Soup refers to a liquid to dünnbreiige dining , on the basis of a fund can be made and other ingredients. Soup deposits are often added to the soups, which are usually served as starters . A distinction is generally made between clear and thickened soups, as well as warm and cold soups. They are classified according to manufacturing principles, raw materials or origin.
The word "soup" ultimately derives from the West Germanic * supp (j) back, the original "eingebrocktes bread" or a mushy food labeled ( ahd . Sopha, soffa to Sufan "sip, drink, drink"; Old English . Sopp ). This Germanic word was probably borrowed into Romansh as early as 600; the old French soupe has been recorded for the 13th century, the equivalents in today's Spanish, Portuguese and Provençal are sopa , in French soupe , from which it was converted into English with soup , and in Italian zuppa .
In its current meaning as a term for a cultivated food, the word has been attested in German since the 14th century. The German dictionary by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm suspects a mixture of local verbosity with a borrowing back from the French soupe . The word is first recorded in Low German (Middle Low German supen "eat with a spoon" versus Middle High German soup "sipping drink") and finally found its way into High German in this form.
The soups are usually divided into two large classes, the clear soups and the tied, mostly unclear soups. In addition to this generally accepted classification, there are other different subdivisions that depend on the preparation of the soup. These divisions of the clear and thickened soups were created by different authors, which is why there is no general division. With regard to the variety of soups, which has been greatly expanded since the 20th century, there are often expanded classifications, according to which, for example, stews and cold bowls have established themselves as independent classes. These categorizations, which deviate from the traditional classification, are not only based on the preparation of the soups to be classified, so that a soup can be assigned to several categories.
Clear soups (consommés)
Broths are used as the bases for soups. Using heated water extractives of are meat , poultry , wild game , food fish , shellfish , turtles or the like removed, and the soup fed. The ratio between solids and broth is about one to five, with consommé the solids content is about twice as high. One of the most famous broths is the beef broth, which is also called bouillon . Poultry broths and game broths are called fond ( French Fond de volaille, Fond de gibier ), fish broths as Fumet ( French Fumet de poisson ). There is also the after-broth ( French remouillage ) and the extract ( French ice cream ).
The clear soups include the consommé ( French consommé ) and double consommé ( French consommé double ). The beef soup is a clear soup. The clear oxtail soup ( French consommé de queue de bœuf ) is particularly well known . There is also poultry broth ( French consommé de volaille ), especially chicken soup, game broth ( French consommé de gibier ) and fish broth ( French consommé de poisson ) or clear fish soup up to bouillabaisse . Clear soups stimulate the stomach and have less of a nourishing effect, which is why they are also recommended for diets.
Clear soups are often served with a soup insert. The broths are the basis for clear soups with deposits and other ingredients such as Semolina dumpling soup ( Grießklößchensuppe ) Back pea soup , liver dumpling soup , pancake soup , liver spaetzle soup , noodle soup , Reibgerstelsuppe , Schinkenschöberlsuppe , Thuringia Vegetable soup and onion soup .
Tied soups (Potages liés)
The bound soups are all soups that are prepared with a binding agent . According to Auguste Escoffier , the thickened soups comprise five subclasses: the puree soups ( French Potages purées , coulis and bisques ), the cream or cream soups ( French Potages crèmes ), the velvet soups ( French Potages veloutés ), the thickened soups ( French Potages bruns liés ) and the vegetable soup ( French Potages aux légumes ). There are also the unalterable special soups made from selected raw materials. In modern kitchens, flour binding is sometimes completely dispensed with; more cream and butter are used instead.
Puree soups ( French potages purées ) describe soups that are mainly bound by the pureeing of the raw materials that determine the value. If water-based and herbaceous vegetables, which cannot themselves serve as binding agents, are used as the basis of the puree soup, these soups are thickened with rice , roux , baked bread or floury substances such as potatoes or beans .
Rice is used as a binding agent for purees made with poultry, shellfish or certain vegetables. Herbal soups and those made from water-based vegetables are bound with potatoes, wild purees with lentils . Croutons are used as a binding for purees in old kitchens, as bread crusts were the most important binding agent in old kitchens. Purees of white beans, lentils and potatoes do not need a separate binding agent, as their main components are well bound, which is due to the high starch content. The puree soup is refined with meat broth, less often with milk , but never with cream or raw egg yolks .
According to Escoffier, the puree soups are again subdivided into purées, coulis and bisques. In subsequent works on culinary art, the coulis and bisques have partly established themselves as independent groups alongside the purées. In contrast to the original name of the pea soup, the purées denote a variety of soups and porridges with different substances.
Coulis is only prepared with poultry, game or fish. In addition to Velouté, rice or bread is used as a binding for coulis with poultry. Wild coulis, on the other hand, are bound with black or red beans, lentils or chestnuts, depending on the taste. A little espagnole , a basic brown sauce, can also be added. Bread, especially croutons, make coulis with fish. Light coulis are refined with cream and egg yolks, dark coulis that are bound with bread with cream. Dark coulis bound with beans, lentils or chestnuts , on the other hand, are only refined with butter .
The bisques are a special type of thickened soup that is prepared with crustaceans or shellfish . At the end of the 19th century they only referred to crab soups in European kitchens. Since shellfish were inexpensive and of good quality in America, the bisques were made with them there. Ranhofer was the first chef to serve bisques with oysters and other shellfish. The name probably comes from rusk ( French biscotte ), which, like rice or fish velouté, is used to thicken soup. Either butter or cream complete the bisque.
Cream soups and cream soups
Cream soups or cream soups ( French Potages, crèmes ) indicate Soups exclusively (by cream French crème ) are completed, they are easily tied with roux and happening . The basis of the soup is a native broth (poultry, fish, game, cereals, mushrooms or vegetables), the cooked ingredients can be added as a filler.
Grain products are used as the main ingredient in these soups and can be present in different processing stages: meal, pearl barley, flakes, semolina or flour. Most cereal products are steamed with chopped onions, then topped up with broth and always well boiled, refined with liaison and fresh herbs. Examples: gruel , semolina soup , barley soup , green spelled soup . A special group of cereal soups are the diet mucous soups made from water, defatted broth, milk, fruit and vegetable juices, for which mill products are used that swell when cooked and form a natural mucus that binds the soups. Because of their good digestibility and wholesomeness, they are used for light whole foods and special diets (for example: gruel soup ). Sometimes they are cooked as sweet soups.
Velvet soups ( French (potages) veloutés ) are alloyed soups that are based on the broths that give them their name (from slaughtered meat, poultry and fish, from vegetable and mushroom stocks) and therefore have a typical taste. Alloyed soups are completed by a liaison, which gives the soup a velvety sheen ( French velouté , like velvet ).
Vegetable soups are thickened soups. The vegetables are chopped up into strips ( French Julienne ), leaves ( French Paysanne ), cubes ( French Brunoise ) or sticks ( French Bâtonnets ) and then sweated and filled with broth. Bacon or fat is used for sweating. A bond can be achieved with flour or bread, milk or cream. Meat can be cooked in the vegetable soup or it can contain rice, potatoes or pasta.
Stews are often viewed as a separate group alongside soups, but are counted as a subgroup of soups in the professional world. The stew is characterized by the fact that several ingredients are cooked in one pot on the basis of water. The main ingredients are usually several types of vegetables, potatoes or rice, legumes or pasta, and there is also the option of preparation with or without meat, sausage and fish. Due to its filling effect, the stew is often viewed as a wholesome dish.
Cold bowls are chilled soups that are served instead of traditional soups, especially in summer. They can also act as dessert . Given the basic ingredients, a distinction it into the types of milk cold sweet milk, buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt, fruit cold dishes with fruit, fruit puree or fruit juice and beer cold dishes.
Special soups and exotic soups
Special and exotic soups are preferably offered as part of festivities. Exotic soups are spicy, rich special soups made from raw materials with distinctive flavor and extractive substances. Depending on the type, the basis is a strong meat or fish broth, they are clear and not very filling.
Because of the high workload and the unusual raw materials, they are mainly manufactured industrially as convenience products and only professionally completed in the catering trade (e.g. with cognac, cream and liaison) and served with the insert. Examples are kangaroo tail soup , bihun soup , shark fin soup , but turtle soup or swallow's nest soup are no longer offered in gastronomy for reasons of species protection .
In the course of its history, the soup assumed different meanings: as a food for the poor, as a breakfast dish, as an opening for large menus and as a classic meal for sick people. In its entire development, the soup has changed considerably in its preparations; all porridges, stews, broths and sauces are derived from it. Following the traditional recipes, one could set the heyday of the soup to the late Renaissance and the Baroque .
Origin and Early Developments
The origins of the soup can be traced back to the Stone Age , when porridge-like dishes were prepared and consumed in waterproof cooking sacks. Clay vessels, between 9000 and 7000 BC Invented in BC, encouraged the development to the effect that from now on water, grain and various other ingredients could be boiled in a solid container. According to tradition, the first soups were made in Mesopotamia about 6000 years ago . From there they spread to Egypt, then to Greece and then to the Roman Empire . The soup found wider distribution in the territories conquered by the Romans. Archaeological finds such as stone soup pots and wooden plates date the consumption of the first soups in Central Europe 5000 years ago. The first soups were often enriched with bread, flat cakes or dumplings. This starchy and protein-rich pasta combined with the soup vegetables, which contain minerals and vitamins, turned the liquid food into a wholesome dish. These viscous preparations were eaten with the bare hands before mussel shells or wooden spoons took over this function.
The early developments of the soup include cereal porridge as a warm breakfast meal, of which today's oat groats and porridge bear testimony. These porridges with legumes were the basis of soups in ancient Greece, the Roman Empire and the Germanic tribes alike. The Romans seasoned these dishes with garum , a spicy sauce. The Incas often prepared their soups with quinoa , the seeds of a goosefoot plant. These preparations were seasoned with chilli . Rice soup has been known in China for over 2000 years , the production of rice noodles there can be traced back to the Han dynasty around the year 200. In India, vegetable broths were thickened with a substance similar to rice flour. In ancient Egypt , meat stews were made with poultry or other meat and broad beans, lentils or peas.
Soups in the medieval kitchen
In the Middle Ages, thick soups in Europe - often as " eternal soups " - and muses, along with wine and milk, often served as a hot breakfast. The soup should be as thick as possible, as it would be all the better according to the opinion of the time. Soups were also served for dinner in richer households - a general sequence of dishes was not specified. A meal always consisted of serving several dishes, with soups being served at the end of a meal.
In Northern Europe, barley, oats and rye were mainly grown in the early Middle Ages, which are adapted to the mild climate. The grain, especially oats, was ground after the harvest and boiled with salt water to a pulp, similar to today's porridge . These porridges were the main daily meals of the Normans . In the high Middle Ages, pieces of meat in a thick sauce were known in Italian cuisine. The soups were often given a special touch with honey and various spices.
First refinements of the soup
With the Renaissance , more modern forms of soup appeared and were continuously refined. Meat broth was often its basic substance, which was optionally thickened with eggs, almond paste or breadcrumbs. The preparations, with the addition of meat and vegetables, corresponded to today's stew. Until the 18th century, soups were rarely missing from menu lists in Italy. Italian cuisine, on the other hand, rejected porridges and purees made from cereals and vegetables for such occasions, as they were the main meals of the poorer population.
In the 16th century, French cuisine was influenced by Tuscan cuisine , and the minestrone became the pot-au-feu , a stew that contains meat and vegetables in addition to water. The dish is one of those representatives who have survived the old kitchen and give an approximate idea of it. The last important French chef who was still influenced by the development of the Renaissance, François-Pierre de La Varenne , describes numerous light dishes in his work Le cuisinier François , published in 1651 . As a lover of sauces, Varenne developed the Boullion Roux , the blonde roux, which then became the basis of all white sauces. His cookbook also contains the first cream soups, such as the cauliflower and asparagus cream soup.
As in other European countries, German cuisine was also divided. The rural residents were more familiar with simple soup dishes such as pea porridge or broth with breadcrumbs and vegetables on festive days. In contrast, a food culture developed in the cities and at the residences of the nobility, which also influenced soups. In the 16th century, for example, meat broth with asparagus was known in Germany, and from the end of the 16th century there was a stronger focus on French cuisine.
The soup as a meal at court
The olla podrida , an opulent stew with beef, lamb, ham, poultry and vegetables was initially considered a peasant feast in Castile , which found its way into French cuisine at the beginning of the 16th century. In the 16th century it was also included in the menu at the Bourbon court . Since the political relations between the Spanish and Austrian lines of the Habsburgs were close into the 17th century, Spanish etiquette also prevailed at the Viennese court. At the end of the 16th century, the soup , also known as Oille , Ollea or Spanish soup pot , entered Austrian cuisine.
Although soups had already improved considerably in the 17th and 18th centuries, they were often provided with numerous deposits, which made them quite substantial and which is why these are not tolerated as starters from today's perspective. Marie-Antoine Carême had a significant influence on the refinement of the soup and the inclusion of this new theory .
Questioning and refining the soup
Benjamin Thompson , Count Rumford , invented a new kind of stew in 1795 for the economical mass supply of soldiers, beggars and the unemployed, which is called Rumford soup after him . The purpose of mass supply restored the soup's reputation as a dish for the impoverished population. In the 19th century, this soup found its way into bourgeois cookbooks internationally in a refined form .
At the beginning of the 19th century, gastronomy experts asked themselves whether the serving of soups should be allowed or not served on menus, which led to a controversial discussion. The reason for the application of soup was the pleasant stimulation of the stomach. The well-known gastrosoph Grimod de la Reynière pleaded for the soup with the saying:
"The soup is in a diner what the portal or the entrance is to a building, what is meant to say so much that it gives an idea of what is to come, roughly like the overture to an opera."
Opponents argued that soups are too filling at the beginning of a menu and that it is therefore impossible to enjoy and enjoy the dishes that follow. This was also due to the fact that at that time soups usually had a higher amount of deposits, broths were completely unknown. The gourmet Marquis de Cussy, for example, spoke out against the soup by comparing it with the prologue of a book. He made the claim that a good book does not need a preface like a good meal needs no soup. The opponents lost when the dining audience decided to serve soup over time.
In the further course, the recipes were simplified in that the soups contained fewer deposits and were more digestible for large meals. The increasing influence of French cuisine, which aimed to refine the recipes, also plays a role here. In this way, a correct classification should be achieved as a characteristic of a menu, which should gradually satisfy the guest's appetite. The modern soups are just a simplified pattern of earlier soups that survived the old kitchen, or creations that have only been reinvented since the 19th century.
With the refinement of soups and their rise mainly through French cuisine, there were countless different names for soups, which, however, did not inform the guest about the preparation and consistency of a soup. So one tried in professional circles to create a classification of the soups. This task led to the most varied drafts of classifications for soups, although to this day only the distinction between clear and thickened soups is generally recognized.
The modern soups
Due to the fact that many foods from overseas had been available cheaply in the western world since the 20th century, the general food supply also expanded. This internationalization also went hand in hand with the adoption of foreign soup recipes. Numerous exotic soups and cold bowls have since enriched the range of soup dishes. This brought renewed difficulties with the delimitation and classification of the soups, since the new dishes did not fit into the previous scheme.
In addition, instant soups developed at the end of the 19th century , to which Justus von Liebig's meat extract , Johann Heinrich Grüneberg's pea sausage , the bouillon cube and by-products such as Maggi's legume flour and Maggi wort are included. These food industry products were originally made to provide affordable supplies to the poor and the military. The soups from industrial production played an increasingly important role in the 20th century, as liquid dishes could be brewed with them in a short time. This was a major advantage over the often hours of preparing conventional soups.
So-called soup bars , which only offer soups , also developed in the USA . In the years that followed, the idea was also well received in other western countries, so that soup bars can now be found in all major cities in Europe.
Regional and national soups
Regional soups are those soups that were originally known in a certain region. National soups, on the other hand, are soups that are assigned to a nation as a typical feature. Regional and national soups usually make use of the ingredients available from the region or country.
The German regional and national soups also include some that are often served in neighboring countries. The liver dumpling soup typical of Bavaria , a clear broth with a liver dumpling, is also a national dish of Austria. The pea soup is also represented in numerous countries with only minor differences to the German version. The oxtail soup , known as a clear broth as well as a thickened soup, is a typical German dish. A well-known dish in northern Germany is eel soup , which became famous for its Hamburg variant. In addition, in northern Germany, especially on the North Sea coast, the crab soup made with North Sea shrimp is a tradition. The Pichelsteiner stew is often prepared in large kitchens due to its short preparation time. Other soup dishes that are more popular in the region are the Badische Schneckensuppe , the wedding soup with its variant made from Hadeln . Potato soup is not only common in Saxony and the Palatinate .
In the Austrian cuisine , besides liver dumpling soup , the fried meat soup , semolina dumpling soup and Viennese beef soup , which are known in many Central European countries , are called national soups. Regional dishes from Austria include the Tyrolean bacon dumpling soup , Styrian and Carinthian Klachelsuppe , Carinthian Kirchtagssuppe and the Styrian Flecksuppe . Soup items such as frittaten, dumplings , Schöberl , Nockerln , strudel and noodles are particularly popular in Austrian cuisine . In Austrian cuisine, traditions from all areas of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy were adopted. The goulash soup from Hungary is widespread in Austria today. In addition, the old Viennese soup pot as well as Fischbeuschel and goose steak soup are very popular all over Austria.
The French cuisine has the world famous Marseille fish soup bouillabaisse produced as a national dish. There are also other regional soups such as the Tourin onion or garlic soup from Occitania and the Parisian onion soup ( French soupe à l'oignon ), the Provencal soupe au pistou , the garbure from the south-west of the country and the soupe à la, which is known in Normandy graisse .
The Spanish cuisine is the national dish Andalusian gazpacho , a cold soup, known. In addition, the rich, down-to-earth stews with legumes are typical, such as the bean stews Alubias and Fabada Asturiana , the lentil stew Lentejas and the chickpea stew Cocido de Garbanzos .
Russian soups can often be assigned to several countries. The Russian and Ukrainian vegetable soup borscht is also known in Poland under the name Barszcz . The Soljanka is equally part of Russian cuisine and Ukrainian cuisine , the latter being similar thereto Soups knows how the cabbage soup Kapustnjak and Rassolnik . Well-known soups are the fish soup Ucha and the cabbage soup Shchi . Rye bread and filled pierogi are eaten with the soups . The cold soup okroshka , which is often served in summer, is equally known in Russia and Ukraine . It is made from kvass , a non-alcoholic drink made with brewer's yeast.
In addition to the Barszcz beetroot soup, Żur , a sour grain soup with boiled eggs, potatoes and sausage, is one of the typical dishes of Polish cuisine . There is also the Ogórkowa pickled cucumber soup , the Krupnik pearl barley soup , the Kapuśniak sauerkraut soup and Botwina , another soup with beetroot plants. Cold dishes are also a tradition in Poland. Among these, fruit soups are very popular, such as the traditional blueberry soup .
In Hungary, the goulash soup and the spicy fish soup Halászlé with their variations Bajaer fish soup with vermicelli and Szegedi halászlé , the Szeged fish soup, are among the most famous dishes in the country.
Numerous noodle soups are common in the Far East . In addition to noodles, the ramen , udon or soba known in Japan always contain a variety of other soups and are usually served as a main course. A lighter starter soup is the Japanese national dish miso soup or the clear soup Suimono, which comes in countless variations . The nabemono stew with its diverse variations such as sukiyaki , shabu shabu or chanko-nabe is also known.
In China, the rice soup for millennia is known in addition to the rice noodle soup and in food stalls prepared in large quantities.
The Korean cuisine includes dishes such as soup Galbi chim , a stew with a thick rib, chestnuts, carrots and radish. The Maultasche soup Mandu guk , the fish soup Maeun tang and Sundubu chige , a soup made from tofu , are also popular.
Tom Yam is one of the most famous dishes in Thailand . This spicy, sour-hot soup is seasoned with fish sauce , shallots , lemongrass , lime juice , galangal , tamarind and many chillies . Traditionally, the dish is prepared with rice with various ingredients such as meat, fish or seafood.
A traditional Vietnamese noodle soup is Phở , which is prepared with white rice noodles in clear beef broth with thin pieces of beef and also contains chicken parts such as breast, leg, heart or liver. The plate is garnished with ingredients such as green onions, white onions, coriander leaves, mint, basil, lemon or bean sprouts.
Mulligatawny soup is a curry soup that belongs to British cuisine and is based on an Indian recipe for a sauce. Today, one associated with a Mulligatawny soup as a base product by adding double cream or coconut milk creamy sharp by Chili and by turmeric brown to yellow-colored curry soup with meat insert which smooth parsley is decorated.
The American kitchen is one Gumbo to their dishes. The spicy stew of southern and Cajun cuisine is believed to be based on the French fish soup bouillabaisse or cassoulet , which the French immigrants brought to America and adapted to the locally available ingredients. The Brunswick Stew is also a traditional stew of the US southern states. The tomato-based soup has very different regional recipes. The term clam chowder includes some mussel soups with milk as a basic ingredient, which are common in many parts of the USA with different variations.
A common dish in South America is locro , a stew that was prepared before the Spanish colonization. It consists of a variety of ingredients, mainly corn kernels, different types of sausages, pieces of meat and tomatoes and is usually spicy. The Brazilian cuisine knows regionally different soups. Feijoada , a bean stew with different types of meat, is common in the south-east of the country . Moqueca , a stew made with fish and / or crabs, is common in northeastern Brazil . With the numerous variations of the Moqueca, the Portuguese fish stew Peixada was transformed into a Brazilian fish pot with an African recipe, Brazilian ingredients such as palm oil and coconut, as well as imported fruits such as Indian cassava.
The Ecuadorian Caldo de Tronquito is prepared with the penis of a bull. The soup is eaten in summer and early autumn. Another soup from Ecuador is fanesca with cod. A traditional Mexican dish is the spicy tripe soup menudo .
Soups are usually the starter of a menu, but are also served as a main course. In some Asian countries, soups are also consumed for breakfast, but are also served as an intermediate course.
Serving the soups
In the menu, the soup as the first course requires special attention as it makes the first impression. It is considered by gourmets to be the food that sets the highest standards in terms of delicacy or delicate perfection, as this is what determines the overall impression.
Clear soups are usually served in cups, while thickened soups are served in deep plates. If the dish is not designed as a cold bowl, it should be served boiling hot and in preheated dishes. This is particularly true for clear soups and if a cold starter has already been consumed. In the cutlery arrangement, the soup spoon provided should always be on the right-hand side next to the soup plate. The arrangement of the small cutlery, according to which the soup spoon is above the soup plate with the spoon facing the fork, is considered outdated. If the first course of a menu is soup, a plate on which the soup dishes and those of the subsequent courses are placed should be considered mandatory. It is also argued that a missing saucer means an unaesthetic emptiness in the cutlery arrangement.
Consumption of the soup
Soups are eaten from the soup plate or cup with the help of soup spoons . When consuming the soup, the spoon should only be two-thirds to three-quarters full to prevent it from spilling. In the German-speaking countries, the soup spoon is pointed with the tip, in Anglo-Saxon countries with the broadside to the mouth. In Asia these spoons have a short handle and are very wide.
In general, slurping soup is against table manners in western cultures . The dish may only be drunk if it is in a soup cup with a handle. For this purpose, the cup is lifted to the mouth with the right hand on the corresponding handle. In the literature on good behavior, eating from soup plates is valued differently. Sometimes it is recommended not to tilt the soup plate in order to spoon out leftovers. Other texts on this subject do not see tilting towards the middle of the table as a moral offense. If this were practiced, the plate should be tilted slightly to the rear right by a right-handed person and to the left rear by a left-handed person. In France, lifting the soup plate in this way is a violation of table manners. You should also refrain from blowing hot soups, but in these cases you should stir the food gently with a spoon until the soup has cooled and is ready for consumption.
- Arlette Sirot: The soup gourmet. Culinary discoveries around the soup. Collection Rolf Heyne, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-89910-145-6
- Hagen Drasdo: 10,000 years of soup, 150 years of Knorr: on the history of soup [1838–1988]. Exhibition for the 150th anniversary of the Knorr company from October 11 to December 18, 1988. Maizena, Heilbronn 1988.
- Herrmann, F. Jürgen: Textbook for cooks . Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-582-40055-7 , p. 143, 146, 155, 157, 165 .
- Britta Reichel: Soups. The classics of the quick kitchen . DuMont Reiseverlag, Ostfildern 2001, page 10, ISBN 3-7701-8588-9
- Hans Peter von Peschke, Werner Feldmann: The cookbook of the Renaissance . Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-538-07061-X
- Adolf Mayer: Our modern soups . Die Küche, August 15, 1926, p. 301
- regional soups. In: Lebensmittellexikon.de. Retrieved December 23, 2017 .
- National. In: Lebensmittellexikon.de. Retrieved December 23, 2017 .
- Auguste Escoffier: culinary arts guide . P. 102
- Andrea Jacobi: Knaur's new etiquette . Knaur Ratgeber, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-426-66752-5 , p. 61
- Andrea Jacobi: Knaur's new etiquette . P. 52