|location||Warmia-Masuria ( Poland ) Kaliningrad ( Russia )|
The Romincka Forest or Romintensche Heide ( Russian Красный лес Krasny les or Роминтенская пуща Romintenskaja Pushcha , Polish Puszcza Romincka ) is a 210 km² hills, woods - and heathland in the southeast of the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast and in the northeastern Polish Warmia and Mazury . In the geomorphological classification of Poland it is a mesoregion of the macro-region of the Lithuanian Lake District .
The Rominter Heide is named after the village of Rominten , which in turn is named after the Rominte river . The German name and the Polish name, like the river name Rominte and the place name Rominten, are derived from the Prussian ( Old Prussian ) syllable "rom", which means "quiet, calm, holy". This is associated with pagan cult . The Russian name Krasnij Les means "red forest".
The Rominter Heath, which extends over more than 25,000 hectares, is traversed by the Rominte River ( Krasnaja in Russian , Błędzianka in Polish , Rominta ). On the western edge of the Russian part of the area is the village of Krasnolessje (formerly (Groß-) Rominten , renamed Hardteck in 1938 ), in the southern part, close to the Polish border, the local office of the former village ( hunting lodge) Rominten (Russian: Радужное / Raduschnoye ). - In the Polish part there is the place Żytkiejmy ( Szittkehmen , renamed in 1938 in Wehrkirchen ) and the health resort Goldap . The Goldaper See borders in the south-west . In the east on the border with Lithuania is the Wystiter See , to the west of it the Wystiter Hügelland .
The Rominter Heide was traditionally a popular hunting area for the Prussian rulers. Over the centuries the hunter-hunting interest of the Brandenburg-Prussian Hohenzollern was in the particularly capital of the red deer , but until the eighteenth century also the numerous brown bears. After hunting was released as a result of the German Revolution of 1848/49 , the red deer population under the care of Prince Friedrich Karl Nikolaus of Prussia had recovered significantly in the second half of the 19th century. In the middle of the Rominter Heide, near the village of Theerbude , which was renamed "Kaiserlich Rominten" in 1897 , stood the Rominten hunting lodge, built in Norwegian style by Kaiser Wilhelm II, with an adjacent chapel. It was dedicated to Hubertus von Lüttich , helper in need and patron saint of the hunt. In contrast to the community (Groß-) Rominten on the western edge of the heath, Imperial Rominten was only a forest district with 390 inhabitants in 1911.
After the emperor's abdication, "Imperial Rominten" became the "Jagdhaus Rominten" village , in which the Rominten forest ranger was also located. The other three Prussian chief foresters responsible for Rominter Heide were to the northwest in Warnen (Russian: Озерки / Oserki), northeast in Nassawen (Russian: Лесистое / Lessistoje) and east in Szittkehmen (Polish: Żytkiejmy). After the imperial court hunting ground in the Weimar Republic had become a Prussian state hunting ground, Prime Minister Otto Braun often went hunting.
On August 16, 1919, the auxiliary forester Oskar Kahnert , who lived in Jörkischken ( Jurkiszki ), was shot by poachers. In 1920 the Wiechert brothers who had been convicted of the act were convicted. Otto Wiechert, who fired the shot, received a long prison sentence. A memorial stone was placed in Rominter Heide to commemorate the event.
At the time of National Socialism , the Rominter Heide was seized by "Reichsjägermeister" Hermann Göring . He had the " Reichsjägerhof Rominten " built as his own domicile on the steep slope above the Rominte, just under two kilometers north of the old imperial hunting lodge . At the international hunting exhibitions in Berlin in 1937 and Düsseldorf in 1954, special shows on Rominter Heide took place, each of which was designed by Walter Frevert (1897–1962), the last chief forester on Rominter Heide. The focus of both shows was on the herding and hunting of red deer and the presentation of capital stag antlers.
The East Prussian State Museum in Lüneburg dedicates part of its collections to the Rominter Heide hunting area . There and in the German Hunting and Fishing Museum in Munich hang some of the capital Rominten deer antlers. Artistic depictions of the red deer from Rominten come from the hunting painters Richard Friese (1854–1918) and Gerhard Löbenberg (1891–1967).
Today hunting tourism is gaining importance again in the region, 2/3 on the Russian side and 1/3 on the Polish side.
- Rominte (lexicon entry), in: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon , Volume 17, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, p. 99
- Walter Frevert : Rominten. The East Prussian Hunting Paradise , 11th edition. blv, Munich 2008, 225 pages, ISBN 978-3-8354-0458-8 .
- Andreas Gautschi : The deer of the Rominter Heide in what was then East Prussia . 2nd, completely revised and greatly expanded edition. Nimrod, Melsungen 2008, 83/351 S., ISBN 978-3-7888-1177-8 .
- Andreas Gautschi, Burkhard Winsmann-Steins : Rominten yesterday and today , 3rd edition. Nimrod-Verlag, Suderburg 1999, 246 pages, ISBN 3-927848-06-9 .
- Andreas Gautschi: Walter Frevert. A Weidmann's Wechsel and Ways , 2nd, supplemented edition. Edition Nimrod at JANA, Melsungen 2005, 176 pp., ISBN 3-7888-0981-7 .
- Andreas Gautschi: The Reichsjägermeister. Facts and legends about Hermann Göring , 4th edition. Neumann-Neudamm, Melsungen 2006, 338 pages, ISBN 3-7888-1038-6 .
- Uwe Neumärker, Volker Knopf: Görings Revier Ch.Links 2007, ISBN 978-3-86153-457-0 .
- Heinrich von Oepen: Hunting in Rominten. Paul Parey 1982, ISBN 3-490-20311-9 .
- W. Rothe, D. Wiemer: Rominter Heide and Goldap , postcard book, 2014.
- W. Rothe, D. Wiemer, C. Streufert: Rominten - The photo album of FM Dietrich Micke , 2012.
- W. Rothe, D. Wiemer: Rominten - Carinhall - Bialowieza, The photo album of Count Eric von Rosen , 2nd edition 2015, self-published, ISBN 978-3-9811896-6-7 .
- W. Rothe, A. + G. Trucewitz, H. Gruber, Ortsatlas der Dörfer der Rominter Heide , 3rd edition, 2004 self-published, ISBN 3-9807759-6-8 .
- KE Schmidt: The Rominter Heide and its surroundings . Kafemann, Danzig 1898 (31 pages, with seven text images and a map).
- HMF Syskowski: Under the sign of the cup crown. Neumann-Neudamm 1998, ISBN 3-7888-0718-0 .
- Local history Rominten with an imperial hunting lodge
- Uwe Neumärker: Where the brown deer roared: Göring's forgotten hunting ground . In: one day: Zeitgeschichten on Spiegel Online . Retrieved July 29, 2009.
- Michael Succow Foundation for the Protection of Nature: Rominter Heide.pdf FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE-LARGE PROTECTED AREA OF ROMINTER HEIDE (KALININGRAD AREA / RUSSIA AND POLAND) . Retrieved January 14, 2018.
- Gustav Neumann : The German Empire in geographical, statistical and topographical relation . Volume 1, Müller, Berlin 1874, p. 140
- Siegfried Borkowski, Aunt Martchen auf Menfang - Criminal cases from East Prussia, Silesia and East Brandenburg , dr. ziethen verlag Oschersleben 2010, ISBN 978-3-86289-008-8 , p. 8 ff.