The Polish cuisine is the cuisine of the eastern neighbors of Poland related, but has some parallels also to the Central European and Scandinavian kitchens. The peculiarities of Polish cuisine reflect the historical culture of the country's nobility and peasants as well as its geographical features . The national cuisine of Poland follows a uniform standard defined by dishes and eating habits - despite existing influences from other culinary traditions and a large number of regional variants and specialties.
Meals and eating habits
Breakfast is usually bread, tea, sausage, white cheese and cheese as well as fresh cucumbers, tomatoes and onions, supplemented with scrambled eggs on Sundays . The side dishes are often served and eaten separately. The main meal of the day is warm and is usually eaten in the late afternoon. It generally consists of a soup and the main course. In the evening, a meal with bread and sausage is common, with vegetables such as B. Pickled cucumbers and marinated mushrooms. In Poland it is also common to have a snack between meals.
The Christian festivals of Christmas and Easter are also particularly prominent culinary occasions in the annual calendar. The Polish tradition of Christmas Eve includes a multi-course, meatless festive menu . This menu often consists of twelve dishes including carp , peas, mushrooms, poppy seeds, baked fruit and rice, which are related to the twelve disciples of Jesus , among other things . Every diner should have tried something from every dish. Traditionally, on Christmas Eve, a place remains free for a guest who may arrive unexpectedly. On Easter Sunday , however, a festive Easter breakfast with Polish is white sausage , eggs, ham and Osterbabka celebrated that at the center Święconka is, a basket before the priest blessed food.
Polish mountain cuisine
They extend on the Beskid uplands along the foothills of the Polish highlands over the northern Carpathian arch between the Czech Republic , Slovakia and Ukraine . The western part of the Tatra Mountains between the Dunajec and Bialka is also called the Podhale . In the west the border lies on a line between Żywiec , Cieszyn , Bielitz and Oświęcim . Between the Lower Beskids in the north and the Podhale in the west, this region surrounds with its traditional Lemkian cuisine . Everywhere in the Subcarpathian Mountains, salt , horseradish , cumin , vinegar and honey became almost the most important spices for dishes in fine cuisine as early as the Middle Ages. Since the middle of the 16th century, pepper, paprika, garlic, allspice and bay leaf have also been found. The specialties in Podhale and Subcarpathian include sauerkraut soup with ribs, mountain chops with Oscypek sheep cheese or flavored Beskid gingerbread . For a long time, Galicia was open to the various culinary influences from all over Austria-Hungary . In the Subcarpathian Mountains you can find Hungarian goulash as well as Wiener schnitzel , pork knuckle , Pischinger torte, Schmarrn , spaetzle or Ruthenian pierogies . Beer is a typical pre-Carpathian drink, there are mainly traditional beer brands: Żywiec, Leżajsk and Okocim . The first printed cookbook for Galician-Precarpathian cuisine is the Książka kucharska by Johann Pellar from 1866 (Reprint Rzeszów 1885). Most of the protected traditional specialties are to be found in the extreme southeast of Poland in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship .
Typical dishes (selection)
- Bigos - Polish national dish ; Stew made of sauerkraut and white cabbage , with various types of meat (beef, game, pork) and different types of sausage, with wild mushrooms and carrots, pepper, allspice, bay leaves, tomato paste. The dish is centuries old, is valued for its shelf life and is particularly popular to cook and eat in winter;
- Pierogi - (" pierogi "); Polish national dish; semicircular dumplings with various fillings (see below);
- Barszcz - Polish national dish ; clear, deep red beetroot soup. You will Krokiety or Kołaczyki drank from the cup or dish with Uszka served
- Żurek - typical Polish dish; sour-spicy soup made from fermented rye meal, with marjoram and various ingredients such as boiled eggs, garlic, potatoes and sausage;
- Zrazy or beef roulade - stuffed and braised meat wraps, usually made from beef. Pickled cucumbers, onions, bacon, salt and pepper can be added to the filling. Traditional dish of the old Polish nobility , which was also eaten for breakfast;
- Gołąbki - ("little dove"); Braised or baked cabbage rolls made from white cabbage,filledwith minced meat and rice or buckwheat , often served with tomato or mushroom sauce;
- Flaki - ("offal"); a tripe dish with beef tripe cut into strips and vegetables such as carrots, celery and onions, with marjoram, nutmeg and often spicy, comparable to the East Prussian spot or the Saxon spot;
- Pulpety - small meatballs cooked in broth; the brew is made with spices, herbs and flour, often served with rice or kasza (buckwheat groats). Pulpety are also common as a filler in fish soups and flaki ;
- Kotlet schabowy - pork chop with various side dishes, often with mashed potatoes, dill potatoes or Kopytka as well as braised white cabbage, raw vegetable salads and mizeria (cucumber salad). Very often breaded;
- Kaszanka - blood sausage with pearl barley, is heated in hot water or served fried with onions.
|Staple food||per person||annotation|
|Cereal products||6.56 kg||such as 4.35 kg of baked goods , 0.62 kg of cake
, 0.81 kg of flour , 0.36 kg of pasta , 0.18 kg of rice
, 0.13 kg of porridge per person per month
|Dairy products||a total of
|such as 0.25 kg butter , 0.52 kg yoghurt , 0.55 kg quark,
0.40 cheese , 3.4 liters of milk per person per month, ...
|Meat products||5.58 kg||like 3.25 kg pork
, 2.25 kg poultry per person per month
|vegetables||9.98 kg||like potatoes with 4.73 kg per person per month
and cabbage , carrots , onions , peppers , tomatoes , ...
|fruit||3.29 kg||like apples, the banana
and seasonal fruits; Strawberries , blueberries
and, bird cherry etc.
|Eggs||12 pieces||like scrambled eggs , ...|
|Edible fish||0.43 kg||such as herring , cod , salmon, carp, saithe, ...|
|sugar||1.65 kg||like sugar , honey etc.|
|Soft drinks||8 liters||with 4.5 liters of mineral water , lemonade , fruit
or vegetable juices per person per month
|beer||8.2 liters||like Żywiec , Tyskie , ...|
Spices and herbs
Besides pepper , the main spice in Poland is marjoram . Also dill , allspice , nutmeg and parsley are part of many foods. Boiled potatoes, for example, are preferably eaten as dill potatoes with melted butter, while parsley root can be found as an ingredient in many broths, soups, marinades and sauces. Coriander is also in great demand, among other things in sausage production. Horseradish , mustard, and vinegar are just as popular as garlic , juniper , bay leaf, and caraway seeds . The properties of lactic acid are also traditionally used . In addition, dry fruits , honey and cloves have always been used in Polish cuisine for seasoning, marinating and filling .
Saffron was particularly popular as a baking ingredient in earlier times and is still sometimes today. The old Polish cuisine was generally characterized by its lavish use of expensive spices, especially in the 17th century.
- Biały ser or twaróg - (“white cheese”, “quark”); Cream cheese similar to cottage cheese, which is still often made in-house;
- Oscypek - a hard smoked cheese made from sheep's milk, made only in the Tatra Mountains (southern Poland);
- Bryndza - cream cheese made from sheep's milk;
- Ser bałtycki and Ser zamojski - ("Baltic Sea Cheese" and " Zamość Cheese"); two examples of sliced cheese made from cow's milk;
- śmietana - sour cream-like sweet or sour cream ;
- zsiadłe mleko - sour milk .
A few decades ago people were drinking a lot of homemade sour milk. Since the pasteurized or ultra-high-temperature milk commonly used today cannot be acidified, buttermilk or kefir are often consumed instead . In Poland, butter is traditionally often available in oblong, rounded pieces.
Polish cuisine knows many traditional soups. Worth mentioning are beside Barszcz and to especially Rosol (chicken broth), Zupa grzybowa (mushroom soup), Zupa pomidorowa (tomato soup), Zupa ogórkowa (salt cucumber soup), Zupa szczawiowa (sorrel soup), Kapuśniak (sauerkraut soup), Czernina (soup with duck or chicken blood ), Krupnik ( pearl barley soup), Botwina (soup made from young beetroot plants) and Gramatka or Faramuszka (beer soup from the fasting tradition ). Polish soups are rarely vegetarian , mostly beef (soup meat), poultry or pork (bacon, smoked pork ribs) are used as the soup base.
Cold summer soups are also popular in Poland. Among these, fruit soups are very popular, such as the traditional zupa jagodowa (blueberry soup ) or the chłodnik .
There is a wide variety of meat dishes. Beef and game are mostly marinated , roasts and poultry are often given farces . In Poland, the fillet ( polędwica ) of pork and beef is particularly valued , as well as roast veal and saddle of game or lamb ( comber ). The hare and pheasant are among the most popular species of small game. Also meatloaf and meat preparations with aspic are popular. Liver is often braised and serves as the basis for various terrines .
Most famous are traditional Polish sausages ( wędliny ), such as Krakauer , Kabanos or Weißwurst . Very few of these are available in German-speaking countries, but a sausage of the same name ( kiełbasa ) can often turn out differently in Poland and Germany. The Polish original is usually more fatty and will often have a fine garlic note. In some areas of Germany, a Krakauer is a long grilled or bratwurst about 2 cm thick. In Poland, on the other hand, the Krakauer is a short 4 to 5 cm thick smoked sausage, which is mainly served as cold cuts for breakfast or dinner. In Poland, the German Krakauer would be more like the Kabanos or another type of sausage. Meat products for sausage production are usually produced through extensive pig farming in many small businesses.
Chicken and duck are popular types of poultry. The Polish fattening goose ( gęś ), which is in great demand abroad for St. Martin's Day or Christmas, is rarely or not at all in Poland on Christmas Eve. This has to do with the Catholic food tradition of not eating meat on Christmas Eve. Goose is more likely to be found on Boxing Day , with stuffed turkey ( indyk ) being preferred.
Some typical meat dishes:
- Golonka (German pork knuckle );
- Pieczeń na dziko - “game roast”; Pork, beef or lamb, marinated for a long time in white wine, lemon juice, juniper, allspice, bay leaves and cloves, with a sauce of gravy , onions and hawthorn jam ;
- Pieczeń huzarska - “ roast hussar”; Roast beef, made with incisions during the roast, in which a filling of bread, eggs and herbs is cooked;
- Zając w śmietanie - "Hare in Cream"; Old Polish traditional dish; gutted hare, first in buttermilk, then marinated in vegetables, then fried with mushrooms in their own juice, then refined with sour cream;
- Bażant po staropolsku - "Old Polish Pheasant"; exempt, larded with bacon -wrapped pheasant, fried and served in their plumage;
- Kaczka z jabłkami - "Duck with Apples"; Old Polish traditional dish; gutted roast duck, prepared with apple wedges or whole apples with a cranberry filling, with grated beetroot;
- Żeberka w miodzie - "ribs in honey"; pork ribs marinated in honey or seasoned with honey according to various recipes;
- Pieczeń rzymska - “Roman roast”; Meatloaf , very often with hard-boiled eggs, sometimes wrapped in batter.
Fish ( ryba ) plays a comparatively important role in Polish cuisine. The most popular food fish in Poland are herring ( śledź ) and cod ( dorsz ), both of which are found in the Baltic Sea . There are many ways of preparing herring, especially for herring, with traditional herring recipes from all regions of Poland. Carp ( karp ) is mainly eaten on Christmas Eve and Christmas and is usually fried in flour. Popular but are also Karp po żydowsku ( "carp Jewish style") with carrots, almonds and raisins or Karp w galarecie ( "carp in aspic"). Local crayfish are also part of the kitchen tradition.
A special feature Pangasius , a living freshwater Haiwels from Southeast Asia , and the counting of the Antarctic Krokodileisfischen icefish ( Champsocephalus gunnari , Polish kergulena or kargulena ) represents the front of the Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean caught. Both types of fish are popular in Poland. Another specialty is the popularity and distribution of canned fish liver such as cod liver .
Besides, the fishing grounds of the countless northern Poland lakes of importance, especially those of the Mazury Lake District and the Pomeranian Lakeland , but also many rivers and oxbow lakes in the catchment area of the Vistula , Oder , Pregel and Memel . Numerous freshwater fish find their way into the kitchen from these waters. The spectrum ranges from catfish , pikeperch , pike and eel to tench , river perch and bream to trout . In the pond economy , which is particularly important in Lower Silesia , Greater Poland and Pomerania , the main focus is on breeding carp, tench, trout and crabs.
Some typical fish dishes:
- Śledzie korzenne - “herring”; Salted herrings in a marinade of oil and spices, including pepper, allspice, juniper and bay leaf;
- Hekele - made from chopped herring fillets and chopped hard-boiled eggs, with onions and spices. A variant known as Tatar śledziowy - "herring tartar ";
- Karp po warszawsku - "Warsaw carp"; baked carp either with a filling of vegetables, wine, apples and spices or in a corresponding sauce;
- Sandacz po polsku - "Polish style pikeperch"; Whole gutted pikeperch, cooked in its own stock with vegetables, with a garnish of melted butter and chopped hard-boiled eggs;
- Ryba po mazursku - "Masurian fish"; gratinated fish with a sauce of mushrooms, onions, pickled cucumbers and cheese;
- Ryba po tatarsku - "Tatar style fish"; fried or steamed fish either with tartare sauce or in onion juice, butter, lemon and capers ;
- Ryba po grecku - "Greek style fish"; Fish fillets with a sauce made from vegetables, tomato paste and / or fresh chopped tomatoes, parsley root and herbs.
Mushrooms and vegetables
Since Poland is very densely forested, mushrooms ( grzyby ) have always been a fundamental element of Polish food culture. Wild mushrooms such as porcini , Maronenröhrling , Butterröhrling , milk cap or chanterelle be as soup or stew eaten processed into mushroom broth or dried and are an important ingredient in fillings and various meat dishes and stews.
Cooked or braised white cabbage ( kapusta ) is the main vegetable in Polish cuisine after potatoes and onions , but many other vegetables are also eaten, especially cauliflower , Brussels sprouts , peas , chickpeas , beans , carrots , leeks , celery , lettuce and tomatoes . In particular, beetroot ( burak ) is considered typical Polish. They are particularly valued as a side dish in the form of buraczki (grated, cooked with the addition of vinegar and served warm) or as ćwikła (prepared with horseradish and served cold, often with Easter breakfast). The cucumber ( ogórek ), often in connection with dill ( koper ), is also a traditional Polish food. Pickled cucumbers and sauerkraut are eaten a lot and are used in numerous dishes. Another characteristic feature are surówki , raw food preparations made from various types of cabbage and vegetables with spicy sauces, which are served with numerous dishes. Vegetable and egg salads with mayonnaise or cream are just as common, especially Mizeria , a popular cucumber salad.
Cooked vegetables are usually fully cooked - they are seldom made firm to the bite . Often cooked vegetables are served with breadcrumbs browned in butter . This type of garnish is known as beurre à la polonaise in international cuisine .
Dough products have a prominent position in traditional Polish culinary art and are valued in the same way as, for example, in Italian cuisine. They serve as a side dish to meat and mushroom dishes and as soup, but they are also preferred to be treated as independent dishes. Polish cuisine knows different types of dumplings and specific dumplings and noodles, some of which are produced regionally in different ways, and also particularly loves pancakes and yeast pancakes. In this respect it is on the one hand close to the other Slavic cuisines of Eastern Europe, on the other hand also to the Bohemian , Bavarian and Swabian cuisine. Like Russian , Belarusian and Ukrainian cuisine , Polish cuisine in the Middle Ages also adopted dough processing techniques from the Far East ( China , Mongolia ), which is where the tradition of pierogi- making , which has been handed down since the 13th century, goes back. Vareniki and Pelmeni are the Ukrainian and Russian relatives of the Pierogi.
- Pierogi - (" pierogi "); Polish national dish; Cooked or roasted semicircular dumplings with border decorations and various fillings. The most popular varieties are Pierogi z kapustą i grzybami with cabbage, onions and mushrooms, Pierogi ruskie (" Ruthenian Pierogi" from the former Eastern Poland - connect to vareniki and pelmeni) with potatoes, onions and white cheese, Pierogi z mięsem with onions and Meat and pierogi z kaszą gryczaną i serem with buckwheat, bacon and white cheese. Among the sweet varieties, Pierogi z serem with sweet white cheese and Pierogi z jagodami with blueberries are the most popular;
- Kołduny - similar to Pierogi, only smaller and from Lithuanian and Tatar tradition. Most famous in Poland are Kołduny po litewsku ("Kołduny Lithuanian style") with a filling made from beef and beef kidney fat (tallow);
- Pyzy - round potato dumplings with a filling of beef and onions;
- Knedle - ("dumplings"); Plum dumplings . Originally from the Bohemian and Austrian cuisine, served with beurre à la polonaise ;
- Naleśniki - pancakes , often filled with white cheese , blueberries or filled with jam;
- Racuchy - yeast pancakes, often with embedded apple pieces or blueberries;
- Omlet - (" omelette "); Polish omelette ( soufflé ), prepared with egg whites. Developed on the French model since the 17th century ;
- Makiełki and Makówki - poppy seed noodles (from central Poland) and poppy seeds (from Silesia ).
Typical side dishes:
- Kopytka - ("small hooves"); smaller diamond-shaped potato flour dumplings;
- Pampuchy , Kluski na parze or Pyzy drożdżowe - steamed yeast dumplings;
- Kluski śląskie - ("Silesian dumplings"), smaller potato dumplings with a characteristic depression in the middle;
- Krokiety - ("Croquettes"); Small folded and breaded pancakes with various fillings, with soups and mushroom dishes;
- Kołaczyki - round yeast pastries with onion or sauerkrautfillingprotruding in the middle, regional (Tatra) also with Bryndza filling, also with soups and mushroom dishes. In the sweet version with white cheese, plum or apple filling.
Other side dishes and typical soups:
- Uszka - ("little ears"); Shell-shaped dumplings with various mushroom fillings as an insert, for example in red Barszcz ;
- Makaron - ("noodles"); Tagliatelle, for example in makiełki or with mushroom, tomato or fruit soups;
- Kluski kładzione - (“laid noodles”); cam-like noodles made from thicker batter, as a side dish or soup;
- Kluski lane or Lane ciasto - ("poured noodles"); thin batter whisked in soup.
Side dishes and sauces
A traditional Polish side dish for meat and mushrooms is boiled and baked porridge ( Kasza , old Polish Breja ), a typical buckwheat groat that has formed the basis of nutrition in Poland for centuries. Traditionally, you should cook roasted buckwheat for it and then roast it again in the oven, then serve the kasza with glazed onions and diced bacon. Today, however, they are also available from the cooking bag .
In addition to dough products and kasza, potatoes and rice are other typical side dishes. Potatoes are often prepared mashed. Boiled potatoes are also popular, while jacket potatoes are not eaten excessively. Rice plays a comparatively larger role in Polish cuisine as a side dish and ingredient than in German or Austrian cuisine.
Among the classic sauces include in particular the Polish sauces based on meat or fish stock, gingerbread, red wine, almonds and raisins, as well as horseradish sauce ( Sos chrzanowy ), juniper sauce ( Sos jałowcowy ) and tomato sauce ( Sos pomidorowy ).
Baked goods and confectionery
Bread ( chleb ) is a central part of Polish food culture. Polish bread is traditionally made with sourdough , but other leavening agents are also used today. The most common types of bread are Mieszane pieczywo (mixed wheat bread), chleb biały (white bread), chleb graham (graham bread) and chleb razowy (wholemeal bread). Other common baked goods in Poland are bułka (bread rolls) and rogal or rogalik (croissants), which can each be significantly larger than their German counterparts, while loaves of bread are usually smaller in comparison. The drożdżówka (sweet buns from yeast dough or puff pastry , such as with white cheese, poppy seeds, blueberries, plums, rhubarb or fruit jam) can be bought anywhere.
Among the special specialties are obwarzanek and bagel ( Bajgiel ), ring-shaped baked goods made from cooked yeast dough, both of which originally come from Krakow . The older Obwarzanki have the larger diameter and are twisted, while the Bajgle, known since the 17th century, are smaller and softer and mainly belong to the Jewish cuisine . The chałka (yeast braid) was adopted from the Jewish tradition in the Polish baking culture; their model is the challah , an old Sabbath pastry. From the old Slavic tradition which dates podpłomyk , a thin flat bread with broken edges, which is often spicy occupied and looks similar and is called as the Tarte . The zapiekanka , a half-stick of white bread baked with cheese, is also spicy .
Cake (placek) plays an important role in Poland and is eaten almost every day in everyday life. Like other pastries , it is also part of the Polish business culture. The most popular types of cake are available in different variants, typical are:
- Sernik - cheesecake, made from white cheese, often with chocolate icing;
- Makowiec or Makownik - traditional poppy seed cake made from yeast or shortcrust pastry and poppy seed paste; as a glazed wrap cake (Christmas tradition) or as a sheet cake ;
- Mazurek - traditional shortcrust cake with jam under a lattice of pastry and / or glaze (Easter tradition).
- Babka - classic large yeast cake with glaze (Easter tradition); also name for smaller cup cakes ;
- Placek - crumble cake or sheet cake, usually as a yeast or shortcrust cake with fruit or raisins;
- Szarlotka or Jabłecznik - covered apple pie;
- Piegusek - poppy seed cake from mohnhaltigem batter or sponge cake , with icing sugar or glaze;
- Murzynek - chocolate sponge cake with chocolate icing ;
- Kołacz - round yeast cake with cheese and / or poppy seed filling, originally a bread-like Slavic festive pastry;
- Biscuit - heavy sponge cake with dried fruits and nuts, usually for Christmas;
- Piernik - cake made from gingerbread dough and nuts, often with a filling, also mainly for Christmas.
Cakes, of which there are many different, are bought on special occasions. Tradition have, inter alia Tort Orzechowo-migdałowy ( walnut and almond cake without flour), Tort kruchy ( tenderizing cake ), Tort makowy ( poppy seed cake ), Tort królewski (Sahnetorte with several chocolate biscuit trays), Tort Orzechowy , (walnut cake) kawowy Tort ( Coffee cake) and tort malinowy (raspberry cake). Numerous foreign cakes are also known.
A special feature of desserts and confectionery are the corresponding offer is rich, as classically applies a number of products. Paczki (glazed donuts), Faworki (donuts before Lent), Ptyś ( cream puffs ), Eklerka ( Éclair ), Napoleonka or Kremówka (cream slice with puff pastry ), Karpatka (custard cream cake with choux paste ), Wuzetka (cream slice with jam and chocolate sponge cake), Roorkee ( cream cones ), Belwederki (puff pastry), Baletki ( shortbread ), Lamance for makiem (Mürbeteigstangen in poppy, traditional for Christmas) Michałki (chocolate confectionery ), Kasztanki (chocolate confectionery ), Krówki (milk caramel candy ), Sezamki (sesame leaves) or Chałwa (halva).
Among the most famous bakery specialties from the regions include Toruńskie Pierniki (Thorner Gingerbread of Toruń ), Rogal świętomarciński (Martin croissants with white poppy seed filling from Poznan ), Andruty kaliskie (waffles Kalisz ), kołocz śląski (crumb cake from Silesia ), Begle (lard rings from Silesia) Ruchanki (yeast pancakes from Kashubia ), Pieróg biłgorajski (potato and buckwheat cake from Biłgoraj ) or Pasztecik szczeciński (smaller yeast pâté from Szczecin ).
Non alcoholic drinks
But coffee has also been popular since the 18th century. Most people in Poland drink either finely ground coffee brewed in a glass ( kawa sypana or kawa po turecku ) or soluble coffee ( kawa rozpuszczalna ). Both with sugar and milk or cream as desired. Filter coffee ( kawa z ekspresu ) is becoming more and more widespread, especially in large cities. Grain coffee ( kawa zbożowa ) is also drunk .
Poland is known for its production of vodka ( wódka ). The world's first written mention of the drink came in 1405 in a document from Sandomierz (southeastern Poland), and Poland is probably his original home. Well-known brands are: Chopin , Belvedere , Sobieski, Wyborowa , Żubrówka . Vodka is usually drunk straight. A 4cl glass is now the bar standard. In the 1990s it was still common to order 50 to 100 milliliter glasses. Nowadays these are special requests, which all restaurateurs can safely fulfill.
Żubrówka is vodka made on the basis of bison grass , which gives it a special aroma. In Germany it is mostly known under the Grasovka brand. The Polish name is derived from the word żubr (wisent) - in the north-east and north of Poland as well as on the island of Wolin , wild bison live againin national parks similar to jungle. Żubrówka is drunk neat or with apple juice. Orzechówka (from orzech = nut) is made from still green, soft walnut fruits. The fruits are cut into cubes and poured with brandy. It is recommended to add cloves and sugar to taste. After half a year a dark brown liqueur is created. The leached, crispy nuts are also edible. Another specialty is herbal vodka. However, the consumption of brandy products has decreased over the past decades.
Poland is also known as the land of beers. Beer ( piwo ) is brewed according to different brewing methods, the less tart varieties are more popular. Almost every major city has its own brewery . There are also traditional breweries, some of which can look back on centuries of history. Well-known brands include a. Żywiec , Okocim , Piast, Warka , Lech , Tyskie , EB . It is very popular, especially among women, to drink beer mixed with a fruit syrup . Beer mixed with cola, on the other hand, is rather unknown. In 2005 the average beer consumption was 80.4 liters per capita.
Wine ( wino ) is drunk less than beer and does not have the same status as vodka, but has been part of the national culture since the Middle Ages . In earlier centuries, wine was mainly obtained from Hungary , since viticulture is traditionally widespread in Lesser Poland and Silesia (" Grünberger "), but has only been practiced on a small scale to this day. However, a strong expansion of the Polish vineyards is planned for the medium future. In the 19th and early 20th centuries , wine was also grown in the former eastern Poland , along the Dniester and some of its tributaries. Until the Second World War , the wine trade in Poland belonged to the domains of Jewish merchants.
Today, besides Italian and French varieties, Slovak dry red wine is of particular importance. With the entry into the European Union , the prices for wine fell, but European or American branded wines are still relatively expensive goods. The preferred taste orientation for wines is semi-dry to very sweet, only some red wine varieties are preferred when they are dry. Before 1989 there were mainly very sweet Bulgarian wines in Poland , they were supposed to replace the consumption of vodka.
- Robert Strybel, Maria Strybel: Polish Heritage Cookery. New York 1993, ISBN 0-7818-1124-4 .
- Bridget Jones: Polish cuisine. Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-89508-442-5 .
- Anne Applebaum : From a Polish Country House Kitchen: 90 Recipies for the Ultimate Comfort Food. San Francisco 2012, ISBN 978-1-4521-1055-4 .
- Maria Lemnis, Henryk Vitry: Old Polish cuisine and Polish table manners. Warsaw 1984, ISBN 83-223-1817-0 .
- Stanisław Czarniecki: Compendium ferculorum abo Zebranie potraw. (First published: Krakow 1682).
- Paul Tremo: Nauka dokładna sposobów warzenia i sporządzania potraw. unpublished, 18th century.
- Jan Szyttler: Kuchnia myśliwska. Warsaw 1989 (first published in 1823).
- Jędrzej Kitowicz : Opis obyczajów za panowania Augusta III. Warsaw 1985 (first published in Vilnius 1840).
- Polishkochen.de - Recipes with additional information on dishes.
- Kuchnia-polska.net - database with an extensive collection of recipes.
- Hanna Szymanderska. KUCHNIA POLSKA potrawy regionalne. 2010, p. 450; Polskie Góry: Żywiec , Zakopane , Rabka , Nowy Sącz , Iwonicz-Zdrój , Haczów , Bieszczady , Pilzno , Lubaczów . Pp. 450-478
- according to Biuletyn Informacyjny ARR 4/2013 ; Trade Wewnętrzny 4/2013 IBRKK
- See Jarosław Dumanowski. Tylko pieprzno i szafranno. In: Silva Rerum. Opowieści wilanowskie. Muzeum Pałac w Wilanowie (2005–2008).
- See Maria Lemnis, Henryk Vitry: W staropolskiej kuchni i przy polskim stole. Warsaw 1986, pp. 22-25.
- bfai.de ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- "Golonka" - tradycyjna polska potrawa podawana for chrzanem lub musztarda i grochem puree. In: Encyklopedia Polski. 1996.
- Cf. 2 ( Memento of the original from November 15, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. and 3 List of traditional products, information on Obwarzanek and Bajgiel ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Polish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (2008).
- See Poland in the Classroom: Christmas in Poland and Polonia. ( Memento of the original from December 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Info Poland, University of Buffalo (2000).
- See Maria Lemnis, Henryk Vitry: W staropolskiej kuchni i przy polskim stole. Warsaw 1986, p. 221.
- See Maria Lemnis, Henryk Vitry: W staropolskiej kuchni i przy polskim stole. Warsaw 1986, pp. 240-241.
- See Maria Lemnis, Henryk Vitry: W staropolskiej kuchni i przy polskim stole. Warsaw 1986, pp. 236-237.
- See list of traditional products - baked goods and confectionery by region ( Memento of the original from November 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Polish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, (2008).
- Cf. Nancy Waldmann: Zielona Góras winemakers will soon be able to serve their own grape juice. In: Lausitzer Rundschau. September 13, 2008.
- See Wojciech Bosak: Bachus kresowy. In: Vinisfera. E-courier: wino-podróże-kulinaria. March 17, 2008.