|Area :||18.93 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||19-200 to 19-203|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 86|
|License plate :||BGR|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK 61 : Warsaw ↔ Augustów|
|DK 65 : Ełk ↔ Białystok|
|Rail route :||Białystok – Ełk|
|Next international airport :||Warsaw|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1157 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||2004011|
|Administration (as of 2011)|
|Mayor :||Adam Kiełczewski|
The first settlements in the area of today's Grajewo already existed at the beginning of the 15th century. The first documentary mention comes from the year 1426. By King Sigismund I Grajewo received city rights in 1540 .
By 1800 the city had 23 houses and 218 inhabitants. In 1815 it became part of the Russian Congress of Poland . Crafts and trade developed in the second half of the 19th century. Since the population had taken part in the January uprising against Russia, Grajewo lost its town charter in 1870. With the connection to the rail network between the to East Prussia belonging elk and belonging to Russia Białystok the development of the now town was accelerated.
A Jewish community had existed in Grajewo since the late 18th century ; later Jews temporarily formed the majority of the population. In 1808 197 Jews lived in the city with 39% of the total population, in 1827 they formed the majority with 57%, in 1857 their proportion had risen to 76%, in 1897 there were more than 4,000. After the First World War , the proportion of Jews in the population fell sharply; in 1921 it was still 2,834 or 39% of the total population.
During the First World War , the place was largely destroyed. After the war he came to the Second Polish Republic and on July 4, 1919 received city rights again. Between the world wars, Grajewo became the seat of a district administration and had a population of around 9,500. In 1933 there were anti-Jewish riots.
On the night of September 6th to 7th, 1939, the city was occupied by the Wehrmacht and on September 21st it was handed over to the Soviet Union . The city lost this to the Third Reich in June 1941 . In August 1941, a ghetto was set up in which 1,600 to 2,000 Jews were locked, from where they were mostly deported to the Treblinka and Auschwitz extermination camps in December 1942 and January 1943 . The Red Army marched in on January 23, 1945 . The Second World War claimed around 5,000 lives in Grajewo, and around 30% of the site was destroyed.
sons and daughters of the town
- Immanuel Olsvanger (1888–1961), Yiddish folklorist, translator and Zionist activist
- Yehudith Birk (1926–2013), Israeli biochemist
- Antoni Karwowski (* 1948), painter and performance artist
- Andrzej Szczytko (* 1955), actor and director
- Maciej Makuszewski (* 1989), football player
- City website
- George Gorin (ed.): Grayewo Memorial Book (Grayeve yisker-buch, Grajewo, Poland). JewishGen, 1950, accessed November 4, 2011 .
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Grajewo. In: Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 8. Macmillan Reference USA, Detroit, 2007, p. 30 , accessed November 4, 2011 .