Dill ( Anethum graveolens ), illustration
|Scientific name of the genus|
|Scientific name of the species|
Dill , dill or borage , even dill and dill fennel called ( Anethum graveolens ) is the only species of the monotypic genus Anethum and belongs to the family of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae). It originally comes from the Middle East, but is grown worldwide today. Dill is one of the most widely grown spices in the German-speaking area .
Description and ecology
Dill is a summer annual, herbaceous plant and usually reaches heights of 30 to 75 centimeters, rarely up to 120 centimeters. All parts of the plant above ground are bare and the color varies from light green to green-turquoise. All parts of the plant smell strongly aromatic. The stems grow upright and mostly branch in the upper section.
The lower leaves in particular are three to four times pinnate, finely divided into bristle sections. The upper leaves are less divided and smaller. Stipules are missing. The leaf sheaths are 1 to 2 centimeters long and horned at the top.
Inflorescences, flowers and fruits
The large inflorescences are bractless, 15 to 30-rayed double umbels , rarely up to 50-rayed. They have a diameter of 5 to 15 centimeters and contain ten to 25 small bulbs. The cones have a diameter of 3 to 5 centimeters and contain 15 to 25 flowers. The flower stalks are 6 to 10 millimeters long. The small flowers are radial symmetry and five-fold. The five sepals are fused. The five petals are (yolk) yellow. There is only one circle with five stamens . The stamens are longer than the rolled petals.
Two carpels have become an under constant ovary grown, and some of the elongated shaped compressed. The two styluses are short. The flower has a nectar-secreting disc and is pollinated by various insects, especially beetles. The flowering period extends from partly as early as May, but mostly from June to August.
The egg-shaped, brown, dry cleft fruits ( double achenes ) are 3 to 5 millimeters long, 1.8 to 2.5 millimeters wide and 0.6 to 0.8 millimeters thick. The thousand grain mass is between 1 and 2 g. They disintegrate into two narrow-winged partial fruits with gray-white longitudinal ribs. The fruits usually ripen between July and September. As wing fliers, they are spread over the wind, and also as adhesives when wet.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 22, rarely 44.
The dill is originally widespread in the Middle East. According to R. Hand, however, it originally occurs in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Portugal, Croatia, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Turkey. The originality is doubtful for Albania and Mallorca. In Central Europe it is seldom found wild.
Within the species Anethum graveolens three clans are distinguished, which are classified partly as varieties, partly as subspecies:
- Garden dill ( Anethum graveolens var. Hortorum Aleph. ) With predominantly carvone in the essential oil
- Acker Dill ( Anethum graveolens var. Graveolens )
- Indian dill ( Anethum graveolens subsp. Sowa (Roxb. Ex Flem.) Koren ' ; or fo. Sowa ) is very similar to garden dill , but less aromatic. It mainly contains dillapiol and carvone.
100 g of dried dill herb contains an average of 5.5 g water, 20 g protein , 4.0 g fat , 57.0 g carbohydrates , 12.0 g crude fiber and 0.1 to 0.35 g essential oils . In terms of minerals, potassium with 3.3 g, calcium with 1.7 g and sodium with 0.2 g are noteworthy. The essential oil content is decisive for use as a spice. In the leaves their share is 2 to 4%, in the fruits (seeds) up to 8%. In garden dill, the essential oil consists primarily (up to 60%) of carvone . Other components are limonene , α- and β- phellandren , terpinene , apiol , p -cymol , α- pinene and a hexahydro- benzofuran derivative, which is responsible for the typical aroma. A total of 90 ingredients are known.
The endosperm of the seed contains 15 to 20% fatty oil and 20% protein.
Diseases and pests
Most of the diseases and pests that appear on dill are typical of umbelliferous plants such as carrots, parsley, and celery.
Thus, viruses such as cucumber mosaic virus ( cucumber mosaic virus ), the celery mosaic virus ( celery mosaic virus ), the parsley virus Y (Parsley virus Y, syn. Potyvirus, Pavy) and alfalfa ( alfalfa mosaic virus ) that cause disease, which manifest themselves in piebalds, discolorations, growth depression and necrosis of the leaves.
Diseases caused by bacteria are also known. Is significantly Pseudomonas viridiflava and the cone fire caused by various bacteria ( Pseudomonas fluorescens , Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora , Xanthomonas campestris pv. Carotae ).
Sprouting is the biggest problem with germination . It is caused by several fungi, especially Pythium sp. The most economically important fungus during the rest of the cultivation period is the fusarium ( Fusarium culmorum ). It destroys young stocks and damages plants even after flowering. If it occurs, it requires a change of location of the crops. However, the Fusarium fungus is not solely responsible for the wilt. Leaf drought ( Itersonilia perplexans ) is less common. Leaf spots also cause Mycosphaerella anethi , which is known from fennel, Phoma complanata , Ascochyta anethicola . Erysiphaceae (powdery mildew) ( Erysiphe heraclei ), rust fungi are of no economic importance for dill.
Animal pests are root knuckle nails ( Meloidogyne hapla ), the root nematode Trichodorus christiei and the nematode Pratylenchus penetrans , to which dill is particularly sensitive. Various aphids infest dill, especially the gray leaf aphid ( Cavariella aegopodii ) and species of bugs of the genus Lygus . Rare harm springtails ( Bourletiella sulphurea ), carrot psyllid ( Trioza apical ) and leaf miners . Other pests play a subordinate role economically.
Dill is grown outdoors as well as in a greenhouse. The cultivation in the greenhouse takes place in the soil and in growing media in pots. Soil-free cultivation is also possible, but until today seldom except for sprouts. Depending on the planned use, a distinction is made between cultivation for fresh market, industrial goods and medicinal plant cultivation. Fresh produce comes from the cultivation of bundles and pots . In German-speaking countries, the majority of bundled goods comes from outdoor production and potted goods almost exclusively from the greenhouse. The bulk goods for industrial processing are grown over a large area and are highly mechanized. The cultivation for grain production and that in medicinal plant cultivation for herb drug production also comes from large-scale outdoor cultivation . Garden dill is not very demanding with regard to the soil, it only does not tolerate compacted soils and waterlogging. Medium-heavy, moist, warm soils with a high proportion of humus, for example fens, are ideal. PH values between 7 and 7.6 are optimal. From a climatic point of view, it can be grown anywhere in Europe. In the open field, no-till is predominant; precultivation in peat pots is also widespread for early cultivation in the field. Long days in the summer months promote flower formation, which is why dill is grown in southern countries mainly in winter and spring. Dill is a dark germ. Other sources say about the sowing depth that dill is a light germ: "Press the seeds on, do not cover with soil". Dill is also a cold germ: a cold treatment of about 7 days at 5–10 ° C is beneficial for germination. Dill takes about three weeks to germinate. The optimal germination temperature is between 10 and 30 ° C. Dill develops slowly when young and is therefore sensitive to weed growth because the soil remains open for a long time. If, according to the climatic water balance, additional irrigation is used, the fresh yield can be significantly increased. The nutrient requirement of the culture for 30 t fresh mass yield per hectare is 65 kg N, 25 kg P 2 O 5 , 200 kg K 2 O, 10 kg MgO and 85 kg CaO per hectare as pure nutrients . From this, the soil reserve and known nutrient replenishment is withdrawn from the soil for fertilization. In protected cultivation under glass, where CO 2 fertilization is possible, levels of 800 to 1200 ppm are aimed for in the culture area. Enrichment takes place from sulfur-free exhaust gases from the gas heating system or with technical CO 2 . The cultivation period is six to seven weeks from March and is extended to up to nine weeks in autumn until December sowing.
With regard to the crop rotation , a break of four years must be observed after dill or other umbelliferous plants before another dill cultivation. The reason is particularly fusariosis . Previous crops with organic fertilization are cheap, especially root crops . Dill removes a lot of potassium and relatively little phosphorus from the soil. However, a good supply of phosphorus is important, as a lack of phosphorus has a strong effect on growth.
For the fresh market, dill tips 15 to 25 centimeters in length are mainly harvested. For industrial goods, the cut lengths are 30 to 35 centimeters (vegetable drying industry) or 40 to 60 centimeters (pickle processing). By staggered cultivation with several successive sowings, the harvest takes place continuously from the end of May to October. The yield of dill herb is between 15 and 30 tons per hectare and year, that of dill tips between 10 and 18 tons per hectare and year. Fresh produce is mostly harvested by hand, cabbage for drying and freeze preservation is mostly by machine. Grain dill is harvested before it is fully ripe, usually in late August / early September. The yield is between 0.8 and 1.2 tons per hectare and year.
The propagation takes place generatively. The seeds are harvested when the seeds of the umbels begin to turn brown. Then they are ripened and dried. Individual seed carriers remain in the house garden, and they seed themselves and produce the seeds for the next year in the same place. Harvested seeds can germinate for more than two to three years with a moisture content below ten percent. Vegetative propagation is only used in breeding.
Dill is best stored after cooling down quickly in a temperature range of −1 to 0 ° C and a relative humidity of 95%. If dill is also wrapped in foil, it will keep for two to three weeks.
There are several types of dill that can be traced back to four groups of origin: normal diploid clans, mammoth types, tetraploid clans and types from the drug trade. For the large-scale cultivation of dill tips, the varieties "Sari" and "Vierling" have proven themselves.
Garden dill is a versatile herb . It is used for salads. Dill is popular in sauces based on salad oil, yoghurt, quark and in seasoned butter and is suitable as a spread. It is also used to season fish and meat dishes. The dill oil is also enriched for the liqueur industry by distillation. Fresh and dried, it can also be used for canning and herbal essences. Leaves like flower umbels are an important seasoning for pickled cucumbers , especially salt and dill cucumbers. Usually the dill tips are used fresh, dried, frozen or freeze-dried. The dill herb (the young herb) or the whole above-ground plant is used less often. The fresh dill has the best taste and is also sprinkled on cooked potatoes.
Use as a medicinal plant
The dried ripe fruits and the whole fresh, flowering plant serve as medicinal drugs.
Active ingredients are: essential oil with carvone as the main component, limonene and dillapiol ; Phellandren and dill ether give the typical smell ; other active ingredients are coumarins and caffeic acid derivatives.
Applications: Dill fruits have moderately digestive, gas inducing and antispasmodic properties. Today they are still mainly used in folk medicine like caraway, but with a weaker effect, for digestive disorders with bloating and flatulence (gas) and the resulting colic as well as for slight cramp-like complaints in the gastrointestinal area. Dill can be used for cramping abdominal pain in children and stimulates the flow of breast milk . Chewing the seeds banishes bad breath .
For the dill fruits, progesterone-promoting effects were proven in the experiment, which makes the occasionally described application in menstrual disorders and infertility at least plausible. However, data from clinical studies are not available.
In the Ebers papyrus, dill is recommended for headaches and to soften blood vessels. Even before Hippocrates it was considered to soften stools and cleanse the uterus. According to Dioskurides , it helps with stomach ache, vomiting and flatulence, urinates and milk secretion, but is said to damage eyesight over the long term. Hildegard von Bingen prescribed the herb for lung infections, externally for nosebleeds, Paracelsus as a diuretic or the oil of the seeds as a carminative, stomachic, galactogogum, for vomiting, bad breath, sinusitis, hemorrhoids and condylomas (genital warts). Mattioli recommends it as a steam bath for uterine pain, genital ulcers and umbilical hernias. Von Haller also praises him for uterine problems, Leclerc his prompt effect on hiccups and vomiting. According to von Grot, it has a constipating effect, but as a suppository it is laxative. According to Madaus, dill used to be used in pharmacies against vomiting, hiccups and pelvic cramps. Folk medicine also retained its use for sleep and milk stimulation and for flatulence in children. According to popular belief, he drove away demons and was supposed to help the bride to rule in marriage ("I have mustard and dill, man, when I talk you are silent."). In a fairy tale based on Jenny von Droste-Hülshoff, dill protects against hexes. The dill water made from the seeds has a digestive effect; the fruits were chewed against bad breath , the tea infusion of the leaves of the dill herb helps with stomach cramps and indigestion.
Dill was already cultivated as a cultivated plant in ancient Egypt and used as a medicinal and aromatic plant. Pharaoh Amenophis II settled in 1400 BC. Place dill in the grave. Also Mt 23,23 EU mentioned dill. It was also used as a herb in ancient Greece and Rome.
Dill spread from the eastern Mediterranean towards the Atlantic more than 5000 years ago. Its use in food preparation was dated for about 3600 BC. Proven in the western Alps.
In the Middle Ages, dill (from Middle High German tille ) was widely used as a medicinal plant for various ailments. The dill probably came to Central and Northern Europe through monks who planted it in their monastery gardens. In the Capitulare de villis of Charlemagne , dill is listed as anetum .
- Antiquity - late antiquity: Dioscurides 1st century --- Pliny 1st century --- Galen 2nd century --- Pseudo-Apuleius 4th century
- Arab Middle Ages: Avicenna 11th century --- Constantine 11th century --- Circa instans 12th century --- Pseudo-Serapion 13th century
- Latin Middle Ages: Pseudo-Macer 11th century --- German Macer 13th century --- Hildegard von Bingen 12th century --- Konrad von Megenberg 14th century --- Cod. Donaueschingen 793 2nd half of 15th century --- Michael Puff 15th century --- Herbarius Moguntinus 1484 --- Gart der Gesundheit 1485 --- Hortus sanitatis 1491 --- Hieronymus Brunschwig 1500
- Modern times: Paracelsus approx. 1530 --- Otto Brunfels 1537 --- Hieronymus Bock 1539 --- Leonhart Fuchs 1543 --- Mattioli / Handsch / Camerarius 1586 --- Nicolas Lémery 1699/1721 --- Onomatologia medica completa 1755 - - William Cullen 1789/90 --- Pereira / Buchheim 1846/48
Vienna Dioscurides 6th century
Pseudo-Apuleius manuscript, Kassel 9th century
Herbarius Moguntinus 1484
Garden of Health 1485
Hortus sanitatis 1491
Otto Brunfels 1537
Leonhart Fuchs 1543
Hieronymus Bock 1546
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- Pliny the Elder , 1st century: Naturalis historia book XX, chapter lxxiv (§ 196): Anetum (digitized) ; Translation Külb 1855 [(digitalisat)]
- Galen , 2nd century De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , Book VI, Chapter I / 45 (based on the Kühn 1826 edition, Volume XI, p. 832): Anethum (digitized version )
- First printing: Rome 1481, Chapter 123: Anethum (digitized version )
- Avicenna , 11th century: Canon of Medicine . Translation and adaptation by Gerhard von Cremona , Arnaldus de Villanova and Andrea Alpago (1450–1521). Basel 1556, Volume II, Chapter 71: Anetum (digitized version )
- Constantine the African , 11th century: Liber de gradibus simplicium . Pressure. Opera . Basel 1536, p. 363: Anethum (digitized version )
- Circa instans 12th century print. Venice 1497, sheet 188r: Anetum (digitized)
- Pseudo-Serapion 13th century, print. Venice 1497, sheet 144v (No CCCXXVI): Xebeth. Anetum (digitized version )
- Pseudo-Macer . Edition: Ludwig Choulant. Macer floridus de virtutibus herbarum… Leipzig 1832, chapter 10 (p. 44–45): Anethum (digitized version )
- German Macer . Anethum . After: Bernhard Schnell, William Crossgrove: The German Macer. Vulgate version. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2003, pp. 365-366 (Chapter 59): Anethum. Tille . --- Cpg 226 , Alsace, 1459–1469, sheet 200r – 200v (digital copy ) . Transcription: (.lvij. Anetum means tille he is hot and print in the other grade (Tille boiled and pressed gives the wiben milk (The same thing does the stomach vngemach (whoever loses or spuwet the neme a part of the boiled water with tille and drinck that es vergeet jme (the same pressed helps those with not neczent (Tille pushed vnd with win boiled and drunk helps against the book vngemach vnd helps wol dahwen (if the book is torn apart by looking for puluer tille seeds and drinck that with warm water it helps (Tille constantly eaten krencket the eyes (The root burned to ashes is better then from the krut vmb that it cleans the wild meat from the wonden) (The same puluer also heals the stains and plaiting serums (It prints and also heals the torende wonden / vnd namely the words on the man's secretiveness (the same roasted and smelled disperse the jrschen (the root stubbed and vff the eyes leyed disperse the heat (the same gebrant hilfft emorydecz daruff geleyt (the flowers in oley gesotten distribute what is looking for has come from frost (the same helps the swerende heupt
- Charles Victor Daremberg and Friedrich Anton Reuss (1810–1868). S. Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum Diversarum Naturarum Creaturarum Libri Novem. Physica , Book I, Chapter 67: Dille . Migne, Paris 1855. Sp. 1158 (digitized version ) - translation: Marie-Louise Portmann, Basel 1991: The dill is dry, warm and moderate in nature. And whatever way it is eaten, it makes people sad. And raw it is not suitable for eating because it has more moisture in the earth than the fennel, and sometimes it attracts a little fatness from the earth, so that it makes people sick to eat it raw, but when eaten cooked it suppresses it the gout, and so it is useful in eating . --- Cpg 226 , Alsace 1459–1469, sheet 96r (digitized) . Transcription: Tille is truckener nature and how one eats so that makes people sad / the sin nose ser bleeds the nyme tille vnd zwyrent as vil garwen vnd put the vmb sin forehead vnd vmb the slaff / it will help. Cpg 226 , sheet 104r (digitized version ) . Transcription: Tillen water is well pressed before being swollen in the libe.
- Konrad von Megenberg , 14th century: Book of nature. Output. Franz Pfeiffer . Aue, Stuttgart 1861, pp. 381–382 (V / 2): Anetkraut (digitized version )
- Cod. Donaueschingen 793 ( House and Pharmacopoeia ), 2nd half of the 15th century. Sheet 32r (digitized version ) . Transcription: Tillen water Is hais and trukchen the same and is good between the dampness of the oren and the prust wan it makes vil milk the wet nurse and is good to the stomach for the wind and jumps the prün and drives the sand and the frawen is right and is right gütt wen aim dy feygen plater swilted in the waidlug [German Macer: ... the same gebrant helps emorraydaz to escort ... ]
- Michael Puff : Booklet of the burnt-out waters . 15th century print Augsburg (Johannes Bämler) 1478 (digitized)
- Herbarius Moguntinus , Mainz 1484, Part I, Chapter 10: Anetum. Dille (digitized version )
- Gart der Gesundheit . Mainz 1485, Chapter 14: Anetum. Dille (digitized version )
- Hortus sanitatis 1491, Mainz 1491, Part I, Chapter 27: Anetum (digitized version )
- Hieronymus Brunschwig : Small distilling book , Strasbourg 1500, sheet 40r: Dillen (digitized version )
- Paracelsus - Oporinus : Scholia & Observationes quaedam perutiles in Macri Poemata de Virtutibus Herbarum, & c. quas Ioh. Oporinus (dum per triennium aut ultra Theophrasti esset Amanuensis) ex ore dictantis studiose exceperat. (Useful comments and observations on the Macer poems about the powers of medicinal plants, which Johannes Oporinus - three years or more scribe of Paracelsus - has eagerly selected from the heard.) Huser edition of the works of Paracelsus, Basel 1590, part 7, page 254–256: (digitized version )
- Otto Brunfels : Ander Teyl des Teütschen Contrafayten Kreüterbůchs . Johann Schott, Strasbourg 1537, p. 27: Dyll (digitized version )
- Hieronymus Bock : New Kreütter Bůch . Wendel Rihel, Strasbourg 1539, Part I, Chapter 150: Dyllkraut (digitized version )
- Leonhart Fuchs : New Kreütterbuch… Michael Isingrin, Basel 1543, Chapter 9: Dyll (digitized version )
- Pietro Andrea Mattioli : Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Translation by Georg Handsch, edited by Joachim Camerarius the Younger , Johan Feyerabend, Franckfurt am Mayn 1586, sheet 263v – 264r: Dill (digitized)
- Nicolas Lémery : Dictionnaire universel des drogues simples. , Paris 1699, pp. 41-42: Anethum (digitized version ) . Translation: Complete Lexicon of Materials. Initially drafted in French, but now after the third edition, which has been enlarged by a large [...] edition, translated into high German / By Christoph Friedrich Richtern, [...]. Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Braun, 1721, Sp. 61: Anethum (digitized)
- Albrecht von Haller (editor): Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to the science of medicine and the art of pharmacy clearly and completely [...]. Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, column 85: Anethum (digitized version )
- William Cullen : A treatise of the materia medica. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, p. 156: Anethum (digitized version ) . German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, pp. 181–182: Dill (digitized version)
- Jonathan Pereira’s Handbook of Medicines Doctrine. From the point of view of the German Medicin edited by Rudolf Buchheim . Leopold Voss, Leipzig 1846–48, Volume II 1848, pp. 520–521: Anethum graveolens (digitized version )
- Transcription and translation of the text by Franz Unterkircher. Tacuinum sanitatis ... Graz 2004, p. 71: Aneti: complexio calicia et sicco in fine secundi vel principio tertij. Electio: viride recens et tenerum. iuvamentum: confert stomacho frigido et ventoso. nocumentum: nocet renibus et abominat stomachum sua substantia. Remotio nocumenti: cum lemoncellis. Quid generat: nutrimentum modicum. confert frigidis es humidis, senibus, hyeme et frigidis regionibus. --- Dill: Complexion: warm and dry at the end of the second or beginning of the third degree. Preferable: green, fresh and tender. Benefit: beneficial for a cold and windy stomach. Damage: it damages the kidneys and its substance makes the stomach disgusting. Prevention of harm: with lemonella. What it creates: a moderate amount of nutrient. Beneficial for people with cold and damp complexions, for old people, in winter and in cold areas.