Mazury ( Masurian Mazury , Polish Mazury ) is a region in the north of Poland located Warmia and Mazury and in the south of the former Prussian province of East Prussia . The region is not clearly defined geographically. Roughly described, it lies in the hexagon Ełk (Lyck), Pisz (Johannisburg / Johannisburger Heide), Mrągowo (Sensburg), Kętrzyn (Rastenburg), Węgorzewo (Angerburg), Olecko (Marggrabowa, from 1928 Treuburg) with Giżycko (Lötzen) and Mikołajki ( Nikolaiken) on the Masurian Lake District . The unofficial name Masuria has been in use since the 18th century, as many Protestant immigrants from Mazovia to the south had settled in East Prussia. The proper name of the Masovians means "man" or "inhabitant" and corresponds to the Polish "mąż": man. In contrast to the German name, the Polish name Mazury is a grammatical plural. Since the division of East Prussia in 1945, Masuria has been the largest lake landscape in Poland.
The former Old Prussia extended even further south than the later East Prussia and was originally inhabited by the Prussian Pogesanians , Barten , Galindians and Sudauers . Since the appearance of the Polans and Mazovians, the Prussians have faced multiple attempts at conquest. After the Pope declared crusades, Prussia was conquered by the Teutonic Order in the 13th century . Together with Livonia and Courland, it first belonged to the Teutonic Order and from 1525 to the Duchy of Prussia , which was under Polish suzerainty from the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 to the Treaty of Oliva in 1660.
The population was made up of Christianized and Germanized Prussians, German colonists and Protestant settlers from neighboring Polish Mazovia, and until the 19th century, the majority spoke Masurian , a Slavic language similar to Polish, interspersed with German loanwords . In the course of the 19th century, the knowledge of German spread, and by the beginning of the 20th century at the latest there was a change of language, with Masurian no longer being passed on to the following generations.
Origin of name and "indigenous population"
The first ethnic group known by name in the area of today's Masuria were the East Germanic Skiren . In the course of the Great Migration they became vassals of the Huns. The origin of the name of the neighboring country of Mazovia , which emerged centuries later, goes back to Masos (also written Maslao), a cupbearer of the first Polans . In 1834, the origin of the massagete rider was also assumed, but the Pannonian - Dalmatian tribe of the Mazei is not excluded because of the similarity of many toponyms. According to this, the meaning of the name goes back to maz 'great' (mountain name Massarus ).
The original language of the later Mazovians could have been a Proto-Polish dialect. When the Polans arrived and formed states around the year 1000 AD, they undertook repeated conquest attacks on the Prussian tribes adjoining to the north. The Masurian dialect spoken by the Protestant people who immigrated from Mazovia during the Reformation in southern East Prussia goes back to Polish roots, but depending on the region it is heavily mixed with other languages: In the north-eastern part there was a mixture of Lithuanian and Polish , in the western part, however a strong mix with German . In the interior of Masuria there were very different dialects; in the rest of East Prussia those in the areas around Angerburg and Lötzen were least valued . The purest Polish could be found in the area around Soldau . There were considerable differences between the common language and the church Polish.
History since the 12th century
In 1226 the Polish senior duke Konrad von Masowien asked the Teutonic Order for help against the pagan Prussians who lived in Sassen , around Löbau ( Lubava ), Barta , Galinden and Sudauen in Old Prussia, where Masurians also settled around the time of the Reformation. The order only became active after the Roman-German Emperor Friedrich II. In 1226 and Konrad von Mazowien in 1230 had guaranteed it unrestricted sovereignty over all areas to be conquered.
In the 13th century, the Teutonic Order subjugated the Baltic-Prussian tribes of the Sudauer and Galindians and relocated Sudauer to the Samland and the Memelland . Settlers from Westphalia and Lower Saxony who had been recruited by the Teutonic Order immigrated to the area of what is now Masuria. After several wars between the order on the one hand, the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation on the other, the former had to cede the western part of his territory to the Polish crown in the Second Peace of Thor in 1466 and to deal with the rest, to which also (however, first has belonged to Masuria since the 18th century and is subject to Polish feudal sovereignty.
In 1525, under Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach, on the advice of Luther , this religious state was converted into a Protestant and the secular Duchy of Prussia , which in turn remained under Polish feudal sovereignty. In the late order and the early ducal period, the previously sparsely populated parts of Prussia were settled with Lithuanians (Prussian-Lithuania) and Mazovians (Masuria). After the Reformation, their connections to Poland were largely severed.
The Duchy of Prussia was joined in 1618 in personal union with the Electorate of Brandenburg . During the Second Northern War , Masuria was conquered by Polish troops; With reference to the Lipka and Crimean Tatars fighting on the Polish side , these events described by Christoph Hartknoch went down in Masurian tradition as the "Tatar invasion". Almost all Masurian cities and numerous villages were destroyed; More than 50 percent of the inhabitants of Masuria died in 1656 and 1657, 23,000 of them from the direct effects of the war, 80,000 from disease and starvation; 3,400 were abducted into slavery. As a result of the war, the Duchy of Prussia broke away from Polish fiefdom in 1660 through the Treaty of Oliva . Since Prussia now neither the King of Poland nor the Holy Roman Empire was under, the reigning Elector of Prussia could purchase the royalty and in 1701 Koenigsberg as Frederick I in a sense even to King of Prussia crown without another sovereign, the fealty to have to make .
The plague epidemic of 1709/10 reached Masuria in August 1708, when the first plague death was recorded in the village of Bialutten ; In mid-September 1708 a plague broke out in Hohenstein . In the period that followed, the epidemic spread to all of Mazury, albeit with significant regional differences. A total of 1,463 people died in the western offices of Osterode , Hohenstein and Gilgenburg in 1709 and 1710, 677 in the main office in Seehesten. In contrast, 6,789 people died in the main office on the Rhine, 1,815 in the town and parish of Johannisburg and 1,455 in the parish of Bialla . In the city of Lötzen, only 119 of the 919 residents remained alive.
Since the 18th century, the landscape and the entirety of its numerous lakes have been named after the Protestant "Masurians" who immigrated from Mazovia in the 15th to 18th centuries.
Developments since the 19th century
Modern administration and compulsory schooling resulted in an increasing Germanization of the Masurians since the middle of the 19th century. The Prussian state pursued a tolerant language policy until about the establishment of the Empire. The language of instruction in the elementary schools of the respective district was the language mostly spoken there, i. H. in predominantly Polish-speaking circles, instruction was generally in Polish (including children who speak German as their mother tongue). This policy changed after the founding of the Reich, when the German language of instruction was gradually introduced everywhere. In contrast to other Polish-speaking minorities in the Prussian state, especially the Poles in the province of Posen , the Masurian assimilation took place without significant resistance. As national Polish historians complained, they lacked a sense of belonging to the Polish nation. Wojciech Kętrzyński , who was born in Lötzen as Adalbert von Winkler and converted to Poland, claimed in his work O Mazurach (“About the Masurians”) that appeared in 1872 , or their settlement area, as a future Polish nation-state. In this first writing, Kętrzyński put forward the thesis that the Polish Masurians were the first inhabitants of the area. He no longer made this claim in his second, more comprehensive work, published in Lemberg in 1882 ; however, he argued that the Teutonic Order had carried out the reclamation and colonization of Masuria practically exclusively with Polish settlers, so that Poland had a historical right to this land. Most of the Masurians were not impressed by these arguments and the use of the Polish language continued to decline. Around 1875 around 66 percent of the then 400,000 residents still used Masurian or Polish, while 34 percent spoke German. In the 1910 census, around 29 percent of residents said Masurian, 13 percent Polish and 58 percent German as their mother tongue. In all elections to the Reichstag between 1871 and 1912, the Conservative or German Conservative Party dominated the southern constituencies of East Prussia . Liberal parties like the German Progressive Party or the National Liberal Party were also able to achieve successes, the pro-Polish Masurian People's Party remained largely insignificant.
In the course of industrialization in the late 19th century, numerous residents of Masuria emigrated to the western industrial areas. In 1908 around 120,000 to 130,000 Masurians lived in the Ruhr area , where they were perceived as part of the so-called Ruhr Poles . For example, between 1884 and 1904, 18,275 Masurians moved to Gelsenkirchen alone, and 2,174 Masurians worked at the Graf Bismarck colliery in 1900. In 1920 Gelsenkirchen counted 67,000 Masurians who traveled to their hometowns for a referendum. The regional focus of settlement in the Ruhr area was Wattenscheid for Neidenburger and Soldauer, Bochum for Osteroder and Wanne for Lötzener. In the central Ruhr area, some parts of the city were shaped by Masuria, so Gelsenkirchen-Schalke was given the nickname "Klein-Ortelsburg".
During the First World War , Russian troops penetrated far into East Prussia. The Battle of Tannenberg took place in Masuria from August 26th to 31st, 1914 , the Battle of the Masurian Lakes from September 6th to 14th, 1914, and the Winter Battle of Masuria from February 7th to 27th, 1915 . 277,000 residents of Masuria had fled or evacuated before the Russian invasion, 707 civilians were killed during the Russian occupation, and 2,713 were deported to Russia. The great German victories left a deep impression on the people of Masuria. When naming the site of the battle, the German side deliberately linked to the old myth of the Battle of Tannenberg (1410) . The reconstruction of the war-torn areas of Masuria began during the war as part of the "East Prussian Aid ", so the administrative district and the city of Cologne sponsored the Neidenburg district , Frankfurt aM for Lötzen, Berlin-Charlottenburg for Soldau, Berlin-Wilmersdorf and Vienna for Ortelsburg and the administrative district of Opole for Lyck. The planning was done by local architects as well as well-known architects from other regions, so Bodo Ebhardt prepared a development plan for Neidenburg as early as 1916. Plans by Bruno Möhring were incorporated into the reconstruction of Ortelsburg, but the design by the Viennese architect Josef Hoffmann for the construction of a town hall in Ortelsburg was not implemented.
After the end of the First World War formed Second Polish Republic laid claim to Mazury. Due to the Versailles Treaty , a referendum was held on July 11, 1920 in some West Prussian circles and in Masuria under the supervision of an Inter-Allied Commission . In Masuria proper, 99.32 percent decided to stay with East Prussia and thus with Germany. In the entire voting area of Allenstein (including Warmia ), with a turnout of 87.31 percent, 97.86 percent voted for East Prussia (363,159 votes), 7,924 voters (2.14 percent) voted for Poland. In the 1925 census, 805 Masurian residents stated Polish as their mother tongue and a total of 81,641 Masurian as their mother tongue or second language across Germany. Pro-Polish parties also achieved election results in the region of 1% at the provincial level during the years of the Weimar Republic .
In the election to the German National Assembly in January 1919, the SPD won an absolute majority in Masuria, but in the course of the 1920s, Masuria continued to vote politically conservatively, the DNVP regularly achieved election victories here. Masuria continued to be shaped by the smallholder structure, and the establishment of the Polish Corridor also had a negative economic impact. The tax cuts and subsidies implemented as part of the East Prussian aid primarily supported large farms and thus did not lead to an economic improvement for many Masurian companies. In the late 1920s the NSDAP was able to book its first successes in Masuria, in the Reichstag election in July 1932 it achieved its best result in Germany in the Lyck district with 70.6%, followed by Neidenburg with 69.0% and Johannisburg with 68.1%.
During the November pogroms in 1938 , the Ortelsburg and Neidenburg synagogues were destroyed, and two people were killed by local SA men in Neidenburg. In the course of the renaming of places in East Prussia in 1938 , numerous Masurian place names were changed.
The Second World War initially had little direct impact on Masuria. In autumn 1944 an area 30 km wide along the East Prussian eastern border was evacuated; this particularly affected the Oletzko district, 40 percent of which was evacuated to Saxony in October 1944, and the Lyck district. However, no further scheduled evacuations took place; rather, preparations for escape were rated as defeatism . In the course of the East Prussian operation of the Red Army , Masuria was completely occupied in January 1945; Sensburg was the last town in Masuria to be conquered on January 29, 1945. After the Red Army had already reached the Fresh Lagoon on January 26th, another escape was only possible by sea; many Masurians who had fled before returned to their hometowns in 1945. In the spring of 1945 all employable people between the ages of 18 and 50 were deported to the Soviet Union , of which more than 50 percent did not return.
After the end of the war, Masuria was placed under Polish administration as part of southern East Prussia. At that time, around 36 percent of the pre-war population still lived in Masuria, 40 to 50 percent of the cities and 25 to 30 percent of the villages had been destroyed. The previous place names were Polonized in the following years, largely using the old Prussian and Masurian names again; In individual cases, cities were also given names in honor of people associated with Masuria.
As early as 1943, Karl Mallek , who came from Soldau, had presented the Lublin Committee with a concept for the “repolonization” of Masuria, which classified the local population as “Germanized Poles” or Germans on the basis of ethnic - according to Andreas Kossert's assessment, racist criteria , which corresponded to the Nazi people's list . Mallek also assumed a return migration from Westphalia; as a result, the region should be repopulated after the population classified as German had been expelled. Using these criteria, 9,527 Masurians and 145,573 Germans were recorded in the entire Olsztyn Voivodeship in June 1945 ; by August 25, 1945 the number of Ermländer and Masurians rose to 30,858 compared to 142,312 Germans. On June 1, 1946, there were finally 65,279 “ autochthons ” and 98,472 Germans in the area of the voivodeship. The population classified as “autochthonous” was given the right to stay, with the requirement that the German language was not used and that German first and family names be discarded. The remaining residents of Masuria were classified as Germans and, with a few exceptions, were expelled from Masuria . From 1946 there was increased settlement from the neighboring areas of northern Mazovia and the Kurpie , in 1947 Ukrainians from south-east Poland were forcibly relocated to Masuria as part of the Vistula campaign , but in 1948 immigrants from central Poland continued to make up around 75 percent of the new settlers.
The “autochthonous” population was supposed to adopt Polish citizenship in a first “verification” campaign in October 1946; 37,736 Masurians decided to do so, while 30,804 refused. In the Sensburg district alone there were 16,385 residents without Polish citizenship compared to only 6,879 “verified” people. At the end of 1948, the former head of the Lodz secret police UB , Mieczysław Moczar , became the voivode of the Olsztyn Voivodeship and initiated a second “Great Verification Campaign”, which reduced the number of unverified Masurians through the use of direct violence. Masurians, who had refused to do so, were arrested and forcibly forced to accept Polish citizenship. In the Sensburg district alone, of the 6,858 “unverified” Masurians in August 1948, 166 remained in March 1949. By decree of January 8, 1951, all German citizens still living in Poland were granted Polish citizenship.
With the onset of de-Stalinization , numerous Masurians left their homeland as late repatriates from 1956 - between 1956 and 1958 alone the number of "autochthons" in Masuria fell from 54,946 to 36,539 - and moved to the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1970s and 1980s in particular. Today Masuria and Warmia form the Warmia-Masurian Voivodeship (Polish Warmińsko-Mazurskie ).
The majority of the inhabitants of Masuria were Lutherans from the Reformation until the end of World War II. As early as 1533, a Polish translation of Martin Luther's Small Catechism was published in Königsberg ; Jan and Hieronymus Maletius also published numerous first translations of Reformation writings in Lyck . After the University of Königsberg (Albertina) was founded in 1544, Duke Albrecht donated seven scholarships for Polish-speaking students to provide mother-tongue pastoral care in Masuria. The Polish seminary of the Albertina, established in 1728 by King Friedrich Wilhelm I , served the training of Protestant clergy for Masuria; Knowledge of Polish remained compulsory for evangelical clergy in Masuria until 1918.
After it was banned in Poland in 1658, a group of the Unitarian Polish brothers settled in Masuria; Among them were the baroque poet Zbigniew Morsztyn and Samuel Przypkowski, who was appointed to the electoral council . In 1666 he leased the place Andreaswalde , where he founded a Unitarian community with other religious refugees from Poland and Lithuania, which existed until 1803. From 1830 the Philipponen , Russian Orthodox Old Believers from Russia , settled in Eckertsdorf and a few other villages in the Johannisburger Heide south of Nikolaiken ; individual old-believing families escaped expulsion and can still be found here today.
In the course of the advancing Germanization - since 1888 religious instruction in schools was exclusively in German - and the no longer guaranteed Masurian mother tongue care, the "Gromadki" lay preaching movement, which was founded by Christoph Kukat in Prussian Lithuania and outside the official church , was founded in the late 19th century also popular in Masuria.
The evangelical clergy of the Evangelical Augsburg Church in Poland (EAK) who were active in Masuria after the end of the war were mostly unfamiliar and were exposed to persecution by the German occupiers during the war; some of them had returned from German concentration camps. In contrast, they met a largely German-speaking population in a region in which the NSDAP had achieved the best election results in the German Reich in 1933. After leading representatives of the EAK had already campaigned for an affiliation to Poland during the referendum in 1920, the pastoral use of the German language was forbidden and the EAK followed the official government attitude towards the re-Polonization of the Masurians, the relationship of the native Masurians to the official church was often ambivalent ; there was a revival of the Gromadki movement, now under linguistically reversed signs. The Protestant faith was equated with German nationality in everyday life and Protestant Christians were defamed as Western agents; Janusz Jagucki , pastor of the Evangelical Community of Giżycko (Lötzen) and later Bishop of the EAK, reported on his community to the Polish secret service Służba Bezpieczeństwa until 1990 . The steady emigration of the Protestant Masurians led to a relative increase in Catholicism; this resulted in illegal, sometimes violent, occupations of Protestant churches until the early 1980s. For example, on September 23, 1979, the church in Spychowo (dolls) was forcibly taken over during the ongoing service; in Gawrzyjałki (Gawrzyalken) the church doors were broken open on April 20, 1980 and the building, as well as in Ukta , Nawiady (Aweyden), Szestno (Seehesten) and Baranowo (Barranowen), was illegally occupied.
Due to the flight and expulsion of the Germans and the settlement of mostly Catholic Poles, the Protestants are only a small minority today. To what extent one can still speak of a Masurian identity shaped by the traditional evangelical creed is controversial.
|year||Number of members of the diocese Mazury of|
The settlement of Jews in Masuria was forbidden for a long time, protection Jews were only tolerated in exceptional cases . In 1567, Duke Albrecht issued an ordinance to expel foreign Jews; In 1738 an edict was issued against “Lithuanian beggar Jews” and in 1763 an edict “against the hustle and bustle and especially against the confusion of money among Jews in the country”. Only after the Jewish edict of 1812 was there an increase in settlement. After legalization by the Jewish Law of 1847 , synagogue communities were founded in numerous cities; At that time, a total of 419 Jews lived in the districts of Ortelsburg and Johannisburg, and in 1864 there were 54 Jewish households in the Lyck district. Synagogues existed in German Eylau, Gilgenburg , Goldap, Hohenstein, Johannisburg, Lötzen, Lyck, Marggrabowa / Treuburg, Neidenburg, Nikolaiken, Ortelsburg, Osterode, Prostken, Rastenburg, Sensburg and Soldau .
Probably the most famous personality of the Jewish faith from Masuria was the "railway king" Bethel Henry Strousberg , and Kurt Blumenfeld , Siegfried Heinrich Aronhold , Leo S. Olschki and the film producer Paul Davidson had Masurian roots.
Personalities of Masurian origin
- August Ballnus (1807–1871), theologian
- Friedrich Baltrusch (1876–1949), politician
- Konrad Biesalski (1868–1930), orthopedist and university lecturer
- Kurt Blumenfeld (1884–1963), Zionist
- Joachim Freiherr von Braun (1905–1974), lawyer
- August Broda (1867–1932), Baptist pastor
- Ingrid van Bergen (* 1931), actress
- Abraham Calov (1612–1686), theologian
- Otto von Corvin (1812–1886), writer and church critic
- Friedrich Dewischeit (1805–1884), poet of the Masurian song
- Lothar Gall (* 1936), historian
- Gustav Gisevius (1810–1848), linguist
- Ferdinand Gregorovius (1821–1891), journalist and historian, honorary citizen of Rome
- Gustav Großmann (1893–1973), writer, psychologist and originator of the Großmann method
- Paul Hensel (1867–1944), pioneer in favor of Masuria remaining in East Prussia
- Andreas Hillgruber (1925–1989), historian
- Arno Holz (1863–1929), playwright
- Joachim Kaiser (1928–2017), critic
- Hans Hellmut Kirst (1914–1989), writer
- Waldemar Kobus (* 1966) actor
- Gustaf Kossinna (1858–1931), settlement archaeologist
- Walter Kollo (1878–1940), composer
- Erwin Kruk (1941–2017), writer
- Udo Lattek (1935–2015), football player and coach
- Siegfried Lenz (1926–2014), writer
- Albert Lieven (1906–1971), actor
- Erich von Lojewski (1909–1970), German journalist and writer
- Arthur Ludwich (1840–1920), classical philologist
- Kurt Obitz (1907–1945), physician, publicist and editor of the magazine Cech – Masurischer Brief
- Manfred Rekowski (* 1958), Protestant theologian
- Bethel Henry Strousberg (1823-1884), industrialist
- Hellmuth Stieff (1901–1944), general and resistance fighter
- Arno Surminski (* 1934), writer
- Kurt Symanzik (1923–1983), physicist
- Elisabeth von Thadden (1890–1944), resistance fighter
- Ernst Wiechert (1887–1950), writer
- Wilhelm Wien (1864–1928) physicist, Nobel Prize 1911
- Max Worgitzki (1884–1937), politician, writer and founder of the Allenstein Theater
The most famous sights in Masuria include:
- Baroque castle Dönhoffstädt
- Borkener Heide
- Open-air museum of folk architecture
- Galindia paradise
- Great wilderness
- Holy linden tree
- Johannisburger Heide
- Lycker Kleinbahnen
- Masurian Canal
- Masurian Museum of Local History Owczarnia
- Pyramid in Rapa
- Rominter Heath
- Schlobitten Castle
- Steinort Castle
Scientific secondary literature:
- Klaus Bednarz : Far near land - encounters in East Prussia. 10th edition. Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-453-11772-7 .
- Paul Jeute : Poland in Prussia. On Prussian Poland Policy in the 19th Century. 1st edition. Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-640-92232-1 .
- Andreas Kossert : Masuria. East Prussia's forgotten south. 3rd revised edition. Siedler-Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-88680-696-0 .
- Andreas Kossert: East Prussia - History and Myth. 2nd Edition. Siedler-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-88680-808-4 .
- Andreas Kossert: Prussia, Germans or Poles? The Masurians in the field of tension of ethnic nationalism 1870–1956. Ed .: German Historical Institute Warsaw . Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-447-04415-2 .
- Andreas Kossert: "Grenzlandpolitik" and Ostforschung on the periphery of the empire. East Prussian Masuria 1919–1945. In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte , vol. 51 (2003), issue 2, pp. 117–146 ( online ).
- Erwin Kruk : Kronika z Mazur. Warsaw 1989.
- Bernd Martin: Masuria - Myth and History. Herrenalber Forum, Vol. 22, Evang. Press association for Baden, 1998, ISBN 3-87210-122-6 .
- André Micklitza: Masuria . 10th updated and expanded edition. Trescher Verlag, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-89794-464-0 .
- Reinhold Weber : Masuria: History - Country and People. Verlag Gerhard Rautenberg, Leer 1983, ISBN 3-7921-0285-4 .
Primary sources and fiction:
- Franz Heyer : The Masuria. In: Communications from Justus Perthes' geographical institute about important new researches in the entire field of geography by Dr. A. Petermann. Vol. 20, 1874, pp. 128-131 ( online ).
- Wolfgang Koeppen : Once upon a time in Masuria. 2nd Edition. Frankfurt am Main 1991.
- Siegfried Lenz : Suleyken was so tender - Masurian stories. Hoffmann and Campe Verlag, Hamburg 1955.
- Karl Eduard Schmidt : At Masurens Lakes. With seven illustrations based on photos by court photographer Gottheil in Königsberg. In: Reclam's Universe: Modern Illustrated Weekly. 29.2 (1913), pp. 1212-1217.
- Max Simoneit : The Masurian Lakes. 3. Edition. Lötzen 1936.
- Max Toeppen : History of Masuria. A contribution to the Prussian state and cultural history. Danzig 1870 (reprinted Aalen 1978; online version ).
- Historical Masurian Association of Masurian Bees , newspaper
- Old map of Prussia with Culmerland, Sassen and Galinder Land on the border to Mazovia to the south
- The online moose current tips, texts and photos from Masuria
- Masurian Newspaper Online, Latest news from Masuria
- Roman Sołtyk: Poland, geographically historically portrayed &. Stuttgart 1834, p. 53.
- Heinrich Kunstmann: The Slavs, their name, their migration to Europe and the beginnings of Russian history in a historical-onomastic point of view. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1996, p. 148.
- August Ambrassat: The province of East Prussia, a handbook of History. 1912. Reprint Weidlich, Frankfurt a. M. 1978, p. 241 f.
- Kossert: Masuren, p. 74.
- Kossert: Masuren, p. 85.
- Katrin Möller-Funck: The crisis in the crisis. Existential threat and social recession in the Kingdom of Prussia at the beginning of the 18th century . Dissertation (University of Rostock). 2015, p. 81, 245 ( uni-rostock.de [PDF]).
- Martin Broszat: Two hundred years of German Poland policy . Suhrkamp-Verlag, 1978, ISBN 3-518-36574-6 , pp. 129 ff .
- Wojciech Kętrzyński: O Mazurach ( "On the Mazury") . Posen 1872 (Polish, digitized ).
- Wojciech Kętrzyński: O ludności polskiej w Prusiech niegdyś krzyżackich ("The Polish population in the former Order of Prussia") . Lemberg 1882 (Polish, digitized ).
- Andreas Kossert: "Real Sons of Prussia" - The Polish-speaking Masurians in Westphalia and their piety . In: Westphalian magazine . tape 155 , 2005, pp. 331 ff., 334 ( lwl.org [PDF]).
- Andreas Kossert: Masuren, p. 239.
- Jan Salm: East Prussian cities in the First World War - reconstruction and reinvention . Ed .: Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag , 2012, ISBN 978-3-486-71209-4 , p. 151 ff .
- Andreas Kossert: "Grenzlandpolitik" and Ostforschung on the periphery of the empire. P. 124 , (PDF; 8.4 MB)
- Rudolf Jaworski : The Polish border minority in Germany (1920-1939) . In: Institute for Contemporary History , General Directorate of the Polish State Archives (ed.): Germans and Poles between the wars . Minority status and “national struggle” in the border area (1920–1939). tape 1 , 1997, ISBN 3-598-22810-4 , pp. 52 .
- Statistisches Reichsamt (Ed.): Statistical yearbook for the German Reich . The population of the German Reich according to the mother tongue. 1928, p. 20 . On-line
- Mathias Niendorf : Germans and Poles between the wars - minority status and "national struggle" in the border area . 1997, ISBN 3-598-22810-4 , pp. 161 .
- Kossert: Masuren, p. 294 ff.
- Kossert: East Prussia - History and Myth, p. 288.
- Andreas Kossert: Prussia, Germans or Poles? The Masurians in the field of tension of ethnic nationalism 1870–1956 . Ed .: German Historical Institute Warsaw . Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-447-04415-2 , p. 298 ff .
- Włodzimierz Borodziej, Hans Lemberg, Claudia Kraft: "Our homeland has become a foreign country to us ..." - The Germans east of the Oder and Neisse Mountains 1945–1950 . Ed .: Herder Institute (Marburg) . 2000, ISBN 3-87969-283-1 , pp. 453, 504, 511, 549 ( herder-institut.de [PDF]).
- Kossert: Masuren - East Prussia's forgotten south, p. 367.
- Katrin Möller-Funck: The crisis in the crisis. Existential threat and social recession in the Kingdom of Prussia at the beginning of the 18th century . Dissertation (University of Rostock). 2015, p. 195 ( uni-rostock.de [PDF]).
- Kossert: Masuren - East Prussia's forgotten south, p. 70.
- Kossert: Prussia, Germans or Poland, p. 25.
- Kossert: Masuren - East Prussia's forgotten south, p. 71 ff.
- Kossert: Masuren - East Prussia's forgotten south, p. 177 ff.
- Kossert: Prussia, Germans or Poland, pp. 81 ff.
- Poland: New election of a leading bishop at the autumn synod, change of office in January 2010. Martin Luther Bund , May 11, 2009, accessed on May 29, 2020 .
- Kossert: Masuren - East Prussia's forgotten south, p. 374.
- Andrzej Sakson : Between Poles and Germans - are there still Masurians and Ermländer? In: Nordost-Institut (Ed.): Home and Ethnicity. About dealing with strangeness in Masuria and Silesia after the Second World War . tape VIII , 1999, ISSN 0029-1595 , pp. 221 ff .
- Kossert: East Prussia - History and Myth, p. 357.
- Kossert: Masuren - East Prussia's forgotten south, p. 168 ff.
- Synagogues in East Prussia A – Z. jewsineastprussia.de, accessed on May 29, 2020 .
- The districts of Lyck, Oletzko and Goldap assigned to the Białystok Voivodeship are not included here. A total of 3,190 autochthons were recorded here as part of the verification campaign in October 1946.