Already in ancient times there were spicy sauces as garum and its precursor, the elaborately prepared and for many dishes were used. The recipe collection Maestro Martinos from the 15th century, an important source for the food culture in the Middle Ages , mainly describes sauces. The current system of sauces and their use in haute cuisine goes back to French cuisine . In modern kitchens, sauces complement dishes such as fish , meat or pasta to round off or contrast the taste and to increase enjoyment . In ragouts and some salads , they are the connecting element of various solid ingredients. In many cases, the respective dish is also nicer to look at. In addition, they sometimes stimulate the appetite and aid digestion.
Sauces are generally based on aromatic liquids such as funds , wine , oils or dairy products , which are bonded by various methods and thickened (see also setting ). Typically flour ( roux ), starch , egg or cold butter are used for this . Due to the changed consistency, the other food components are combined and ingredients are combined directly with them.
Since the sauce through the combination of ingredients and concentration contained the flavors significantly determined the character and flavor of a court in which it is kitchen staff the position of Sauciers usually the most experienced chef busy.
Basic sauces serve as the basis for numerous derivations that result from the addition of seasonings , flavoring ingredients and other foods. They are differentiated according to color, raw material and manufacturing method. The concept of basic sauces originated in classic French cuisine and is still a standard in international gastronomy today. Main ingredients from scratch sauces are depending on bone and Parüren , broths or funds , root vegetables , tomatoes , tomato paste , flour , butter , milk and cream .
A basic distinction is made between warm and cold basic sauces, with the latter only counting mayonnaise . Warm basic sauces, in turn, are divided into white and brown basic sauces and the whipped (warm) basic sauce:
- As a velouté sauce ( sauce velouté ) refers to bright basic sauces with white roux ( roux blanc are bound). A distinction is made between veal velouté , fish velouté , vegetable velouté and poultry velouté depending on the name and flavoring broth used . By adding cream and other eponymous ingredients, this is used to prepare a sauce that is regarded as the basic sauce. For the German sauce , a veal velouté is bound with an alloy of mushroom stock and egg yolk . The use of milk instead of stock or broth creates the béchamel sauce , which is also appropriately called cream sauce when using cream .
- A basic brown sauce (sometimes called demiglace sauce ) is the name given to dark basic sauces that are prepared with a brown stock. Many terms are used synonymously or with a different meaning, depending on the era and tradition. Sometimes the term brown power sauce is used , especially when a large brown stock ( grandjus ) is used for it. It used to be used to refer to Spanish sauce ( sauce espagnole ). Alternatively, you can also use other bound dark funds.
- Of the warmly whipped sauces , only the sauce hollandaise ( German Dutch sauce ) is considered the basic sauce today , while the actually independent sauce béarnaise ( German Béarner sauce ) is treated as a derivative.
The tomato sauce is often considered one of the basic sauces, while other classifications they regard as self-sauce.
Independent warm sauces
Cold sauces are seen as part of starters, salads, entrees and desserts. They are of particular importance in the individual design of buffets , where they enrich the offer with taste and color combinations. Many classic sauces are offered by the food industry as ready -to- eat convenience products, some are even only available in that form (for example, seasoning sauces such as Worcestershire sauce ). Thickened cold sauces, mayonnaise mixes and cheese creams are called "dips" . These are used for dipping ( English to dip , North German stippen ) small snacks and starters .
Four different colored sauces, with samosas
Dessert sauces are served with desserts such as pudding , flammeri , pastries , sweet casseroles, poached fruits, red fruit jelly or ice cream. The basis is often fresh or frozen fruit, jams , fruit juices and chocolate . Often cream and milk, eggs and sugar syrup are also used. Liqueurs and spirits are used for flavoring. Dessert sauces can be served cold or warm.
- Auguste Escoffier: culinary arts guide . 15th German edition. Haan-Gruiten 1993.
- Richard Hering : Lexicon of the kitchen. Vienna 1907.
- Collective of authors: Food theory. Leipzig 1987.
- Duden: Keyword entry "Sauce"