|Area :||17.20 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||19-500 and 19-501|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 87|
|License plate :||NGO|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK 65 : ( Gussew / Russia -) ↔ Olecko - Grajewo - Bobrowniki / Belarus|
|Ext. 650 : Stara Różanka - Srokowo - Węgorzewo → Gołdap|
|Ext. 651 : Sejny - Żytkiejmy - Dubeninki → Gołdap|
|Rail route :||no rail connection|
|Next international airport :||Danzig|
|Gminatype:||Urban and rural municipality|
(June 30, 2019)
|Population density :||56 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||2818033|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Tomasz Luto|
|Address:||pl. Zwycięstwa 14
The city is located about 130 kilometers southeast of Kaliningrad (Königsberg, Russia) and about 200 km southwest of Vilnius (Wilna, Lithuania) on the border with the Kaliningrad Oblast (Königsberg area) in historic East Prussia . There it is located on the northern foothills of the Seesker heights on the little river Goldap ( Gołdapa ), near the forest, low mountain range and heather area of Rominter Heide (Prussian ram, rom : quiet, holy).
The urban and rural municipality of Gołdap covers an area of 362 km², which makes up 46.86% of the total area of the powiat Gołdapski . 62% of the area is used for agriculture, 26% for forestry.
Neighboring communities are:
- in the powiat Gołdapski: Banie Mazurskie (Benkheim) and Dubeninki ( Dubeningken , 1938–1945 Dubeningen )
- in the Powiat Suwalski : Filipów
- in the Powiat Olecki : Kowale Oleckie (Kowahlen)
- in the Russian Rajon Nesterow : Tschistyje Prudy ( Tollmingkehmen , 1938–1946 Tollmingen ).
In addition to Gołdap itself, the urban and rural municipality includes the following surrounding villages:
|Polish name||German name
|Polish name||German name
|Polish name||German name
|Jeziorki Małe||Klein Jesziorken
1930–1945 Klein Schöntal
|Jeziorki Wielkie||(Large) Jesziorken
cells 1906–1945 Hegelingen
|Rożyńsk Mały||Klein Rosinsko
|Boćwiński Młyn||Bodschwingken Mill
1938–1945 Herandstaler Mill
|Rożyńsk Wielki||Groß Rosinsko
1938–1945 clear flow
|Czarnowo Średnie||Middle Jodupp
|Czarnowo Wielkie||Groß Jodupp
|Dunajek Mały||Klein Duneyken
1938–1945 Klein Duneiken
|Łobody||Dry to lie on||Tatary||Tartarren
|Nowa Boćwinka||New Bodschwngken
1938–1945 New Herandstal
|Wronki Wielkie||Groß Wronken
1936–1938 Squint masks
The name is derived from the Prussian galdape , which means river in the hollow . The Goldap is a river that rises as Jarke in the southeast of the Seesker ridge , then flows into Lake Goldap and then leaves it as Goldap .
The city is named after the river Gołdapa ( Goldap ). In the area around Goldap there were Prussian ramparts , for example in Klein Wronken, near Texeln on the Rominteufer , near Ballupönen , near Kollnischken , near Pellkauen and near Gut Adlersfelde .
The later district of Goldap was not settled as planned until 1535.
On May 15, 1570 the city of Goldap was founded by Kaspar von Nostitz . Up until the 17th century, the city on the eastern border of Prussia suffered constant attacks from the east.
In 1657 the city was burned down by the Tatars . Many citizens are said to have been abducted or killed, and Mayor Dullo was publicly roasted on a spit alive at the market. In 1694 the city burned down again.
From 1709 to 1711 East Prussia was hit by a plague epidemic. Immigrants from Brandenburg , Pomerania , Magdeburg , Halberstadt , from the Palatinate and the Duchy of Nassau , Germans and Swiss, Prussians and Lithuanians replaced the dead population. From 1732 onwards, exiles from Salzburg came who were expelled for religious reasons. After the Second Silesian War , the city became a garrison town of the "Black Hussars ". After the third fire in 1834, there was hardly anything left of the original arbor houses.
On October 16, 1834, a devastating fire broke out in Goldap, through which 266 buildings, including the town hall, the court house, the old school next to the old church, the judicial prison and 112 private houses were cremated.
At the beginning of the First World War in 1914, Goldap was destroyed and occupied by the Russian army. After the withdrawal of the Russian army, the city was rebuilt in the " New Objectivity " style. The place was the seat of the district Goldap.
Towards the end of the Second World War , the townspeople were evacuated on October 21, 1944. The following day the city was occupied by the Soviet army . After heavy fighting, however, the German Wehrmacht managed to retake the city on November 15th. German propaganda celebrated the victory. A few days after the start of the winter offensive in 1945 by the Red Army, however, on January 18, 1945, the final conquest of the city, which was now 90% destroyed.
After the end of the war in 1945, Goldap and the southern half of East Prussia were placed under Polish administration. The spelling of the place name was changed to Gołdap . As far as the people had not fled, they were in the period that followed expelled and replaced by Poles.
The northern part of the district of Goldap with most of the Rominter Heide, however, was placed under Soviet administration. From then on, Gołdap was only around three kilometers from an almost impenetrable border and suffered from its remote location in the border area.
Goldap was known, among other things, for large cattle and horse markets and the second largest marketplace in East Prussia (and Germany). Goldap was famous for its cloth makers, hat makers, stocking knitters, tanners and bakers. A few tons of Goldaper rings and pretzels were even exported to Batavia (Jakarta). Goldaper mead was also famous. "The inhabitants of the city have the name piglet makers because a malicious painter knew how to cleverly underlay a sow with piglets painted in oil to the actual coat of arms of the city, which he painted in watercolors".
Expression: “Goldap burns” when you urgently need to go to the toilet.
After the destruction during the First World War, a "East Prussia reconstruction program" was carried out, in which the architects Hans J. Philipp and Fritz Schopohl played a major role. The external design of the new houses was based on the well-known architecture of East Prussia: a pan roof on inverted formwork, in the countryside mostly rough trowel plaster, in the city scratch plaster . The windows were painted dark in the fixed frame and white in the sash wood. The buildings were built on the foundations or basement walls of the destroyed houses, but the size of the new buildings was often changed by different floor plans. A typical building from the East Prussian reconstruction program is / was the "small bourgeois house" by Franz Hoyer, which was designed as a terraced house.
|1782||over 3,000||without the garrison|
|1819||3,010||including military personnel|
|1890||7.161||including 358 Catholics and 60 Jews|
|1939||11,578||thereof 10,876 Evangelicals, 385 Catholics, 115 other Christians and 19 Jews|
Marienkirche, formerly the old church
On May 14, 1570, the land was written for the first church building, which began around 1580 and was completed after more than ten years. After a fire in 1623, the nave was rebuilt from field stones and bricks in the years up to 1627. This building stood until 1944, even if a hurricane in January 1818 caused even greater damage. In the pyramidal closed tower there were two bells from the years 1635 and 1705. Inside the church there was a pulpit altar by the sculptor Pfeffer from Königsberg .
The old church was badly destroyed during the fighting for Goldap in 1944/45. In the early 1980s, it was rebuilt in the original architectural style, and in 1984 the church, previously a Protestant church, was now consecrated by the Roman Catholic Church with the name Najświętszej Maryi Panny Matki Kościół . It has been a co- cathedral in the Diocese of Ełk since 1992 .
Former New Church
On the site of an earlier reformed and garrison church , General Daniel Friedrich von Lossow built a new church building in 1778. Until 1817 it was a reformed church. Due to dilapidation, the church had to be closed in 1842. In 1856 a new building took place on the Goldaper market: a neo-Gothic brick shell with a high tower. In the chaos of war in 1944/45 the church was destroyed and burned down except for the tower. The tower was demolished in 1956. The church was not rebuilt.
St. Leo Church
The Leo Church ( Kościół św. Leona ) is a building from 1894 that has always been a Catholic place of worship and still is today. The building survived the war almost unscathed.
St. Joseph Church
The youngest church among the Goldaper churches was taken over in 1991 and named Kościół św. Jozefa Robotnika consecrated. Today it is the third Catholic church in the city.
Until 1945 there were two Protestant parishes in Goldap, which were assigned to the old and the new church. In earlier times the services were held in German, Lithuanian and Polish, later only in German. The Lithuanian parish was provided by the first pastor, the Polish parish by the second pastor (deacon) of the Old Church. In 1890 there were 6,743 Protestant church members in the city, in 1939 there were 10,876. The district of the old church included the northern part of the city with twenty localities in the area, the southern part with nine parish places was assigned to the new church. Both communities belonged to the Goldap parish in the church province of East Prussia of the Church of the Old Prussian Union until 1945 .
Due to flight and displacement as a result of the Second World War , the number of Protestant church members fell to almost zero. In the post-war years, however, there was again a smaller Protestant community in Gołdap, which together with people from the surrounding area again created a center here. The Gołdap parish is a branch parish of the Church in Suwałki (Suwalken) within the Masurian diocese of the Evangelical-Augsburg Church in Poland .
Parish locations (until 1945)
For parish Goldap (Old and New Church) were before 1945 near the town of Goldap 30 places:
|Surname||Change name from
1938 to 1945
|Today's name||Surname||Change name from
1938 to 1945
|Abraham's Rest||Jabramowo||Little dumbbells||Herb meadow||Maloye Izhevskoye|
|On the mountain||Podgórze||* Collnischken||Burgfelde||Kolniszki|
|* Cash take||Barkau||Barkovo||* Kuiken||Tannenhorst||Kujki Dolne|
|* Buttkuhnen||Bodenhausen||Botkuny||* Dry to lie on||Łobody|
|C won||Rotenau||Czerwone||Means Jodupp||Mittelholzeck||Czarnowo Średnie|
|Big dumbbells||Erlensee||Maloye Izhevskoye||Samonians||Clear flow||Samoniny|
|Great Jodupp||Holzeck||Czarnowo Wielkie||Schillinnen||Heidensee||Szyliny|
|Big Wronken||Winterberg||Wronki Wielkie||Schools||Woodpecker soil||Prochladnoye|
|* Johannisberg||Janowo||* Sutzken||
(from 1933 :)
|* Jörkischken||Jarkental||Jurkiszki||* Wilkatschen||Birkendorf||Wiłkajcie|
Church district Goldap
Until 1945 Goldap was the central location of a church district within the church province of East Prussia of the Church of the Old Prussian Union . Nine parishes were assigned to this church district, the last superintendent of which was the Goldaper pastor Wilhelm Krüger . The area of the church district at that time is now intersected by the Polish (PL) -Russian (RUS) state border:
|Name (until 1945/46)||Current name / country||Name (until 1945/46)||Current name / country|
|Dubeningken, 1938–1945: Dubeningen
with Hubertuskapelle in
Jagdhaus Rominten = Raduschnoje / RUS
|Dubeninki / PL||Groß Rominten, 1938–1946: Hardteck||Krasnolessje / RUS|
|Gawaiten, 1938–1946: Herzogsrode||Gavrilowo / RUS||Gurnen||Górne / PL|
|Goldap , Old Church / New Church||Gołdap / PL||Szittkehmen, 1936–1938: Schittkehmen,
Żytkiejmy / PL, and:
Saslonowo / RUS
|Grabowen, 1938–1945: Arnswald||Grabowo / PL||Tollmingkehmen, 1938–1946: Tollmingen||Tschistyje Prudy / RUS|
A Catholic parish had existed in Goldap since 1894. In 1890 there were 358 parishioners, in 1939 there were 385, and about 1,000 people in the surrounding villages were added. The community in Darkehmen (1938–1946 Angerapp , today Russian: Osjorsk) was affiliated to Goldap .
In addition to the three Gołdap parishes, four others from the surrounding area are assigned to the Gołdap Dean's Office:
- Banie Mazurskie (Benkheim)
- Górne (Gurnen)
- Grabowo (Grabowen , 1938–1945 Arnswald)
- Żabin (Klein Szabienen , 1936–1938 Klein Schabienen , 1938–1945 Kleinlautersee)
sons and daughters of the town
In chronological order
- Johann Friedrich Hartknoch (1740–1789), publisher
- Joseph Theodor Sigismund von Baczko (1751–1840), Prussian general
- Wilhelm Franz Epha (1828–1904), dune inspector on the Curonian Spit
- Emil Drenker (1839–1887), German theater agent
- Ferdinand Krieger (1858–1919), civil engineer in Königsberg
- Johannes Thiele (1860–1935), zoologist and malacologist
- Richard Skowronnek (1862–1932), journalist and writer
- Carl Zarniko (1863–1933), German medic
- Erich Sack (1887–1943), Protestant pastor, resistance fighter against National Socialism, died in the Dachau concentration camp
- Alfred Particle (1888–1945), landscape painter from East Prussia
- Peter Kaufmann (1890–1982), head of the Deaconess Mother House of Mercy
- Rudolf Trautvetter (1891–1982), German general
- Werner Laskowski (1908–1973), District Administrator in the district of Friedeberg Nm., Director of the Schleswig-Holstein State Statistical Office
- Ursula Schmidt-Tintemann (1924–2017), plastic surgeon
- Karl Schedereit (1925–2011), German director and documentary filmmaker
- Edmut Kluge (1933–2019), German dialect author
- Ingrid Prignitz , b. Kaulbach (1936–2007), Germanist and (later) editor at Hinstorff Verlag Rostock
- Katrin Fuchs (* 1938), German politician (SPD)
- Knut Koch (* 1941), German actor and author
- Jürgen Wilke (* 1943), media scientist
- Sylwester Czereszewski (* 1971), Polish football player
Other personalities associated with the city
- Gotthold Samuel Abraham Seemann (1772–1835), District Administrator of Goldap
coat of arms
Blazon : “Divided obliquely; Above, in silver, the red (Brandenburg) eagle, growing, the breast is covered with a silver "S", below it is slanted in black and silver. "
On May 14, 1570, Duke Albrecht Friedrich of Prussia awarded the city the above coat of arms, whereby it is strange that the red margravial eagle has "an S on its neck", as only the black Prussian eagle does as a sign of its dependence on King Sigmund of Poland had to carry.
One of the few preserved historical buildings in Goldap is the water tower built in 1905 by the Gdańsk company "AW Müller" , which was once part of the city's waterworks. The water tower is made of red fired bricks and is 46.5 meters high. It consists of seven floors and has a spherical roof with an attached lantern as a spire. The water tank that was once installed inside it held 250 cubic meters .
The water tower, which is located a little away from the city center , survived both the First and Second World Wars almost unscathed. Only minor damage caused by projectiles from handguns damaged the masonry . Until 1986, when there was a crack in the water tank and the water tower had to be taken out of service, the residents of Goldap could be supplied with water via the water tower.
Today the water tower is no longer used for water supply, but is one of the city's attractions. In the upper area of the tower a café was built in over two floors , the upper floor being glazed all around and allowing a fantastic panoramic view. In addition, it is possible to walk around the tower completely outside of the café and also to climb to the lantern on the outside via a staircase. The ascent to the café can be done via a built-in elevator or stairs . Every single floor is dedicated to a topic area and furnished with a wide variety of historical documents , furniture or other objects. The checkout area and a small souvenir shop are located on the ground floor .
In 1879 Goldap was connected to the railway network when the Insterburg – Lyck railway was put into operation. This gave Goldap a connection to the Prussian Eastern Railway to Königsberg (Prussia) and Berlin . In 1897 the Angerburg – Goldap railway was opened , and four years later it was extended to the north on the Goldap – Stallupönen railway .
With the railway line to Stallupönen, a connection to the Rominter Heide was created. In 1927 it was supplemented by the Goldap – Szittkehmen railway line, also known as the “Kaiserbahn” , which was built in sections and connected to a railway line to Gumbinnen in Szittkehmen .
All lines of the former railway lines were abandoned due to the war and later also for reasons of profitability. Today Gołdap no longer has a rail link.
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia. Part I: Topography of East Prussia. Königsberg / Leipzig 1785, p. 30, No. 4) .
- Daniel Heinrich Arnoldt : Brief messages from all preachers who have been admitted to the Lutheran Churches in East Prussia since the Reformation. Königsberg 1777, pp. 113-115 .
- Maria Biolik: The names of the flowing waters in the Pregel / Nazwy wód płynących dorzecza Pregoły (= Hydronymia Europaea 11). Steiner, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-06933-X , pp. 65f.
- Hermann Frischbier: Prussian dictionary: East and West Prussian provincialisms in alphabetical order. Volume 1: A-K. Enslin, Berlin 1882, p. 245.
- Georg Hermanowski : East Prussia Lexicon. For everyone who loves East Prussia (= German Landscapes in Lexicon 3). Adam Kraft Verlag, Mannheim 1980, ISBN 3-8083-1162-2
- Johannes Mignat: The district of Goldap: an East Prussian homeland book. Holzner, Würzburg 1965.
- Vilius Peteraitis: Mažoji Lietuva ir Tvanksta. Prabaltų, pralietuvių ir lietuvininkų laikais. Daugiau kaip 4000 metų nenutrūkstamos baltiškosios vandenvardinės kultūros raida. / Lithuania Minor and Tvanksta. Mažosios Lietuvos Fondas u. a., Vilnius 1992, p. 195.
- Rozalia Przybytek: place names of Baltic origin in the southern part of East Prussia / Nazwy miejscowe pochodzenia bałtyckiego w południowej części Prus Wschodnich (= Hydronymia Europaea special volume 1). Steiner, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-515-06449-4 , pp. 74f.
- Gerhard Salemke: Site plans of old Prussian ramparts in the former province of East Prussia. Salemke, Gütersloh 2005.
- Daniel Wilhelm Schröder : Chronicle of the city of Goldapp. In: Prussian provincial papers. Volume 7, Königsberg 1832, pp. 433–454 ( Online, Google )
- Daniel Wilhelm Schröder: The great conflagration in the city of Goldapp on October 16, 1834. In: Prussian provincial sheets. Volume 13, Königsberg 1835, pp. 510-518.
- official website of the city (Polish)
- Website of the district community Goldap Ostpreußen eV (German)
- The unofficial side of the town of Goldap (Polish)
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Website of the city, Władze , accessed on February 8, 2015
- Rozalia Przybytek: Hydronymia Europaea: place names of Baltic origin in the southern part of East Prussia . Steiner, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-515-06449-4 , pp. 73f.
- Ambrassat, August: The Province of East Prussia, a handbook of local history, 1912, reprint Weidlich, Frankfurt a. M. 1978, p. 311 ff
- http://www.ostpreussen.net/ostpreussen/orte.php?bericht=248 Ostpreussen.net
- Daniel Wilhelm Schröder : The great conflagration in the city of Goldapp on October 16, 1834 . In: Prussian provincial sheets . Volume 13, Königsberg 1835, pp. 510-518.
- Wasmuth's monthly booklet. Issue 11-12, Berlin 1919-20, pp. 321ff.
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part I: Topography of East Prussia . Marienwerder 1785, p. 30, no. 4) .
- Royal. Prussian Statistical Bureau: Contributions to the statistics of the Prussian state . Berlin 1821, p. 57.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. goldap.html # ew33gldpgoldap. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- The churches in Goldap at ostpreussen.net
- District community Goldap, churches in the district of Goldap
- Walther Hubatsch : History of the Protestant Church in East Prussia. Volume 3: Documents. Göttingen 1968, p. 479
- The * indicates a school location
- Prof. Dr. Erich Keyser : Deutsches Städtebuch - Handbook of urban history Volume I Northeast Germany Page 56/57. W. Kohlhammer Verlag Stuttgart 1939.
- Prof. Otto Hupp : German coat of arms . Kaffee-Handels-Aktiengesellschaft , Bremen 1925.
- Historical Chronology Goldaps
- History of the Goldap district ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Dieter Zeigert, Disappeared Tracks. The "Kaiserbahn" Goldap - Szittkehmen , Stade, 2011 - ISBN 978-3-00-034548-7