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Coat of arms of Cieszyn
Cieszyn (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Silesia
Powiat : Cieszyn
Area : 28.69  km²
Geographic location : 49 ° 45 '  N , 18 ° 38'  E Coordinates: 49 ° 45 '0 "  N , 18 ° 38' 0"  E
Residents : 34,513
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Postal code : 43-400
Telephone code : (+48) 33
License plate : SCI
Economy and Transport
Street : Bielsko-Biała - Frýdek-Místek / Ostrava
Rail route : Ustroń - Ostrava
Next international airport : Katowice Airport
Gminatype: Borough
Residents: 34,513
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Community number  ( GUS ): 2403011
Administration (as of 2015)
Mayor : Ryszard Macura
Address: Rynek 1
43-400 Cieszyn
Website :

Panorama from the Piast Tower
Market place from the west
Market place from the north
Old town
Numerous beer cellars in the old town reflect the brewing tradition of Cieszyn
District Court
National House
Main post office
Larisch Palace
Registry office
Entrance gate to the communal cemetery
Entrance gate to the Protestant cemetery

Cieszyn [ 'ʨɛʃɨn ] ( German  Teschen , Czech Těšín ) is the part of the Polish-Czech twin town of Cieszyn / Český Těšín in the Silesian Voivodeship in the south of Poland .


Cieszyn is located in the west of the Silesian Foothills ( Pogórze Śląskie ), part of the Western Beskids belonging to the Carpathian Mountains . It lies on the western edge of the Beskid foothills . Cieszyn is a border town with the Czech Republic . The border to the Czech half of the city of Český Těšín is formed by the river Olsa (Olza in Polish) leading to the Oder , over which three road bridges with border crossings lead in the city area. The largest bridge has a span of 760 m. Cieszyn is located in the district of Powiat Cieszyński in the Silesian Voivodeship and borders the municipality of Hażlach in the north, the municipality of Dębowiec in the northeast and the municipality of Goleszów in the southeast . The voivodeship capital Katowice is about 70 km north.

The urban area has an area of ​​28.69 km² and makes up 3.93% of the area of ​​the district. It consists of 55% arable land and 7% forests.

South-east of Cieszyn in the Silesian Beskids on the 1257 m high Skrzyczne mountain lies one of the largest Polish winter sports areas.

City structure

The population development over the last few decades shows a sustained trend towards moving out of the city center to the outskirts.

Districts Residents 1985 Population 1997
Stare Miasto (old town) 07.185 06,053
Mała Łąka (Little Meadow) 00.575 00.436
Liburnia 09.227 09,571
Bobrek (Bobrek / Bobersdorf) 02,344 03,040
Podgórze 07,598 07,945
Błogocice (Blogotitz) 05,445 05,560
Boguszowice (Boguschowitz) 00.430 00.361
Marklowice (Marklowitz) 00.590 00.935
Kalembice (Kalembitz) 00.765 00.970
Pastwiska (Pastwisk) 00.936 01,712
Krasna (Krasna / Schöndorf) 00.478 00.525
Gułdowy (Guldau) 00.180 00.193
Mnisztwo (Mönichhof) 00.407 00.388
All in all 36.163 38,115


The place is first documented by sources in a document issued by Pope Hadrian IV in 1155 , which mentions it as Tescin . The name is derived from the first name of the original owner * Ciecha, * Ciesza (≤  Chiech-ja ), Ciechosław, such as B. Ticino . In the 13th century, other variants of the place name appear: Tessin (1223), Thesin (1228), Tesin (1239), Tesschin (1258), Cessin (1288). Apparently in connection with the settlement of the surrounding area by German colonists initiated by the Silesian dukes , the German name Teschen (1312) finally prevailed.

The Polish name Cieszyn is derived from the verb cieszyć , which can be translated as (to be) happy , and refers to the founding legend, according to which the city was founded by the three brothers Leszek, Cieszek and Bolek in the place where it was met and were happy about the meeting. According to the founding legend, this should have happened in 810.



According to tradition, a meeting of the three prince brothers Leszko, Bolko and Cieszko was the reason to found today's Cieszyn in 810. In fact, there are traces of an ancient settlement of the castle hill ( Slavic castle wall ) from the 6th century BC. Since the 6th century the West Slavic Golensizen settled , who in the 7th century built a settlement with a castle in Old Teschen in today's Chotebuz - Podobora . This settlement was destroyed in the 9th century, probably during fighting between the Great Moravian Empire under Svatopluk and the Wislanes . The residents no longer rebuilt the settlement in the same place, but moved about 5 km up the Olsa and chose today's castle hill as a new settlement, which probably belonged to the territory of the Great Moravian Empire from the end of the 9th century.


The Slavic ramparts came to Poland along with all of Silesia at the end of the 10th century. The oldest preserved buildings in the city date from the 11th century . The city itself was mentioned for the first time in 1155. At that time, Cieszyn belonged to the Duchy of Silesia , which was part of the Seniorate of Poland , after Bolesław III's will in 1138 . Wry-mouthed the Polish particularism was founded. This split up into several duchies in 1173, including the Duchy of Ratibor , which came to the Duchy of Opole in 1202 . In 1281 the Duchy of Teschen was created from the Duchy of Opole as a result of an inheritance division . The current streets of the old town were built during the 12th and 13th centuries. The Wroclaw Bishop Lorenz mentioned the city in 1223, so the foundation of the city according to the Löwenberg city law must have taken place beforehand. This makes Cieszyn one of the oldest cities in Silesia and all of Poland. In 1240 the church of St. Maria was built first as a parish church with a parish school and later as a monastery church of the Dominicans , whose monastery was built in Cieszyn until 1270.

The first Duke of Teschen was Mieszko I , who expanded the castle into a ducal seat. After his death in 1315, his territory was also divided among his sons, and the Duchy of Auschwitz was separated from the Duchy of Teschen. The latter fell to Casimir I , who in 1327 placed himself under the sovereignty of Bohemia together with the Opole dukes of Ratibor , Falkenberg , Strehlitz and Auschwitz , which the Kujawi Piasts , who had taken over the Polish throne in 1320, recognized with the Treaty of Trenčín in 1335 .

Silesian Piasts under Bohemian feudal sovereignty

The subsequent economic development, which was due to the favorable location on Kaiserstraße from Vienna to Krakow, prompted Duke Przemko I to grant Magdeburg city rights to the place in 1374 . In 1416 his son Bolko I confirmed the town's privileges and possessions, in particular the villages of Bürgersdorf and Krasna and the black water ponds. In addition, he gave the city the right to inheritance. In 1496, Duke Casimir II sold land to the city to build a town hall and a market square.

Under the ruling from 1545 Duke Wenceslaus III. the Reformation was introduced throughout the duchy . Although Duke Adam Wenzel converted back to Catholicism in 1610, Cieszyn continued to be a majority Lutheran. The last Silesian Piasts were largely tolerant of their subjects of different faiths. During the Thirty Years' War , Cieszyn was plundered several times by imperial and Swedish troops. The Renaissance-style castle was destroyed by Swedish soldiers in 1646. After the extinction of Cieszyn branch of the Silesian Piasts with Duchess Elizabeth Lucretia 1654 fell Cieszyn along with the Duchy of Teschen by escheat to the Crown of Bohemia , 1526 to the Habsburg had arrived.


After Cieszyn was taken over by the Habsburgs, the Protestant pastor was expelled from the city as part of the Counter-Reformation and the parish church Maria Magdalena was handed over to the Catholic community. In 1670 the Jesuit order built the Holy Cross Church , in 1675 a grammar school. After some of the evangelicals had emigrated and some of them withdrew into secret Protestantism , Teschen was a Catholic city in 1683. At the same time, the economic importance fell with the number of inhabitants. It was not until 1707 when the Swedish King Karl XII. The Altranstadt Convention , which was enforced, allowed the Teschen Evangelicals to build their own church again in the city. The construction of the Gnadenkirche from 1709 to 1730 with 8,000 seats, until 1751 with a 72 meter high tower, marked an intellectual turning point. The Jesus Church , the largest of the six approved grace churches in Silesia , is still used today, after more than 300 years, as a Protestant church (see section Religion ).

From 1722, Duke Leopold Joseph Karl von Lothringen , father of the later Emperor Franz I Stephan , resided in Teschen. After the First Silesian War in 1742, as a result of which most of Silesia fell to Prussia, Teschen remained with the Bohemian sovereign and was incorporated into the newly created Austrian Silesia . In the course of the First Partition of Poland , Lesser Poland , east of Cieszyn, came to the Habsburgs as the Kingdom of Galicia , whereby Cieszyn lost its peripheral position in the Habsburg Empire and was located centrally between Vienna and Krakow . On May 13, 1779, the Treaty of Teschen was concluded between Archduchess Maria Theresa in her capacity as Queen of Bohemia and Frederick II , which ended the War of the Bavarian Succession . Teschen owned the only officially recognized Protestant parish in Austria, headed by a consistory. The Jesus School was elevated to a high school. The influence of the Teschener Gnadenkirche extended to the secret Protestantism in all of Austria. The church is still considered to be the mother church of the Cieszyn diocese , which, although its seat is in Bielsko-Biała, is named after the city of Teschen. In 1790 there were only 181 Lutherans in Teschen (6.7% of the city's residents); but the parish included around 6,000 predominantly Polish-speaking farmers in the neighboring villages.

The number of Jews rose gradually after the tolerance patent of 1713 and 1781. In the 18th century, the extensive trade in Teschen was almost monopolized by Italian merchants.

From 1766 to 1822 Maria Theresa's son-in-law, Prince Albert of Saxony , was regent of the city under the title Duke of Saxony-Teschen . In the family list of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen, the “general line” formed an important branch up to the 20th century; their representatives called themselves Archdukes of Austria-Teschen. In the late 18th century, German culture began to dominate the city again, thanks in part to the new educational policy that was introduced in Teschen in German. From the early 19th century, the townspeople were predominantly German-speaking or bilingual, as many of them, who were of Slavic origin, had learned the German language.

After Austria's defeat by Napoleon in the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, the Viennese government temporarily had its seat in Teschen. Duke Karl tore down large parts of the ruins of Teschen Castle and from 1838 built the hunting lodge , the castle park and the Cieszyn castle brewery on the castle hill. Emperor Franz Joseph I stayed in the city several times between 1851 and 1906. In the course of industrialization in the 19th century, several factories, mainly for the textile and wood industry, were also built in Teschen. The city became the railway junction of the northern line Kojetein – Bielitz and the Kaschau-Oderberger Bahn . After that an important society of Magyars lived in Teschen .

Since 1783 the seat of a Kreishauptmannschaft ( Teschner county ), Teschen with the Austrian constitutional reform of 1849 was the seat of a district administration and a district court in the restored crown land Austrian Silesia. In 1872, under Franz Sniegon (Franciszek Śniegoń) , Teschen became the seat of the Vicariate General of the Diocese of Wroclaw in Austria-Hungary, which continued to exist after Sniegon.

In 1880 Teschen had 13,004 inhabitants. It was a linguistically and religiously mixed city. The 1910 census showed a population of 22,489; Of these, a majority of 62% or 13,254 people were German-speaking, 6,832 were Polish-speaking and a further 1,437 used Bohemian / Moravian as a colloquial language. 15,138 inhabitants were Catholic, 5,137 Evangelical Lutheran, 37 Reformed and a further 2,112 were Jewish.

In 1895 the first Polish private secondary school in all of Silesia was opened by Macierz Szkolna dla Księstwa Cieszyńskiego .

First World War

During the First World War , the army high command formed by the Kaiser especially for the war under Archduke Friedrich von Österreich-Teschen , the command center of all Austro-Hungarian armed forces , was established in Teschen in the summer of 1914. At the end of November 1916 it moved under the new Emperor Karl I , since the focus of the fighting had meanwhile shifted to the south of the dual monarchy , to Weilburg Castle , a property of Friedrich in Baden near Vienna .

On the German People's Day in Teschen in May 1918, the Teschener Germans were instructed by the lawyer Riehl, who came from Vienna, and described as "nationally unreliable", in contrast to the Germans from the Bielitz-Bialaer Sprachinsel , who on Volkstag may be the majority of the around 5,000 participants represented.

In late May 1918, the German People's Council for Eastern Silesia was founded in Teschen , a union of German parties in the area. The politicians from Bielitz were the most active in this, but the council was also unanimously supported by the Teschen city administration. He strove to remain with Austria, and if that were not possible, to join Germany. In October 1918, the city administration prevented the Rada Narodowa Księstwa Cieszyńskiego from taking power in the city ([Polish] National Council of the Duchy of Cieszyn, RNKC); on October 25th it declared autonomy and annexation to German Austria . On November 5, 1918, the RNKC and the Czech Regional Committee (Zemský národní výbor, ZNV) agreed that Teschen should fall to Poland, regardless of the Germans and the Schlonsaken who were against the Polish national movement (see Józef Kożdoń ).

Second Polish Republic

When sovereign Czechoslovakia , proclaimed on October 28, 1918 , came into being at the end of the First World War , Teschen found itself between the fronts of the Polish-Czechoslovak border war . Both countries claimed the economically strong region without a regulation being created in the autumn of 1919 in the Treaty of Saint-Germain . Although the Polish government had already announced the Sejm elections for the city of Teschen, Czech soldiers marched into Teschen on January 23, 1919, which resulted in several deaths on both sides.

Only an arbitration decision by the victorious powers ended the conflict in July 1920. The city of Teschen was divided along the Olsa ; the old town with the historic castle hill came to Poland, Czechoslovakia had to be content with the western suburb with the station on the Kaschau-Oderberger Railway, which is important to them. The Polish part, Cieszyn, was incorporated into the Silesian Autonomous Voivodeship with the capital Katowice .

In 1921 Cieszyn had 15,268 inhabitants, of which 9,241 (60.5%) Poles, 4,777 (31.2%) Germans, 1014 (6.6%) Jews, 195 (1.3%) Czechs. In 1931 the city had 14,707 inhabitants, of which 12,145 (82.7%) Poles, around 12% Germans and around 8% Jews.

Second World War

The Munich Agreement of 1938 gave Poland an opportunity to occupy the part of the Teschener Land west of the Olsa on October 2, 1938. The divided city was thus reunited and designated as the administrative seat of the newly formed Polish district of Cieszyn (Powiat cieszyński) . However, the Polish rule lasted only eleven months; because when the attack on Poland at the beginning of the Second World War , the German Wehrmacht occupied the Teschen district in September 1939. On October 26, 1939, the city, now called Teschen again, became the district town of the German district of Teschen . In the spring of 1945 the district was occupied by the Red Army . The demarcation of the Potsdam Agreement restored the division of the city into a Czech and a Polish part in the same year. The local residents of German origin were expelled under threat of violence .

People's Republic of Poland

In the People's Republic of Poland in Cieszyn numerous factories, including the "Olza" Fabryka Maszyn Elektrycznych emerged EMA Celma , Zakłady Przemysłu Dziewiarskiego Juvenia , Zakłady Doświadczalne Telemechaniki Górniczej Elektrometal , Polifarb Cieszyn , FACH , Cefana , Wytwórnia Naczyń Stołowych Polwid , Zakłady Sprzętu Elektrogrzejnego Termika , Zampol . Nevertheless, Bielsko-Biała became the industrial and administrative center of the region. From 1975 to 1998 Cieszyn was in the Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship . The border crossing at Cieszyn was the largest on the Polish-Czechoslovak border.

Third Polish Republic

Since 1998 Teschen has been the capital of the Euroregion Teschener Silesia . Poland and the Czech Republic joined the Schengen Agreement in 2007 , eliminating the need for border control posts at the Olsa bridges. In 2010 the city celebrated its 1200th anniversary. It is known nationwide as a city with a long brewing tradition and as a production site for sweets, especially for culinary reasons. It is associated with the Brackie beer brand and the Prince Polo chocolate waffle , which has been produced in Cieszyn since 1952 and is well-known beyond Poland .

In 2014 Cieszyn and in 2015 Český Těšín were given the honorary title “City of the Reformation of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .


In the course of the 20th century, the following localities were incorporated as districts:

Historical views


Catholic Church

The Catholic Church is represented in Cieszyn by seven parishes that belong to the Bielsko-Żywiec diocese , a suffragan diocese of the Krakow Archdiocese :


The city is named after the diocese of Cieszyn , the smallest of the six dioceses of the Evangelical-Augsburg (Lutheran) Church in Poland in terms of area ; However, the official seat is Bielsko-Biała .

Cieszyn is also the location of the Evangelical Church of Grace to the Name of Jesus (Jesus Church), one of originally six Silesian Churches of Grace that were allowed to be built in 1707 by the "grace" of Emperor Joseph I in what is actually Catholic Silesia. Of the only four surviving churches, the one in Cieszyn is the only one that is still used as a Protestant church after 300 years.

In the city are the Old Evangelical Cemetery and the Evangelical Cemetery from the 19th century.

Other Christian churches

There are also parishes of seven other Christian faiths in Teschen:


There are two Jewish cemeteries in the city, the old cemetery from the middle of the 17th century and the new cemetery from the beginning of the 20th century.


Road traffic

The Polish national road 1 , which leads to Gdansk (part of the European route 75 ), and the S1 expressway , which leads to Krakow , begin in Cieszyn . The voivodship road 938 leads from Cieszyn to Pawłowice and is the shortest connection from Cieszyn to the Upper Silesian industrial area . Local roads lead to Skoczów , Ustroń , Dębowciec and Leszna Górna . Due to the increasing number of cars in the city center, parking within the city center has been made chargeable.

Local public transport

Tram traffic was stopped at the beginning of the 20th century. There is a network of city bus connections, the hub of which is the main train station. The connections lead to the nearby villages, including Hażlach , Pogwizdów , Kaczyce and Gumna .


Numerous private bus companies operate in Cieszyn, offering connections to nearby towns and villages, as well as to Kraków , Katowice , Krosno , Bielsko-Biała , Jastrzębie-Zdrój , Gliwice and Wrocław .


Cieszyn has been connected to the Kaschau-Oderberger Bahn network since 1869 . With the connection to the Silesian and Galician city railway line in 1888 , Cieszyn became a rail hub. The train stations in Cieszyn are operated by Koleje Śląskie .


There are numerous sports clubs in Cieszyn, the most traditional of which are / were:

  • Sokół Gymnastics Society from 1891
  • Piast Cieszyn sports club from 1909

During the European Youth Olympic Winter Festival 2009 , the figure skating competitions took place in the multifunctional hall in Cieszyn.

natural reserve

In Cieszyn, green spaces take up 23% of the urban area, forests make up 7%. The tree population is relatively dense even in the center. There are three nature reserves in the urban area:


In Cieszyn there are nine primary schools, five grammar schools, ten Lyceen and other secondary schools of the upper level as well as a college and two branches of the Silesian University with headquarters in Katowice .



Castle Hill

Old town

Church square

  • Plac Kościelny, the center of the Teschen evangelical community (its activities were forbidden from 1653–1709); lay here
    • the late Baroque church of Jesus on plac Kościelny, Evangelical Augsburg Confession , built 1710-1722, architects: J. J. House Rücker and J. Ried from Opava , tower from 1750, main altar by J. Pratzker (1766) with the Last Supper by F. Oezer that largest Lutheran church in Poland, for about 6000 people
    • the former Protestant school (so-called "barn") from 1725
    • the former Protestant grammar school, neo-Gothic from 1869 (" Alumneum ")
    • the parish house and the rectory on the church square


  • former provincial parliament, from the end of the 17th century, for the gatherings of the nobility from the Duchy of Teschen
  • Courthouse in Viennese neo-baroque style from 1905 (in the Hall Themis - figure by E. Hegenbarth from Vienna)
  • Art Nouveau post office based on a design by M. Dalf from 1909
  • Redoutensaal , built in 1726 as a theater, now a cinema
  • General hospital of the Protestant community of Teschen ("Silesian Hospital", founded in 1892, architect Waldemar Osterloff )
  • Convent and hospital of the Sisters of St. Elizabeth on Liburnia Street, built 1900–1903
  • Monastery of the Borromean Sisters , now a sanatorium and nursing home
  • Houses on the Olsa Canal, called "Teschener Venice"
  • Former ducal mint on plac Teatralny, now the seat of the Teschen library
  • Building at Obertor from the 19th / 20th centuries century


Tourist street

The city is the starting point of the Via Ducalis tourist route .

Hiking trails

Six marked hiking and walking trails run through the urban area.

Long-distance cycle paths

Four marked long-distance cycle paths run through Teschen .


sons and daughters of the town

Other personalities

  • Johann Adam Steinmetz (1689–1762), head of the Jesus School from 1720 to 1730
  • Johann Traugott Bartelmus (1735–1809), first Protestant superintendent of Moravia, Silesia and Galicia
  • Prince Albert of Saxony (1738–1822), Duke of Teschen, art collector
  • Archduke Karl of Austria (1771–1847), Duke of Teschen, general
  • Ludwig Hohenegger (1807–1864), geologist
  • Archduke Albrecht of Austria (1817–1895), Duke of Teschen, general
  • Paweł Stalmach (1824-1891), founder of the Polish national movement in Cieszyn Silesia
  • Theodor Haase (1834–1909), theologian and founder of the General Hospital of the Protestant community of Teschen.
  • Archduke Frederick of Austria (1856-1936), Duke of Cieszyn, general and supreme commander of the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War 1914-1916
  • Karl Kulisz (Karol Kulisz; 1873–1940), Lutheran theologian and superintendent in Teschen from 1919 to 1939, victim of National Socialism
  • Gwido Langer (1894–1948), Polish colonel and cryptanalyst , transferred here on December 10, 2010 and buried with military honors
  • Hermann Joseph Hinterstoisser (1861–1932), Austrian surgeon, head of the surgical and gynecological department of the general hospital of the Protestant community.
  • Julian Przyboś (1901–1970), Polish poet, lived in the city from 1927 to 1939
  • Józef Londzin (1863-1929), was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, politician, national and educational activist, mayor of Cieszyn, member of the Austrian House of Representatives and Sejms, senator
  • Jan Michejda (1853–1927), Polish Protestant lawyer, politician, national activist, Mayor of Cieszyn (1922–1927)

Twin cities


  • Karl August Müller: Patriotic images, or history and description of all castles and knight palaces in Silesia and the county of Glatz. 2nd Edition. Verlag Carl Flemming, Glogau 1844, pp. 193–195 ( scan in Google book search).
  • Albin Heinrich: Attempt on the history of the Duchy of Teschen from the oldest to the present time. Th. Prochaska, Teschen 1818 ( scan in Google book search).
  • Gottlieb Biermann : History of the Duchy of Teschen. Verlag Karl Prochaska, Teschen 1863 ( scan in Google book search).
  • Moritz Landwehr von Pragenau: History of the city of Teschen (= sources and representations on Silesian history. Volume 18). Edited by Walter Kuhn. Holzner, Würzburg 1976, DNB 770181546 (bibliography, pp. 133-139).
  • Książnica Cieszyńska (Ed.): Dzieje Cieszyna od pradziejów do czasów współczesnych . Cieszyn 2010, ISBN 978-83-927052-6-0 (Polish).

Web links

Commons : Cieszyn  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. ^ Website of the city (BIP), Burmistrz Miasta Cieszyna, accessed on February 8, 2015 (Polish).
  3. a b Robert Mrózek: nazwy miejscowe dawnego Śląska Cieszyńskiego . Ed .: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach . 1984, ISSN  0208-6336 , p. 52 f . (Polish).
  4. The year 810 was first freely invented by Eleazar Tilisch (1560-1612) and then repeated by others. See Cieszyńskie jubileusze, czyli w jaki sposób kształtowała się legenda o początkach grodu nad Olzą. In: Idzi Panic: Dzieje Cieszynaod pradziejów do czasow współczesnych. praca zbiorowa. Volume III: Cieszyn od Wiosny Ludów do III Rzeczypospolitej. 2nd Edition. Książnica Cieszyńska, Cieszyn 2010, ISBN 978-83-927052-6-0 , pp. 15–24.
  5. Silesian Cultural Work | Portraits of the cities. Retrieved April 17, 2020 .
  6. Dzieje Cieszyna ... 2010, Volume 2, pp. 241, 349.
  7. Ludwig Patryn: The results of the census of December 31, 1910 in Silesia according to population size, home law, religion, colloquial language and level of education, taking into account some of the more important conditions for the community and traffic, the affiliation of the Silesian communities according to parish and religious communities and their size . Publishing house of the Silesian State Committee, Opava 1912, OCLC 320560804 ( digitized in: Silesian Digital Library; menu in Polish; view and download in djvu format).
  8. Grzegorz Wnętrzak: Stosunki polityczne i narodowościowe na pograniczu Śląska Cieszyńskiego i Galicji zachodniej w latach 1897–1920 [Political and national relations in the border region of Cieszyn Silesia and Western Galicia in the years 1897–1920] . Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, Toruń 2014, ISBN 978-83-7780-882-5 , p. 282 (Polish).
  9. Dzieje Cieszyna ... 2010, Volume 2, p. 224.
  10. Idzi Panic: Dzieje Cieszynaod pradziejów do czasow współczesnych. praca zbiorowa. Volume III: Cieszyn od Wiosny Ludów do III Rzeczypospolitej. 2nd Edition. Książnica Cieszyńska, Cieszyn 2010, ISBN 978-83-927052-6-0 , p. 323 (summary in English and d. T. The history of Cieszyn from prehistory to the present day and in German and d. T. The history of the city of Teschen from the oldest to the present day ).
  11. ^ Reformation city of Cieszyn. Poland. In:, accessed on April 11, 2020. -
    Reformation city Český Těšín. Czech Republic. A city that connects nations and denominations. In:, accessed on April 11, 2020.
  12. Rotunda pw św. Mikołaja. In: - serwis informacyjny. Retrieved September 23, 2017 (Polish).
  13. Rotunda. In: - serwis informacyjny. Retrieved September 23, 2017 (Polish).