cookbooks is Le Viandier , written by Guillaume Tirel around 1375 . Many recipes were adopted from this book in the centuries that followed. The Du fait de cuisine was written from 1420 by Chiquart , the head chef at the court of Amadeus VIII of Savoy.
In a Basel manuscript from around 1460, the recipe collection of the master Hannsen, von Wirtenberg Koch's , has been preserved. It is probably a copy of an older recipe collection.
The personal cook of the Bishop of Aquileia , Maestro Martino from Como , wrote the Liber de arte coquinaria . The administrator of the papal library, Bartolomeo Sacchi (Bartholomäus Platina) then translated it into classical Latin in a slightly edited form in 1474 and added a few chapters on good food and the right way of life under the title De Honesta Voluptate ("Of the decent voluptuousness") Published in Rome in 1475. This became the first cookbook bestseller of the Renaissance. At least 16 editions were printed by the middle of the 16th century (the German translation of 1542 was also very successful). The oldest cookbook in Middle Low German was also created in the 15th century.
The second printed cookbook is the culinary master's workshop, which was written by a Swabian professional chef and also contains medical recipes . This first cookbook to be printed in German was published by Peter Wagner in Nuremberg in 1485 as a cake maysterey . Like previous collections, the successful book contains recipes for fine dining. It was aimed at masters of the culinary arts. Exact quantities are missing. Even everyday dishes are not described, but assumed to be familiar. Reprints with minor changes and in some cases a different title could be proven up to 1674. In the following, a great number of cookbooks were printed that were very much based on Peter Wagner. The Koch- und Kellermeisterei, published by Master Sebastian in Frankfurt in 1581, was more independent . Extracts were made from the more well-known, most priceless works, which you can get from hawkers, e. B. at fairs, could acquire.
The cookbook by Philippine Welser from Augsburg , dating from around 1545, is a handwritten book from a time when the art of printing had largely displaced handwritten books into the private sphere. Philippine came from a noble patrician family and had married the Archduke Ferdinand II in a secret marriage . The main part of the book was written around 1545 for the then 18-year-old Philippine. You and one other person added more recipes about 20 years later. The book mainly reflects the eating habits of an Augsburg patrician family and not so much that of a Tyrolean court, which can also be deduced from the time of its creation, long before the princely connection.
The doctor Walther Hermann Ryff wrote a special cookbook for the sick with the title New Cookbook for the Sick in 1545 . It went through six editions.
In 1570, the six-volume cookbook L'Opera was published with papal privileges . The author was Bartolomeo Scappi , who was in the service of several popes. This work provided the first impetus for culinary renewal and is the first major textbook on Renaissance cuisine. Fifty years later, when it was no longer printed in Italy , it was translated into French.
Marxen Rumpolt , born in Hungary, is the author of Ein new cookbook published in 1581 . It was brought out by the publisher Sigmund Feyerabend in Frankfurt am Main. Rumpolt, a well-known and experienced master chef in his guild, was the mouth cook of the Archbishop of Mainz, Wolfgang von Dalberg . For the most part, this book is a detailed listing of what you can do with the various foods, with brief descriptions of how to proceed. He assumed the basics required for this to be known, or he expected that one would learn them from an experienced cook. Thus, Rumpolt was one of the first masters known by name in Germany who made the advanced knowledge of his craft generally accessible. Due to its size and abundant woodcut illustrations, it was an expensive reading pleasure of its time. Nevertheless, this professional work was very successful and had several editions.
A similar work, influenced by North German, was published in 1594 by Frantz de Rontzier with the art book von mancherley Essen . At the time of publication, he was a longstanding Princely Braunschweigischer Mundkoch in the service of the Dukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. His master, Duke Heinrich Julius , had commissioned this work from him. Since he could neither read nor write, he dictated the book to a scribe in Low German. He translated this, not always correctly, into the standard German language. The recipes shown are sometimes even more complex than those of Rumpolt. The book lacks illustrations, however, and it is more confusing. The explanations are more detailed and show a strong tendency on the part of the author to (over) season the dishes. He also adheres to the medieval dietary rules. Probably due to the linguistic problems, the lack of images and the distribution by the local print shop in Wolfenbüttel , which had just been founded , this book was not widely used despite its high quality presentation.
Between 1559 and 1610, the cookbook Ein Schön Kochbuch 1559 , which is considered to be the oldest cookbook in Switzerland, was created in Chur at the Bischöfliches Schloss .
Ein new Kochbuch , 1598, written by Basel- born Anna Wecker , is the first printed German cookbook to be written by a woman. She was the wife of a well-known and wealthy doctor in Colmar , Johann Jacob Wecker , who had written some writings himself. In addition to running the large household, she worked for her husband as a dietician. You can tell the medical background in her cookbook, because it conveys upscale dietetic culinary art. Although the publication of Anna Weckerin's book was already planned, it did not appear until after her death, probably at the instigation of her son-in-law Nicolaus Taurellus (Öchslin), who used the famous name and the work to support his existence.
In England, Hannah Woolley was the first author whose cookbooks were printed in 1661. Their "Baked Swan" is still well known today.
French cuisine was becoming increasingly influential in Germany. So considered z. B. later editions of the cookbook of Anna Weckerin this through an appendix on French cuisine. A similar procedure was followed for other books of the time.
Time and again, cookbooks went beyond mere recipe information: They ranged from advice on healthy eating and reports from royal courts to the literary form of dialogue between two cooks (as in a Swedish cookbook from 1644, written by Dietrich Mein ).
It was more medical in the Diateticon by Johann Sigismund Elsholtz from 1682. Elsholtz was a well-known Berlin court medic and botanist in the service of the Great Elector of Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm . The book was aimed at classes with a higher intellectual education and is caught in the first part of the medieval culinary tradition. Since it was sometimes very prolonged in this book, it is also an asset in terms of cultural history. A translation of a French cookbook has been added to the medical section.
One of the most important French works was Le cuisinier François , which appeared for the first time in 1651. The author was the head chef of Marshal Marquis d'Uxelles , François-Pierre de La Varenne . He combined the Italian culinary art with the French regional cuisine. He promoted easy recipes, while preserving the natural flavors of a food, and the art of sauce. At his death, his culinary skills were considered out of date. Béchamel , Vatel and Brillat-Savarin then became the representatives of a new era in French cuisine under Louis XIV.
The Nuremberg cookbook of 1691 was very extensive with around one and a half thousand recipes. It was still based on the medieval German cooking tradition and was published by Wolfgang Moritz Endter's renowned Nuremberg publishing house . It should be aimed more at housewives in medium-sized families than at professional chefs. The book was prepared by several people, but the publisher's first wife, Anna Juliana, was probably responsible for the main collection. In any case, a fictional person with a poetic background was introduced as the author. This book reached three editions before it was forgotten by growing French influence. A number of other cookbooks that supplemented or based on this work were published by the same publisher.
The Saltzburg Cookbook , published by the professional chef Conrad Hagger in 1719, is one of the most extensive German works of its time, with around 1700 pages divided into two volumes. He had written it for his colleagues and young professionals. It is therefore designed more as a reference book. It has several detailed registers and ample illustrations for the construction of pies, cakes, etc. Hagger was the High Princely Saltzburg city and landscape cook in the service of the Archbishop of Salzburg , Franz Anton von Harrach . This work clearly shows Italian, French and Spanish influences, but also shows that the author was a child of the transitional period, based on some traditional things that were no longer practiced later. So he kept the rules of "tempering" in many recipes. B. led to eel being sprinkled with sugar and cinnamon. Our ancestors also had no shortage of advertising ideas. Hagger offered doubters to pre-cook everything for them while they paid the bill.
The Leipzig cookbook by Susanna Eger from 1706 was published in five editions by Jacob Schuster until 1745, but was then forgotten. With around 900 recipes, it is significantly smaller than other works of this type, but still quite extensive. It did not become a standard work. Susanne Eger was in all likelihood a locally known professional cook who wanted to target beginners with her book. The book tended to be tailored to the Saxon bourgeoisie. You can tell from the book that the indication of the quantities became more and more popular. The book was rounded off with a few appendices, such as conversion tables for coins and weights.
The very latest Parisian cookbook was published in 1752 by the Strasbourg publisher Amandus König . This book openly confesses what has also been practiced in the other books, namely that the recipes from other cookbooks, in this case French, have been excerpted and supplemented. The superfluous has been left out to create an inexpensive book. Simple recipes have not been used; so it is a cookbook for the sophisticated kitchen. Another innovation is the waiver of the description of the medicinal properties of the food. There are descriptions of perfumes , hair lotions and powders for this. The portrayal of the art of carving, which is considered to be socially important, is traditional .
Linguistically it is already more modern than the previous ones and is therefore much easier to read, but also to understand the content. However, in the imprecise indication of the quantities, it follows the older tradition. This book was widely distributed, but a few decades later the Frenchization began, from which the bourgeois cookbooks with precise quantities and with a greater focus on regional characteristics emerged. The literacy of the population also increased in the course of the Enlightenment , with cookbooks for everyone, as they can now be found in almost every household, appeared.
The New Cookbook , written by Friederike Luise Löffler , was created in Stuttgart around 1791. It was one of the few books that kept Steinkopf-Verlag alive during the coalition wars from 1792 to 1815 against Napoleon . At first the cookbook was very widespread in southern Germany, but then it received more and more attention in the rest of Germany. It saw 38 editions well into the 20th century. Pseudonyms like Charlotte Löffler or A. Löfflerin tried to exploit the familiar name. Her daughter Henriette Huttenlocher , née Löffler (1780–1848), continued the tradition. In 1843 she published the latest cookbook for middle-class households under her maiden name Löffler. This led to a lawsuit that resulted in a ban on using her maiden name.
Sophie Wilhelmine Scheibler , b. Koblanck, published another important cookbook, the general German cookbook for middle class households . It was published in Berlin in 1815 , and many editions followed. This book was the main competitor to the cookbooks by Henriette Davidis.
The art writer Carl Friedrich von Rumohr took a different approach in 1822 with his book Geist der Kochkunst . Instead of presenting individual recipes in precise instructions, he describes the essence of the individual foods and cooking methods in a prose text and explains how to maintain or enhance their natural taste. The quantities given are, however, imprecise. In the way it is prepared, he is influenced by French and Italian cuisine, although he strongly criticizes their influence on German cuisine.
A well-known German cook of the 19th century and author of an important cookbook was Johann Rottenhöfer (1806–1872). The later steward of the Bavarian kings Maximilian II. And Ludwig II. Was a representative of the upscale "courtly" cuisine. He was "mouth cook" at the Bavarian royal court in Munich, which, according to the Economic Encyclopedia of State, City, House and Agriculture, means that - in contrast to the "court cook" - he only prepared dishes for the "manorial table" for the royal family and their guests. In 1858 Rottenhöfer published his cookbook " Instructions in Fine Cooking" , which, with its 2,345 recipes, was still used by chefs decades after his death. For a long time, the professional chef had no better books. Later editions appeared under the title Illustrated Cookbook . In 1893 the 7th edition appeared, with numerous wood engraving illustrations. Rottenhöfer's cookbook marks the end of an era that ended abruptly with the First World War. It sums up the culinary achievements of the 18th and 19th centuries accurately and closes the chapter at the same time. Theodor Hahn (1824–1883) wrote a number of cookbooks for diet cuisine and healthy eating .
The most famous German cookbook author is Henriette Davidis (1801–1876), who in 1844 published the practical cookbook , which was published in many editions, by the Bielefelder Verlag Velhagen & Klasing. After her death, Luise Rosendorf , Luise Holle, Ida Schulze and Erna Horn looked after new issues one after the other . After the copyright period expired in 1906, many publishers brought Davidis cookbooks with their own adaptations onto the market. Today the Henriette Davidis Museum in Wetter-Wengern commemorates the famous cook. Her English counterpart Isabella Beeton , known as Mrs. Beeton , published her Book of Household Management in 1861 , which, like Davidis' Practical Cookbook , played a pioneering role in numerous other cookery and housekeeping books.
The Illustrirte Kochbuch by Friederike Ritter, which shows the increasing number of illustrations , also saw many editions . The 20th edition was created in Dresden in 1881 .
In the 20th century, cookbooks with exact quantities and temperatures became common, they often show the preparation of all the dishes described picture by picture. As a result of the internationalization of the kitchen through tourism and immigration, a large part of the popular cookbooks is devoted to the kitchens of other countries.
The standard works of European cuisine include Le Cuisinier François (1651) by François-Pierre de La Varenne , L'art de la Cuisine française by Marie-Antoine Carême (1833), The Menue by Ernst von Malortie (3rd ed. 1887 / 88) and George Auguste Escoffier's Le Guide culinaire (1902).
The lexicon of the kitchen by Richard Hering for German experts , which has been published since 1907, follows the compact representation of the medieval tradition . It offers a large number of recipes in the telegram style, although quantities are mostly missing. Many cooks, despite or precisely because of the strong structure, criticize the lack of clarity, which requires a certain amount of training. Nevertheless, one can assume that this work is very widespread among German chefs.
The textbook The Young Cook by Klinger / Grüner / Metz is even more widespread in specialist circles . This specialist book, which has been published in many editions since 1937, should be owned by almost every trained German chef , as it has been a standard work that has been used in vocational schools for two generations. In addition to detailed product information and general process engineering descriptions, it contains a wide range of standard recipes described in detail.
The great Larousse Gastronomique is very common in top gastronomy . The French original is called Le Grand Larousse Gastronomique and has been published in regular editions since 1938. The German translation has been available since 1998. 4000 entries, 1700 photos, 2500 recipes. The structure is a bit confusing, but it is the world's largest cooking encyclopedia. Under the direction of Joël Robuchon write a. a. many great chefs, e.g. B. Paul Bocuse , Ferran Adrià , Eckart Witzigmann , Marc Haeberlin . Even if French cuisine is preferred, it remains the fundamental reference work.
Successful German-language school cookbooks of the 20th century for home economics lessons are the Dr. Oetker school cookbook and I help you cook under the pseudonym Hedwig Maria Stuber for the first time in 1955 . Both titles appeared in dozens of editions over decades. The illustrated cookbook for simple and fine cuisine by Mary Hahn, first published in 1912, with over 2000 recipes, sold millions and in 1940 reached its 41st edition.
Today, many consumers use cooking recipes from the Internet or watch instruction films on YouTube .
In 2011 the six-volume cookbook Modernist Cuisine: The Art and Science of Cooking was published . Nathan Myhrvold paid 18 chefs, technicians, scientists and photographers for three years to uncover the secrets of the kitchen. The resulting cooking encyclopedia was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the Gourmand World Cookbook Awards .
Research and collections
Cookbooks are important sources of folklore and cultural-historical research.
Old cookbooks are brought closer to the general public in folklore museums and in special cookbook museums .
Cookbook editions (selection)
- Frankwalt Möhren (Ed.): Il libro de la cocina: Un ricettario tra Oriente e Occidente. Heidelberg University Publishing, Heidelberg 2016. DOI: 10.17885 / heiup.123.151 ( digitized edition of the Libro de la cocina from the 2nd third of the 14th century).
- Trude Ehlert: Munich cookbook manuscripts from the 15th century. Cgm 349, 384, 467, 725, 811 and Clm 15632. Tupperware Germany, Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-403-03364-3 .
- Thomas Gloning , Trude Ehlert : Rheinfränkisches Kochbuch around 1445. Frankfurt am Main 1998, ISBN 3-4030-3131-4 .
- R. Ehnert (Ed.): Kuchenmeysterey. Passau (Johann Petri) around 1486, Göppingen 1981.
- Chef de cuisine (around 1490). Facsimile with an introduction by Hans Wegener. Rare early prints in reproduction. Commission publisher 1939.
- Peschke: The cookbook of the Renaissance. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-538-07061-X .
- Manfred Lemmer, E. Schultz: The lêre from the kocherie. Insel, Leipzig 1969, 1980. (In addition to general remarks on medieval cuisine and related writings, there is a selection of recipes and their translation into today's language from four handwritten collections from the 14th and 15th centuries).
- Anita Feyl: Eberhard von Landshut's cookbook (first half of the 15th century). In: East Bavarian border marks. Volume 5, 1961, pp. 352-366; and in addition: Anita Feyl: The cookbook of Meister Eberhards. A contribution to the old German specialist literature. Philosophical dissertation Freiburg im Breisgau 1963; and Anita Feyl: Eberhard von Landshut's cookbook (first half of the 15th century). In: East Bavarian border marks. Volume 5, 1961, pp. 352-366.
- Compare with Melitta Weiss-Amer (= Melitta Weiss Adamson): The 'Physica' Hildegards von Bingen as a source for the 'Meister Eberhards cookbook'. In: Sudhoff's archive. Volume 76, No. 1, 1992, pp. 87-96.
- Doris Aichholzer (Ed.): "Wildu make ayn good eat ...". Three Middle High German cookbooks. (= Viennese works on Germanic antiquity and philology. Volume 35). Lang, Bern 1999, ISBN 3-906762-44-0 (first edition).
Early modern age
- Philippine Welser's cookbook (around 1545). Facsimile with commentary, transcription and glossary by Gerold Hayer. Edition Leipzig , Leipzig 1984.
- M. Marxen Rumpolt: A new cookbook . 1581. Facsimile with an afterword by M. Lemmer. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1976
- Frantz de Rontier: Art book by Mancherley Essen. 1594, facsimile with an afterword by M. Lemmer, Edition Leipzig 1979.
- Anna Weckerin: A new cookbook. 1598. Reprinted with commentary by J. Arndt. Heimeran, Munich 1977.
- Johann Sigismund Elsholtz: Diateticon. 1682. Reprinted with a commentary by M. Lemmer. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1984.
- Nuremberg cookbook. 1691. Reprinted with a comment by I. Spriewald. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1986.
- Conrad Hagger: The Saltzburg Cookbook. Augsburg 1719. Reprinted with an afterword by Manfred Lemmer. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1977.
- Johann Albrecht Grunauer: The complete and enlarged cookbook furnished in the latest way. Nuremberg 1733; Reprint, with a foreword by the editor Wolfgang Protzner. Echter, Würzburg 2008.
- Susanna Eger: Leipzig cookbook. 1745. Reprinted with a comment by M. Lemmer. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1984.
- The very latest Parisian cookbook. 1752. Reprinted with a comment by A. Schmidt. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1981.
- Friederike Luise Löffler: New cookbook or tested instructions for tasty preparation of dishes, bakery, confectionery of frozen and preserved foods. Frankfurt, Leipzig 1795. ( digitized version )
- Rumohr: spirit of culinary art. 1822. New edition with a comment by Maasen. Georg Müller, Munich 1922.
- Johann Rottenhöfer: Instructions for fine cuisine, taking into account the stately and middle-class cuisine. Munich 1866.
- Eckehard and Walter Methler: From Henriette Davidis to Erna Horn - bibliography and collection catalog of household literature - with comments on the question of women. HDM-Verlag, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-9810130-4-2 .
- Eva Barlösius, Gisela Frahmke: Take ... literature for the kitchen and home from the German Cookbook Museum . Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 1998, ISBN 3-89534-270-X .
- Cookbook collection by Erna Horn and Dr. Julius Arndt. Karl Pressler, Munich 1982.
- Thomas AP Gwinner: Eating and drinking. The classic Chinese cookbook literature. Haag and Herchen, Frankfurt am Main 1988, ISBN 3-89228-252-8 .
- Gert von Paczensky, Anna Dünnebier: Cultural history of eating and drinking. Orbis, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-572-10047-X .
- Dirk Reinhardt (ed.): New ways to the history of nutrition. Cookbooks, household bills, consumer association reports and autobiographies under discussion. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1993, ISBN 3-631-46790-7 .
- Sabine Verk: a matter of taste. Cookbooks from the Folklore Museum. Berlin State Museums - Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation. Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-88609-382-4 .
- Hans U. Weiss: Gastronomia. A bibliography of German-speaking gastronomy 1485–1914. A handbook for collectors and antiquarians. Bibliotheca Gastronomica, Zurich 1996, ISBN 3-9521255-0-4 .
- Inga Wiedemann: Mistress in the house. Becoming a middle-class housewife through cookery and household books. Intersection of the civilization process. Volume 5. Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1993, ISBN 3-89085-752-3 .
- Trude Ehlert : On the change in the function of the cookbook genre in Germany. In: A. Werlacher (Hrsg.): Kulturthema Essen. Views and problem areas. Berlin 1993 (= Kulturthema Essen. Volume 1), pp. 319–341.
- Hans Wiswe: Cultural history of the culinary art. Cookbooks and recipes from two millennia. With a lexical appendix to the technical language by Eva Hepp, Munich 1970.
- Metz, Hummel, Grüner: The young cook. 33rd edition. Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan-Gruiten 2009, ISBN 978-3-8057-0606-3 .
- Wolfgang Kosack : Eating and drinking in ancient Egypt. Pictorial representations, hieroglyphic texts and the processing of the sources. Christoph Brunner, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-906206-03-5 .
- Frisch, Regina: 100 years of cookbook history. Miesbach, the cradle of the Bavarian cookbook. Maurus, Miesbach 2015, ISBN 978-3-940324-10-8 .
- Stefanie Büttner, Laura-Elena Keck: “The Great American Love Affair.” American cookbooks from the 1960s and 1970s. In: Zeithistorische Forschungen 15 (2018), pp. 143–158.
- Sabine Bunsmann-Hopf: On the language in cookbooks of the late Middle Ages and early modern times - a dictionary. Würzburg 2003 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 80).
- Monumenta Culinaria et Diaetetica Historica (corpus of older German cookbooks and nutrition teachings, with links to many e-texts)
- Draft for the history of the German cookbook a . a., by Klaus Dürrschmid, 2002
- Cookbooks from the 50s - from the post-war shortage to the abundance of the economic miracle
- ↑ Ria Jansen-Sieben: Van voedseltherapie tot kookboeck. In: Ria Jansen-Sieben, Frank Daelemans (ed.): Voeding en geneeskunde - Alimentation et médecine. Acten van het colloquium Brussel October 12, 1990. Brussels 1993 (= Archief- en bibliotheekwezen in België. Extranummer 41), pp. 49–74.
- ↑ JM van Winter: Kookboeken, medisch of culinair? In: Ria Jansen-Sieben, Frank Daelemans (ed.): Voeding en geneeskunde - Alimentation et médecine. Acten van het colloquium Brussel October 12, 1990. 1993, pp. 153-165.
- ↑ Ria Jansen-Sieben: Middle Dutch Cookbooks: Medical or Culinary? In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 16, 1997, pp. 191-202, here: pp. 198-200.
- ↑ Ria Jansen-Sieben: Middle Dutch Cookbooks: Medical or Culinary? In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 16, 1997, pp. 191-202.
- ↑ Gerold Hayer: Salzburg Cookbook. In: Author's Lexicon . Volume VIII, Col. 566-568.
- ^ Trude Ehlert: On the change in function of the cookbook genre in Germany. 1993.
- ↑ Liji , Chapter "Neize". Translation by Richard Wilhelm: 
- ↑ Cf. on the antique cookbook in detail Friedrich Bilabel : Cookbooks . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume XI, 1, Stuttgart 1921, Col. 932-943.
- ↑ Trude Ehlert, Rainer Leng : Early cooking and powder recipes from the Nuremberg manuscript GNM 3227a (around 1389). In: Dominik Groß , Monika Reininger: Medicine in History, Philology and Ethnology: Festschrift for Gundolf Keil. Königshausen & Neumann, 2003. ISBN 978-3-8260-2176-3 , pp. 289-320.
- ↑ Maister Hanns, the von Wirtenberg Koch: Guot thing from allerlay cooking (1460). Facsimile of the manuscript ANV 12 of the Basel University Library, transcription, translation, glossary and cultural-historical commentary by Trude Ehlert, Tupperware, Frankfurt am Main 1996.
- ^ Hans Wiswe: A Middle Low German cookbook of the 15th century. In: Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch , Volume 37, 1956, pp. 19–55; and Hans Wiswe: Gleanings from the oldest Middle Low German cookbook. In: Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch , Volume 39, 1958, pp. 103-121.
- ↑ Gundolf Keil, Marianne Wlodarczyk: kitchen master. In: Author's Lexicon . Volume V, Col. 396-400.
- ↑ Baked Swan - Old Elizabethan Receipe , based on a recipe by Hannah Woolley , published 1672 (accessed April 23, 2011)
- ^ Legislation, in: Allgemeine Presszeitung - Annalen der Presse, der Literatur und des Buchhandels, Leipzig, 1843, p. 293ff. (Google digitized version)
- ↑ Compare the entry in the catalog of the German National Library
- ↑ The pseudonym of the authors Maria Huber and Hermine Hedwig Stumpf