Goulash ( that , in Germany also that ) is a ragout of Hungarian origin. What's in all other countries, "goulash", "Gulyas" or "goulash", however, in Hungary, the stew or Paprikás (at Tokány the meat is cut into elongated strips). Only in Hungary is a gulyás a soup (Hungarian: gulyásleves ; German: goulash soup ).
Gulyás is considered to be the national dish of Hungary, although it was not included in the first editions of the Hungarian national cookbook by the fictional author Czifray (Czövek) István ; the long process of “inventing” tradition and “national” food began in the last decades of the 18th century.
Originally prepared, goulash is one of the steamed meat dishes, which means that the onions are steamed first and then the meat cubes are steamed in order to finish steaming the dish with the stock; however, in practice the meat is often fried. Coarse cubes of meat with a firm structure ( Hesse , Bug , Neck ), preferably beef, veal or pork, are used, prepared with onions and spiced peppers and typically seasoned with caraway seeds, lemon peel and a little garlic. Meats with gristle ( shoulder or wad ham ) are particularly suitable because they gel well. The ratio of meat to onions is around 2: 1, the often practiced 1: 1 ratio would result in the goulash having a too sweet taste.
In Hungarian, gulyás actually means the shepherd (to gulya : the herd of cattle). It used to be called gulyás hus (meat) or gulyás lé (juice, soup), both of which were shortened to goulash ; the word came to Germany via Austria in 1850. Old spellings were Goulasch , Gollasch or similar.
Origin of the popular "goulash"
The Viennese goulash (only called beef or juice goulash in Austria ), in contrast to the original Hungarian Pörkölt , was created at the beginning of the 19th century when the 39th Hungarian Infantry Regiment was set up in Vienna.
Goulash is a ragout that is prepared from beef or veal, horse, pork, lamb or mutton, also combined. Paprika (in Hungary often also paprika paste) and onions , mostly also caraway seeds and garlic , play an essential role in all recipes ; What they also have in common is that longer braising makes the sauce creamy. Potatoes, sauerkraut, mushrooms and other ingredients are used as additional ingredients.
Goulash is best cooked slowly in large quantities. The meat of young animals is less suitable for this. Since goulash can also be prepared from tougher meat and cooking requires little attention, it has also become a standard military dish, prepared in a portable field kitchen, which is therefore also called the goulash cannon .
In Vienna, goulash is a classic pub dish, but it can also be found on the menu of many upscale restaurants.
Gulyás is a very old dish, which has its historical roots in the nomadic way of life of the ancient Magyars and as a dish of shepherds and other non-sedentary populations was able to save itself into modern times. The basis for fresh slaughter was meat waste or, during hiking periods, dried meat , which was then swollen with water. At most, wild vegetables served as an additive . The triumphant advance of the modern Gulyássoup began when the resourceful Hungarians began to cultivate the newly discovered paprika as a cheap substitute for pepper .
Nevertheless, the soup was still considered a dish of the lower class and was used by the Hungarian nobility to underpin the national independence of the Hungarians in Austria-Hungary , so this "poor people's meal" was also used to provoke the Austrian nobility National dish declared. The soup soon enjoyed great popularity elsewhere too, as it was available everywhere as a simple and rich meal as a travel meal and was easy and cheap to make and began its triumphal march through the military into the middle and upper classes of society. Cookbooks were printed for the bourgeois kitchen; because the middle class but not or rarely spoke Hungarian, Hungarian recipes were sold Hungarian thrown together with other dishes or even self-invented fantasy recipes as "original" and the word "Gulyás" in goulash garbled . The first “goulash recipe” appeared in a Prague cookbook in 1819. The recipe quickly spread outside of Hungary, not only using beef and veal, but also pork, mutton and horse meat and moving away from the original soup.
In Austria, a prescription for the first time in 1827. Hungarian Kolaschfleisch in section preserves the great Viennese Cookbook mentioned by Anna Dorn. In later editions she also referred to it as Hungarian Gulyásfleisch . Here the goulash was widespread, and some variants that are still in use today such as juice and Fiaker goulash were created. In the middle of the 19th century, goulash was also found in German cookbooks. Goulash soup, on the other hand, probably did not appear in Germany until the end of the 19th century with modern stoves for the army; this gave rise to the popular name goulash cannon , an expression from the language of soldiers that has been used since the First World War .
Bográcsgulyás is a soupy variant that is served in small silver kettles. Bogrács is the kettle in which the traditional Hungarian gulyás is cooked. One variant is to put beef and coarsely chopped onions , tomatoes, strips of red and green peppers, salt, a little caraway seeds , crushed cloves of garlic and paprika powder in the cooking vessel and 'pour in' water. Before the meat is done, raw potato cubes are added and everything is steamed soft. Towards the end of the cooking process, csipetke are also cooked. Or: Lard is heated until it is smoking, in order to first roast the garlic and onion cubes until they are golden yellow and then put them into paper, otherwise as before.
Sausage cut into small pieces (in Austria the so-called Braunschweiger or Klobasse ) and onions cut into narrow wedges are seared golden yellow in hot fat . Then paprika and caraway seeds are added, salted and peppered and deglazed with a little vinegar . Cut into pieces of potatoes (potato) are added and everything is with water filled or broth that it is barely covered and simmered until the potatoes are soft.
With Esterházygulasch, on the other hand, the beef goulash bound with cream is supplemented by roots cut into strips ( julienne of carrots and celery) and capers . Boiled potatoes are served with it.
Beef goulash (also, or in Austria only with Fugen-s, as beef goulash ) consists of lean beef and onions . For the preparation you first fry the onions and steam the meat in them. Depending on the recipe, you add tomato paste and typical spices such as paprika, salt , pepper , cumin, marjoram , thyme , garlic and lemon peel . Then you dust it with flour to bind it and pour water or broth over it. Sometimes red wine is also added and the goulash is alternatively bound with dark bread or starch.
Juice goulash (Viennese style)
Goulash made from thick-leaved ham , which, unlike beef goulash , is not dusted with flour. The juice is allowed to go in several times and then poured back on with very little water so that it is only steamed in its own juice. This is the only way to get the typical brown, fat juice of the Viennese juice goulash and the onions can boil completely and bind the goulash.
- Fiaker goulash
- A luscious variation of the Viennese goulash is the Fiaker goulash, which is also served with fried or deep-fried Frankfurter sausages , fried eggs , fan-shaped pickles and possibly bread dumplings . The name is derived from the Viennese wage coachmen known as fiakers. This variant is also known under the name "Herrengulasch".
- Karlovy Vary goulash
- Juice goulash is tied with sour cream and flour, and dumplings are served as a side dish .
- Emperor goulash
- The goulash is prepared with sirloin and served with peeled noodles.
- Farmer's goulash
- Beef goulash with small bread dumplings or yeast dumplings.
- Znojmo goulash
- Znojmo cucumbers and tomatoes are added as typical ingredients .
Szeged goulash or Székely goulash
Szegediner (pronounced [ˈsɛgɛ-] ) goulash (also cabbage goulash, Hungarian: székelykáposzta or székelygulyás) is a goulash with sauerkraut and sour cream . This type of goulash probably originates from Viennese cuisine and not from Hungarian, since the preparation of pork contradicts classic Hungarian cuisine. B. says the cultural historian Petra Foede.
For preparation according to a classic recipe, onions are steamed in lard , medium-sized cubes of beef or pork - also mixed - are added and fried, deglazed with a little vinegar and water, seasoned with plenty of rose paprika and braised for a while. Then sauerkraut (about half as much as meat) and caraway seeds are added and cooked again. Towards the end, sour cream or crème fraîche and crushed garlic are stirred in. After adding the sour cream, the goulash should no longer cook. In Austria, Szegedin goulash is served with potatoes or white bread , in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with Bohemian dumplings as a side dish.
The German name Szegediner goulash is probably misleading, as the original Hungarian name Székely gulyás does not go back to the city of Szeged , but to the name of the Hungarian writer and poet József Székely (1825–1895), "who inspired this excellent dish" - so Károly Gundel .
If you order a goulash in a restaurant in the Hungarian city of Szeged, you get a relatively thin goulash soup .
This goulash is a modification in which, instead of the beef Debrecziner - sausage is cut into slices or cubes and added to the goulash.
The shoulder meat is usually chosen from the venison meat , roasted with finely chopped onions in pork fat, seasoned paprika, garlic, tomato paste, marjoram and caraway, cooked through, then bound with sour cream and flour.
For this particularly fine goulash, you roast chopped onions until golden, cut the veal (preferably from the skin ) and steam it with salt and paprika. Thereafter, it is bound with flour and with sour cream ( sour cream flavored). In Austria, dumplings are traditionally served with it.
Gypsy goulash (see also À la zingara ) is prepared in the same way as beef goulash, but besides beef, pork and lamb are used, and later diced tomatoes, potatoes and green peppers.
Sausage goulash (also known as sausage goulash) is a variant made from hunting sausage or similar sausage with a sauce based on tomato paste or ketchup, which is particularly well known in East Germany . It is usually served with macaroni. Sausage goulash is often prepared in large kitchens and was one of the usual dishes at school meals in the GDR .
- Károly Gundel : Small Hungarian cookbook. Corvina, Budapest 1992, ISBN 963-13-3601-8
- Goulash . Entry no. 178 in the register of traditional foods of the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Regions and Tourism .
- Goulash and related dishes
- Andrea Karrer: This is how the goulash is perfect on ORF
- Petra Foede: History of Goulash ( Memento from February 11, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
- ^ George Lang: The Cuisine of Hungary . Scribner Paper Fiction, New York 1982, ISBN 978-0-689-70621-9
- ^ Alan Davidson: The Oxford Companion to Food . OUP, Oxford 2014, ISBN 978-0-19-104072-6 , pp. 358 ( google.de [accessed on August 12, 2019]).
- ^ Csíki Tamás: Nép, nemzet és gyomornedvek. Gasztronómiai hagyományaink néhány 19. századi szakácskönyv alapján - Módszertani tanulmány . Ed .: University of Debrecen . Debrecen 2013, p. 6-7 .
- ^ A b F. Jürgen Herrmann: Textbook for cooks . Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-582-40055-7 , p. 208 .
- ^ A b c Franz Maier-Bruck : The great Sacher cookbook . Wiener Verlag, 1975, p. 250-253 .
- ^ Friedrich Kluge: Etymological dictionary of the German language . Walter de Gruyter, 2019, ISBN 978-3-11-154374-1 , pp. 276 ( google.de [accessed on April 11, 2019]).
- ↑ Eszter Kisbán: Dishes as samples and Symbols: National and Ethnic Markers in Hungary . In: Hans-Jürgen Teuteberg u. a. (Ed.): Food and cultural identity . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997, ISBN 3-05-002652-9 , p. 204 ff.
- ^ Franz Maier-Bruck : The great Sacher cookbook. Austrian cuisine . Seehamer Verlag, 2001, ISBN 978-3-929626-27-8
- ↑ a b History of Goulash ( Memento from February 11, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
- ^ Willi Fischer: The German language of today . Leipzig 1919, p. 47
- ^ Holger Hofmann: The kitchen in the Viennese Empire . Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1979, ISBN 3-499-16435-3 , p. 88 .
- ↑ Petra Foede: How the Earl discovered the sandwich , The history of famous dishes
- ↑ Small Hungarian cookbook . 16th edition. Corvina, Budapest, 1992, p. 59, OCLC 32227400
- ^ Franz Maier-Bruck : The great Sacher cookbook . Wiener Verlag, 1975, p. 369 .
- ^ F. Jürgen Herrmann: Textbook for cooks . Handwerk und Technik, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-582-40055-7 , p. 248 .