Whipped cream

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Whipped cream , whipped , in Austria and whipped cream or whipped , in Switzerland, cream or Nidle , designations are whipped cream , or more generally for a cream places suitable for whipping. This is the case from a fat content of around 30%.

Cake with fresh whipped cream

Whipped and mostly sweetened cream is served as an addition to ice cream , pudding , fruit , cakes , waffles and other desserts . In the pastry shop, it is also used as a filling or garnish for cakes and tarts and as a basis for creams . In many cases, hot drinks ( coffee , tea and cocoa specialties ) are also served with whipped cream. (Unsweetened) whipped cream is also used in hearty cuisine, for example to refine sauces .

Portion bowls with whipped cream from the catering trade; the product is shaped using a cream nozzle

Name and quality

For the production of whipped cream (as well as other types of cream) nowadays the milk is first defatted to a residual fat content of 0.03-0.06% and then brought to a standardized fat content by adding milk fat. According to the German Milk Product Ordinance , a minimum fat content of 30% is required for whipped cream. Cream with a higher fat content such as 35% is also available - sometimes also under the name "whipped cream", sometimes called "extra whipped cream" or "pastry cream", but these names are not particularly protected.

In Austria fresh “whipped cream” usually has at least 36% fat, ultra-high-temperature 32%. In Switzerland , the type of cream suitable for whipping with 35% fat is called "full cream".

In the kitchen and hotel industry, sweetened whipped cream is also known by its French name as Crème Chantilly . In addition to the sugar, it can also be flavored with, for example, vanilla , grated citrus peel or orange blossom water .

Whipping cream

Physical processes

In whipped cream, the milk fat is in the form of small, dispersed globules, which are surrounded by a complex membrane made of proteins and phospholipids , which has a hydrophilic surface. A decisive factor for the whippability is the proportion of solid fat compared to the liquid, i.e. the degree of crystallization of the fat. It is influenced by the temperature of the cream, but also by how quickly it is cooled or heated and how long it stays at a certain temperature. The degree of crystallization in turn determines the stability of the fat globules and their behavior when aggregations are formed. In general, the crystallization in the fat globules is delayed compared to the free butter fat, so that a certain part of the fat is in liquid form even at low temperatures. If the proportion of solid fat is sufficiently high (more than 20%), it encloses the liquid core as a crystalline shell, which means that the fat globule can no longer be deformed and the membrane is damaged under mechanical stress. Sufficient fat crystallization is essential for the production of stable cream foam. The cream should therefore be stored in a cool place for at least 24 hours before whipping and should have a temperature of around 4 ° C for the best whipping result. The containers and devices used should also be cooled so that the cream does not get too hot when whipped. When freezing, however, the whippability of the cream suffers.

When the cream is whipped, large, round air bubbles appear in the liquid, which become smaller and smaller as the duration of the whipping process increases, and finally take the form of closely spaced honeycombs , between which the milk serum and the globules of fat distributed in it form thin lamellae. As with the frothing of milk , the resulting foam is initially stabilized by surface-active proteins and membrane fragments, but only to a limited extent. However, when the cream is whipped, the fat globules with crystalline fat lose their membranes and attach themselves to the gas bubbles with their now hydrophobic surface, whereby the bubbles are further stabilized. To do this, however, the bubbles must be covered as far as possible with fat globules, which is only possible if the fat content of the cream is sufficiently high. To provide a stable, dressierfähige to get whipped cream, about a moderate clumping of the fat globules is also necessary, which only happens when liquid fat as an adhesive is present. If the cream is whipped sufficiently hard, this emerges from heavily stressed and deformed fat globules and leads to the formation of fat lumps and bridges between the gas bubbles, which optimally stabilizes the foam. If you whip the cream for too long, the proportion of liquid fat increases further and the lumps become too big. The cream then becomes grainy, or even takes on a buttery character, and separates buttermilk . In this case one speaks of "whipped cream".


There are several methods of whipping cream:

  • Whisk: Traditionally, cream is whipped by hand, with a hand mixer , a food processor or with a professional beater . Whipped cream prepared with these methods remains relatively dense, but an increase in volume of up to 100% is possible.
  • Cream blower and cream machine : A more loosened, yet stable whipped cream can be produced with devices that also blow air into the cream: On the one hand, cream blowers, which whip larger batches of cream in a kettle with a rotating grid and at the same time blow air in from below, for other cream machines that have a tap and only whip the cream mechanically when tapping and at the same time bring in air. With these devices, it is possible to produce whipped cream with a density of 350–300 g / l, which corresponds to a maximum of approximately tripling the volume of liquid cream.
  • Foaming with propellant gas: In the case of cream siphons (Switzerland: cream blowers ) and spray cans , the cream is pressed through a nozzle with the aid of a propellant gas and foamed in the process. Laughing gas and, more rarely, carbon dioxide are used as propellants , as they are soluble in cream and thus promote foaming. The cream produced in this way has a large volume, but is generally less stable.

Use of binders

After whipping, the cream is passable and stable to a limited extent. To make them firmer and to prevent water from settling, you can add gelatine or a cream stabilizer to them. Gelatin is the common binding agent for cream because its firmness matches the cream and (unlike starch ) it also binds cold liquids. To be incorporated into the whipped cream, however, it has to be liquefied by heating it up moderately - gelatine that is incorporated cold would form lumps and threads, while gelatine that is too hot would reduce the volume of the cream foam. Cream stabilizers often contain other binders, for example cold-binding modified starch . The firmness of the cream is also improved by adding sugar (50–70 g / l).

Commercially available whipped cream often contains the declarable additive carrageenan as a stabilizer , which among other things means that such cream does not become creamy (i.e. that no solid fat is deposited during storage). The addition of carrageenan is controversial.

Cream in the pastry shop

Whipped cream is used as a filling and to garnish many cakes and desserts, either pure, flavored with fruit pulp , coffee , cocoa , quark , wine or other, or as a component of creams such as Bavarian cream and canache . Accordingly, one speaks of cream cakes or cream cakes, and according to the German Food Book the following rule applies :

  • Cream cakes have at least 60% cream in the filling or topping.
  • Cream cakes have a cream content of less than 60, but at least 20%; added fat may only be milk fat.

In contrast to this, cakes with quark, cream cheese , buttermilk , kefir , yoghurt or wine are already called "cream cakes" with a cream content of 20%. (So, for example, a cream cheese cake may only contain 30% cream, a strawberry cream cake must have at least 60%.) The consistency, the addition of binding agents or anything else are irrelevant for differentiating between cream and cream fillings.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Ulrich Ammon et al .: German dictionary of variants . de Gruyter, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-11-016575-9 , keyword "Schlag", p. 667 .
  2. cream | Spelling, meaning, definition, origin. In: www.duden.de . Retrieved August 24, 2019 .
  3. Nidle | Spelling, meaning, definition, origin. In: www.duden.de . Retrieved August 24, 2019 .
  4. ^ Hans-Dieter Belitz , Werner Grosch , Peter Schieberle : Textbook of food chemistry . 6th completely revised edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-73201-3 , p. 541 , doi : 10.1007 / 978-3-540-73202-0 .
  5. F. Jürgen Herrmann (Ed.): Herings Lexicon of the Kitchen . 25th, revised edition. Pfanneberg, Haan-Gruiten 2012, ISBN 978-3-8057-0663-6 , p. 616 .
  6. ^ Alfred Töpel: Chemistry and Physics of Milk . 1st edition. Behr, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-89947-131-8 , pp. 159 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  7. a b c Friedrich Holtz u. a .: Textbook of the pastry shop . 5th edition. Trauner, Linz 2009, ISBN 978-3-85499-367-4 , pp. 336 f .
  8. a b Töpel 2004, p. 387 ff., 398 ff.
  9. Pieter Walstra, Robert Jenness: Dairy Chemistry and Physics . Wiley, New York 1984, Interaction of Milk with Air Bubbles, p. 279 ff .
  10. a b c d Claus Schünemann, Günter Treu: Technology of the bakery production. Specialized textbook for bakers . 10th edition. Gildebuchverlag, Alfeld / Leine 2009, ISBN 978-3-7734-0150-2 , p. 356 ff .
  11. Waldemar Ternes , Alfred Täufel, Lieselotte Tunger, Martin Zobel (eds.): Food Lexicon . 4th, comprehensively revised edition. Behr, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-89947-165-2 .
  12. Fresh whipped cream / fresh whipped cream with additive carrageenan. German Consumer Association, accessed on May 9, 2014 .
  13. German Food Book, Guidelines for Fine Baked Goods , Section II 17

Web links

Commons : Whipped Cream  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Whipped cream  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations