Broth ( mhd. Brüeje "hot liquid"), called (clear) soup in Austria , bouillon in Switzerland , mainly in the German kitchen language water, the food cooked in it, such as meat or vegetables, with flavors , minerals and fats is enriched. Broth is used as a basis for soups , sauces and as a cooking liquid for meat , poultry , fish and vegetables ; Food that is cooked in it remains tasty, as the broth already contains flavors and minerals, some of which are transferred to the food, and do not remove such substances alone.
To make a broth, vegetables, bones, meat, poultry or fish, also in combinations, are used depending on the purpose. The fats and proteins contained in it are dissolved by heat and other substances get into the liquid by osmosis . In order for a broth to be particularly aromatic, the ingredients should already be put in cold water and only salted towards the end of the cooking time - the osmotic gradient is particularly high and more substances diffuse into the water. In order to protect volatile flavors, broths are not boiled in a bubbly manner, but just heated to the boiling point.
During cooking, especially shortly after the boiling point has been reached, skimmings of coagulated protein form, which should be removed. If the broth is ready after about one to three hours, depending on the ingredients, it can be clarified ; it removes unwanted suspended matter. For this purpose, beaten egg white is boiled in the previously sieved broth, which binds the suspended matter to itself when it coagulates. The broth is then filtered through a hair sieve or a cloth. Finally, if necessary, the broth is defatted. This can be done by carefully skimming, vacuuming with kitchen paper or by cooling the broth and then removing the solidified fat.
- Fish broth or fish stock is mainly made from the remains of food fish such as heads and bones, including the shells of lobsters .
- Veal foot broth or veal foot soup according to Hildegard von Bingen is made from veal feet.
- Fish stock ( Court-bouillon ) is a vegetable of water, carrots , onions , herbs ( bouquet garni ) and spices such as pepper and allspice and possibly lemon, wine or vinegar. In fish stock, fish and shellfish , and more rarely poultry, are slowly cooked over low heat.
Meat broth is made from beef, veal or lamb , rarely from pork . So that meat broth has a fuller mouthfeel and solidifies when cooled (for brawn , aspic , etc.), a veal's foot is traditionally cooked with.
- Bouillon is a simply clarified, strong beef broth.
- Consommé or consommé is a beef broth in which minced meat, egg white and root vegetables have been cooked again. The ratio of meat to broth is around one in five. For consommé double it's about two to five. Finally, the consommé is again strained .
- Poultry broth is mainly made from chicken . Pigeons or other poultry can also be cooked for fine broth . The carcasses can also form a basis when the meat is used elsewhere.
- Vegetable broth or root broth is made from mixed vegetables, especially root vegetables ( soup greens ), herbs and mushrooms . A little vegetable oil should be added to the water in order to bind fat-soluble flavorings . Vegetable broth usually does not need to be clarified and degreased.
- Bone broth is made from split sand and marrow bones , mostly from beef . It is mainly used as an ingredient in sauces and as a cooking liquid. After the first boil, the bones can be smashed and used again.
- Mushroom broth is made from fresh mushrooms and herbs sweated in butter. It is clarified with chopped mushroom stalks and onions, as well as egg white, and strained through a cloth.
- Sausage broth is created during the production of scalded and cooked sausages . It forms a traditional basis for hearty stews .
Strongly boiled down broths are generally called fond . They serve as a classic sauce base.
The commercially available concentrates for broth, such as stock cubes or granular broth, usually consist predominantly of salt, fat, seasoning , flavor enhancers and spices and contain little or no meat or vegetables and are not a substitute for a manually prepared broth; The funds available in liquid form are also composed similarly and only differ in their water content (“liquid stock cubes”).
Meat extract is an exception .
- Veal foot broth and brawn according to Hildegard von Bingen. (No longer available online.) In: xn--hildegard-kalbsfussbrhe-wpc.de. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016 ; accessed on October 8, 2016 .