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Heath Juniper (Juniperus communis) in the Lüneburg Heath

Heath Juniper ( Juniperus communis ) in the Lüneburg Heath

Subdivision : Seed plants (Spermatophytina)
Class : Coniferopsida
Order : Conifers (Coniferales)
Family : Cypress family (Cupressaceae)
Subfamily : Cupressoideae
Genre : juniper
Scientific name
  • Caryocedrus
  • Juniperus
  • Sabina
Illustration from Koehler's medicinal plants of the Sade tree ( Juniperus sabina )
Illustration from The cypress and juniper trees of the Rocky Mountain region , 1915 of the alligator juniper ( Juniperus deppeana )

The juniper ( Juniperus ) are a genus in the subfamily Cupressoideae within the family of the cypress family (Cupressaceae). With around 50 to 70 species that are assigned to this genus, they make up almost 40 percent of the species within the cypress family. In Central Europe only two species occur in the wild: the common juniper and the sedge tree .


The German name Wacholder (from Old High German wechalter , Middle High German wëcholtër ) has experienced various etymological interpretations. What is certain is that the part “-der” is the reflex of the Indo-European tree designation as it occurs in elder , affolter ( apple tree ), lilac , heister and others. The first part is unsure. Here either a connection with growing is assumed, with reference to the evergreen tree, or with winding , after a (speculative) use for binding or for ritually used juniper bouquets. The occasional interpretation as a guard is, however, probably a folk etymology .

In Low German, the juniper is also known as the almond tree. From this, the name Machangelstrauch (or just Machangel ) developed as a subsidiary form . This term is found primarily in Grimm's fairy tales and some poems.

The botanical name has also not been interpreted with certainty. The reading is favored as the Latin * iūni-perus from the older * iuveni-paros in the meaning "giving birth (too) early, aborting" after the use of Juniperus sabina .

The name Juniper , which is rarely found today and which exists as a first and last name, is derived from Juniperus .

In Germany, the term “Spurk” for juniper can be found in Old High German glosses mainly from the 10th century from the name forms developed by Spohra / Spurcha.

In Austria and parts of Bavaria, among others, the juniper is known under the name Kranewitt , which goes back via mhd. Kranewite to ahd. Kranawitu , chranawita , which means crane wood . The synonymous Krammet has the same origin . From the designation cranes Witt , the family names are derived Kranewitter , Kranebitter , Kronawitter , Kranevitter and Granovetter from.

The juniper schnapps is therefore known in Austria as Kranewitter .


Section Sabina : Bark of the alligator juniper ( Juniperus deppeana )
Juniperus section : leaves and berry-shaped cones in various stages of ripeness of the juniper ( Juniperus oxycedrus )

Vegetative characteristics

Juniper species are evergreen shrubs or trees . The largest single specimen is a Syrian juniper ( Juniperus drupacea ) in Turkey with a height of 40 meters. The wood has a narrow sapwood and a reddish-brown core and often smells aromatic. The branches are round or four to six-winged. The leaves are generally short and close to the branches. They are needle-shaped when young, later scaly or needle-shaped. The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs in four rows or in alternate whorls in three to six rows or rarely in whorls with four to eight rows on the branches.

The seedlings have (two to eight cotyledons cotyledons ).

Generative characteristics

The species belonging to the naked-seed plants are mostly dioecious ( dioecious ), rarely monoecious ( monoecious ) separate sexes. The male cones have three to four pairs or trios of sporophylls . Each sporophyll has two to eight pollen sacs.

The berry-shaped female cones , often referred to as berries, are egg-shaped to spherical with a diameter of 0.3 to 2 centimeters. They take one to two years to mature, remain closed and turn bluish. The mostly thick, fleshy cone scales are fused from cover and seed scales and have one to three seeds. The winged, hard-shelled seeds are round to angular. The berry-shaped cones are swallowed whole by birds and the seeds leave the intestinal tract intact. The bitter taste of the cones (in most species) is probably an adaptation against feeding by mammals.

The basic chromosome number is x = 11.


Juniper species are predominantly found in the northern hemisphere . Only the distribution area of Juniperus procera extends in eastern Africa to 18 ° south.

Juniper species are very adaptable. They thrive in climates that range from the subarctic tundra to semi-deserts. Almost all species are well adapted to times of low rainfall. In mountain regions it is often the juniper species that still thrive at the tree line . The short-leaved juniper that thrives in the Azores is the only type of softwood that has been able to establish itself on a chain of islands of volcanic origin in the middle of the ocean. The seeds of the ancestors of this species probably got there in the digestive tract of birds.

They often occur on dry soils (sand, heather , steppe , semi-desert ).

In many semi-arid areas such as the western USA, northern Mexico , central and southwest Asia, they are the dominant forest cover in large areas of the landscape. The subgenus Juniperus is mainly Eurasian with a Holarctic species ( Juniperus communis ). It is also the only species of this subgenus in North America and Central Europe and the most widespread conifer species . The subgenus Caryocedrus is endemic to Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe . The subgenus Sabina inhabits almost all areas that also apply to the whole genus - except north of 50 ° north in Europe and 60 ° north in Asia.

In heavily grazed areas, juniper is often the only tree that occurs due to its intolerance to grazing animals.

The more common of the two juniper species in Germany, the heather juniper , was the tree of the year 2002.


Section Caryocedrus : Syrian juniper ( Juniperus drupacea )
Juniperus section : Short-leaved juniper ( Juniperus brevifolia ) in the Azores
Juniperus section : Alpine juniper ( Juniperus communis var. Saxatilis ) in the Vitosha Mountains , Bulgaria
Juniperus section : Juniperus macrocarpa on the Greek island of Paros
Juniperus section : Juniperus navicularis
Juniperus section : hedgehog juniper ( Juniperus rigida )
Sabina Section : Bermuda Juniper ( Juniperus bermudiana ), Sand Island, Midway Islands , Hawaii Islands
Section Sabina : Chinese juniper ( Juniperus chinensis )
Section Sabina : Branch with cones of the alligator juniper ( Juniperus deppeana )
Section Sabina : Greek juniper ( Juniperus excelsa ) in the Crimea
Section Sabina : Juniperus grandis in the Sierra Nevada, California
Section Sabina : Creeping Juniper ( Juniperus horizontalis ) in Saskatchewan
Section Sabina : Habitus of Juniperus maritima in the habitat
Section Sabina : Habitus of the solitary juniper ( Juniperus monosperma ) in the habitat
Section Sabina : Habit of the Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma ) in the habitat
Section Sabina : Phoenician juniper ( Juniperus phoenicea ) on El Hierro
Section Sabina : Habit of the Persian Juniper ( Juniperus polycarpos ) in the habitat
Section Sabina : Habitus of Juniperus procera in the habitat
Section Sabina : Habitus of Juniperus recurva var. Coxii
Section Sabina : hanging branches of Juniperus recurva var. Coxii
Section Sabina : Habitus of Juniperus saltuaria in the habitat
Section Sabina : Habitus of Juniperus saxicola
Section Sabina : Rocky Mountain Juniper ( Juniperus scopulorum ), habitat in the Rocky Mountains
Section Sabina : Rocky Mountain Juniper ( Juniperus scopulorum )
Section Sabina : Branch with cones from Juniperus semiglobosa
Section Sabina : Habitus of Juniperus standleyi in the habitat
Section Sabina : Spanish juniper ( Juniperus thurifera ) in Spain
Section Sabina : Virginian juniper ( Juniperus virginiana )

The genus Juniperus was established by Carl von Linné . The genus belongs to the subfamily Cupressoideae within the family Cupressaceae .

The genus juniper ( Juniperus ) contains around 50 to 70 species . The scientific discussions about the number of species, the ranking according to varieties, subspecies or forms are sometimes controversial. Investigations based on DNA ( RAPD and genetic fingerprinting - fingerprinting) and regarding the composition of the leaf oil keep the discussion going; New species found in field research also cause taxon numbers to fluctuate.

Here, mostly and preferably, the explanations of Robert P. Adams are followed, who in 2008 recognized approximately 70 species and 27 varieties, but did not use the subspecies category.

The genus Juniperus s. l. is divided into three sections , which are sometimes referred to as sub- genres in the literature :

  • Section Caryocedrus Endl. (Syn .: genus Arceuthos Antoine ): It contains only one species:
  • Section Juniperus (Syn .: genus Juniperus sect. Oxycedrus Spach ): With ten species:
    • Short-leaved juniper , also called Azores juniper, ( Juniperus brevifolia ( Seub. ) Antoine , Syn .: Juniperus oxycedrus var. Brevifolia Seub. ): It occurs only in the Azores .
    • Cedar Juniper ( Juniperus cedrus Webb & Berthel. ) In the Canary Islands and Madeira .
    • Common juniper or heather juniper ( Juniperus communis L. ) with seven varieties:
      • Juniperus communis L. var. Communis
      • Juniperus communis var. Charlottensis R.P. Adams : It is endemic to the Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada .
      • Canadian juniper ( Juniperus communis var. Depressa Pursh ) or, in some sources, also indicated as a homonymous subspecies ( Juniperus communis subsp. Depressa ( Pursh ) Franco ), is widespread throughout Canada and the USA.
      • Juniperus communis var. Jackii Rehder in North America.
      • Juniperus communis var. Megistocarpa Fernald & H.St.John in Canada.
      • Juniperus communis var. Nipponica ( Maxim. ) EHWilson in Japan.
      • Alpine juniper , also called dwarf juniper ( Juniperus communis var. Saxatilis Pall. , Syn .: Juniperus communis var. Montana Aiton , Juniperus communis var. Nana (Willd.) Baumg. , Juniperus nana Willd. ): He is in the widespread in the northern hemisphere (from Europe through western, central, northern Asia to the Far East, further in western North America and in Greenland).
    • Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams : The home is from Italy in the eastern Mediterranean and on to Iran.
    • Formosa juniper ( Juniperus formosana Hayata , Syn .: Juniperus taxifolia Parl. Non Hook. , Juniperus mairei Lemée et Lev. , Juniperus formosana var. Mairei (Lemée et Lev.) RPAdams et CFHsieh , Juniperus formosana var. Concolor Hayata , Juniperus formosana var. sinica Nakai , Juniperus chekiangensis Nakai ): It is common in China and Taiwan .
    • Juniperus macrocarpa Sm .: It is native to the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts in North Africa, Europe and Asia Minor.
    • Juniperus navicularis Gand. is only native to Portugal .
    • Juniper ( Juniperus oxycedrus L. ): It is native to the Mediterranean region west of Italy.
    • Hedgehog juniper or needle juniper ( Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc. ): The natural distribution area is in East Asia with China, Korea , in southeast Russia and Japan .
    • Luchu juniper ( Juniperus taxifolia Hook. & Arn. , Syn .: Juniperus lutchuensis Koidz. ): This endemic only occurs on the Japanese Ogasawara Islands and thrives from the coast up to an altitude of 300 meters in sunny, stony locations.
  • Section Sabina Spach (Syn .: genus Sabina Mill. ): With about 56 species:
    • Juniperus angosturana R.P. Adams (Syn .: Juniperus monosperma var. Gracilis Martínez ): It thrives at altitudes of 1100 to 2140 meters in the Sierra Madre Oriental in the Mexican states of Coahuila , Hidalgo , Nuevo León , San Luis Potosí and Tamaulipas .
    • Juniperus arizonica R.P. Adams (Syn .: Juniperus coahuilensis var. Arizonica R.P. Adams ): It received the rank of a species in 2006. It occurs in isolated locations in the southwestern US states in Arizona and New Mexico and in the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora. It thrives at altitudes of 980 to 1600, rarely up to 2200 meters.
    • Ashes juniper ( Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz , syn .: Juniperus sabinoides (Kunth) Nees non Griseb. , Juniperus sabionoides Sarg. Non Griseb. , Juniperus occidentalis var. Texana Vasey , Juniperus occidentalis var. Conjugens Engelm. , Juniperus tetragona var. Oligosperma Engelm. ): There are two varieties:
      • Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz var. Ashei : It occurs in the US states of Arkansas, Missouri (in the Ozark Mountains), Oklahoma, Texas (only on the Edwards Plateau) and in the Mexican state of Coahuila . Mainly it occurs in Oklahoma, Arkansas and in the Ozark Mountains.
      • Juniperus ashei var. Ovata R.P. Adams : It was first described in 2007. It occurs mainly in Coahuila and western Texas.
    • Caribbean juniper ( Juniperus barbadensis L. ): There are two varieties:
      • Juniperus barbadensis L. var. Barbadensis (Syn .: Juniperus virginiana var. Barbadensis (L.) Gordon) : This endemic occurs only on the Caribbean island of St. Lucia (Petit Piton).
      • Juniperus barbadensis var. Lucayana (Britton) RPAdams (Syn .: Juniperus virginiana var. Australis Endl. , Juniperus lucayana Britton , Juniperus australis (Endl.) Pilg. ): It only occurs in the Greater Antilles on Hispaniola , Jamaica and in Cuba only in the Sierra de Nipe and on the Isla de la Juventud .
    • Bermuda Juniper ( Juniperus bermudiana L. , Syn .: Juniperus oppositifolia Moench , Juniperus pyramidalis Salisb. , Juniperus virginiana var. Bermudiana (L.) Vasey ): This endangered endemic occurs only on the Bermuda Islands. He is said to be a neophyte on the South Atlantic island of St. Helena .
    • Juniperus blancoi Martínez : There have been three varieties since 2006:
      • Juniperus blancoi Martínez var. Blancoi : It occurs in the Mexican states of Durango , México , Michoacán and Tlaxcala . Some of the sites may have been created by sowing planted specimens.
      • Juniperus blancoi var. Huehuentensis R.P. Adams et al. : It was first described in 2006. This endemic is only known from the area around the summit of Cerro Huehuento, south of Huachichiles in the Mexican state of Durango. It thrives on rocks and very thin accumulations of substrate at altitudes of 3150 to 3270 meters.
      • Juniperus blancoi var. Mucronata (RPAdams) Farjon (Syn .: Juniperus mucronata R.P.Adams ): This endemic is only known from the Maicoba / Yecora area, near the border between the Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua. It thrives on slopes 30 to 60 meters above the Maicoba River and neighboring rivers over basalt rocks .
    • California Juniper ( Juniperus californica Carrière , Juniperus pyriformis Lindl. , Juniperus cerrosianus Kellogg , Juniperus cedrosiana Kellogg , Juniperus occidentalis Hook. ): It occurs in the southwestern US states of southern Nevada, California and northern Arizona and in the Mexican state of Baja California Norte and theirs offshore islands Isla de Cedros and Isla Guadalupe .
    • Chinese juniper ( Juniperus chinensis L. ): There are two to four varieties, depending on the author:
      • Juniperus chinensis L. var. Chinensis (Syn .: Juniperus sinensis J.F.Gmel. Orth. Var., Juniperus barbadensis Thunb. , Juniperus cabiancae Vis. , Juniperus cernua Roxb. , Juniperus dimorpha Roxb. , Juniperus erectopatens (WCCheng & LKFu) RPAdams , Juniperus flagelliformis Loudon , Juniperus fortunei Carriere , Juniperus gaussenii W.C.Cheng , Juniperus jacobii Beissn. , Juniperus keteleeri (Beissn.) prop-Giesel. , Juniperus neaboriensis A.H.Kent , Juniperus reevesiana Endl. , Juniperus sphaerica Lindl. , Juniperus shepherdii Beissn. , Juniperus sheppardii (AHKent) Melle , Juniperus struthiacea Knight , Juniperus thunbergii Hook. & Arn. , Juniperus virginica Thunb. , Juniperus japonica var. pyramidalis Carriere , Juniperus japonica var. variegata Carriere , Juniperus virginiana var. keteleeri (Beissn.) Rehder , Juniperus sabina var. erectopatens (WCCheng & LKFu) YFYu & LKFu , Juniperus chinensis var. aurea Young M. , Juniperus chinensis var. aureoglobosa Rehder , Juniperus chinensis var. c orneyanus (Antoine) Gordon & Glend. , Juniperus chinensis var. Foemina Lavallée , Juniperus chinensis var. Gaussenii (WCCheng) Silba , Juniperus chinensis var. Glauca (Slavin) LHBailey , Juniperus chinensis var. Globosa Hornibr. , Juniperus chinensis var. Horizontalis Nakai , Juniperus chinensis var. Japonica Siebold , Juniperus chinensis var. Keteleeri Beissn. , Juniperus chinensis var. Leeana Lavallée , Juniperus chinensis var. Mas Gordon & Glend. , Juniperus chinensis var. Mascula Lavallée , Juniperus chinensis var. Pendula Franch. , Juniperus chinensis var. Plumosa Hornibr. , Juniperus chinensis var. Sheppardii (AHKent) Hornibr. , Juniperus chinensis var. Smithii Loudon , Juniperus chinensis var. Torulosa Eastw. , Juniperus chinensis var. Variegata Maxwell ): it is in Japan , Korea , Myanmar , in the Inner Mongolia and the Chinese provinces of Anhui , Fujian , southern Gansu , Guangdong , northern Guangxi , Guizhou , Hebei , Henan , western Hubei , Hunan , Jiangsu , Jiangxi , southern Shaanxi , Shandong , Shanxi , Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang are common.
      • Juniperus chinensis var. Sargentii A.Henry (Syn .: Juniperus procumbens coffin. . Illeg nom., Juniperus sargentii (A.Henry) Takeda ex Nakai , Juniperus chinensis subsp. Sargentii (A.Henry) Silba , Juniperus sargentii var. Coeruleum Pshenn . , Juniperus sargentii var. cyanus Pshenn. ): It is used in Japan, in eastern Russia (only in Sakhalin and the South Kuriles ) and in the Chinese province of Heilongjiang ago.
      • Juniperus chinensis var. Tsukusiensis (Masamune) Masamune (Syn .: Juniperus tsukusiensis Masamune , Juniperus sargentii sensu Sasaki , Juniperus chinensis var. Sargentii Sasaki non Henry ): It comes only on the southern Japanese island of Yakushima and Hualian ago Xian in eastern Taiwan. In 2011 it is considered a separate species Juniperus tsukusiensis Masamune .
    • Red berry juniper ( Juniperus coahuilensis (Martínez) Gaussen ): It occurs only in the US state of Texas and in the Mexican state of Coahuila .
    • Juniperus comitana Martínez : It occurs in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Hidalgo and in Guatemala in Baja Verapaz , Huehuetenango and Zacapa . It thrives at altitudes from 1300 to 1775, rarely up to 2300 meters.
    • Mekong juniper ( Juniperus convallium Rehder & EHWilson ): There are two varieties:
      • Juniperus convallium Rehder & EHWilson var. Convallium (Syn .: Juniperus mekongensis Kom. , Juniperus ramulosa Florin ): It thrives on high mountains at altitudes of 2200 to 4300 meters in eastern Tibet and in the Chinese provinces of southern Qinghai and northwestern Sichuan.
      • Juniperus convallium var. Microsperma (WCCheng & LKFu) Silba (Syn .: Juniperus microsperma (WCCheng et LKFu) RPAdams ): It thrives on high mountains at altitudes of 3200 to 4000 meters only in eastern Tibet.
    • Alligator juniper ( Juniperus deppeana Steudel ): According to Adams and Schwarzbach 2006 there are four varieties:
      • Juniperus deppeana Steudel var. Deppeana (Syn .: Juniperus thurifera Spach nom. Illeg., Juniperus foetida Spach , Juniperus foetida var. Multicaulis Spach , Juniperus gigantea Roezl , Juniperus pachyphlaea Torr. , Juniperus deppeana subsp. Pachyphlaea (Torr.) Silba , Juniperus deppeana subsp. sperryi (Correll) AEMurray , Juniperus deppeana var. pachyphlaea (Torr.) Martínez , Juniperus deppeana var. sperryi Correll , Juniperus deppeana f. sperryi (Correll) RPAdams , Juniperus deppeana f. elongata R.Adams. ) the southern US state of Arizona and western Texas to Mexico. Three forms have been described within this variety that are not recognized by all authors.
      • Juniperus deppeana var. Gamboana (Martínez) RPAdams : It is considered by some authors as a species Juniperus gamboana and occurs from Mexico to Guatemala.
      • Juniperus deppeana . Var patoniana (Martínez) Zanoni (Syn .: Juniperus patoniana Martínez , Juniperus deppeana subsp. Patoniana (Martínez) Silba , Juniperus deppeana var. Obscura (Martínez) Gaussen , Juniperus patoniana f. Obscura Martínez ): It comes only in the Mexican State of Durango.
      • Juniperus deppeana var. Robusta Martínez : In Mexico it only thrives in the Sierra Madre Occidental .
    • Juniperus durangensis Martínez : It thrives at altitudes of 1600 to 2900 meters in the Mexican states of Aguascalientes , Chihuahua, Durango, Jalisco , Sonora and Zacatecas.
    • Greek juniper ( Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. , Syn .: Juniperus olivieri Carr. , Juniperus isophyllos K. Koch , Juniperus taurica (Pall.) Lipsky non Lindl. , Juniperus sabina var. Taurica Pall. , Juniperus sabina var. Excelsa (M .-Bieb.) Georgi , Juniperus foetida var. Excelsa (M.-Bieb.) Spach , Juniperus excelsa var. Depressa O.Schwarz ): It is distributed from the eastern Mediterranean region through the Black Sea region and the Caucasus region to the Iranian Elburs Mountains . Juniperus excelsa subsp., Treated as a subspecies by some sources . polycarpos (K. Koch) Takht. is listed here as the species Juniperus polycarpos .
    • Mexican juniper ( Juniperus flaccida Schltdl. ): There are no more varieties since 2015 :: It occurs in the US state of Texas (there only in the southwestern part) and in large parts of Mexico.
    • Stinking juniper ( Juniperus foetidissima Willd. , Syn .: Juniperus phoenicea Pall. Non L. , Juniperus sabinoides Grisebach , Juniperus foetida var. Squarrulosa Spach , Juniperus foetidissima var. Pindicola Formanek ): It comes from Albania , Northern Macedonia to Greece (to the Peloponnese , Mount Athos , on Thásos ), on Cyprus in Lebanon , across the Asian part of Turkey (but only rarely on the central plateau) and in the southeastern Caucasus to the coast of the Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan and along the coast of the Black Sea near Novorossiysk and in the Crimea .
    • Juniperus gracilior Pilg. : There are three varieties on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola :
      • Juniperus gracilior Pilg. var. gracilior : This endemic species occurs in the Dominican Republic only near Costanza and the village of Yaque.
      • Juniperus gracilior var. Ekmanii (Florin) RPAdams (Syn: Juniperus ekmanii Florin ): This endemic is in Haiti only on the Pic la Selle and Morne la Visite ago.
      • Juniperus gracilior var. Urbaniana (Pilg. & Ekman ) RPAdams (Syn .: Juniperus urbaniana Pilg. & Ekman , Juniperus barbadensis var. Urbaniana (Pilg. & Ekman) Silba , Juniperus barbadensis subsp. Urbaniana (Pilg. Et Ekman) Borhidi ): This endemic occurs in Haiti only on the Pic la Selle .
    • Juniperus grandis R.P.Adams (Syn .: Juniperus occidentalis subsp. Australis Vasek , Juniperus occidentalis var. Australis (Vasek) AHHolmgren & NHHolmgren ): It was first described in 2006 and comes in the southwestern US states, western Nevada and Arizona before.
    • Creeping juniper ( Juniperus horizontalis Moench , Syn .: Juniperus horizontalis var. Douglasii hort., Juniperus horizontalis var. Variegata Beissner ): It is found in all regions of Canada and in the northern US states of Alaska , Montana , Wyoming , Nebraska , South Dakota , North Dakota , Minnesota , Iowa , Illinois , Wisconsin , Michigan , New York , Vermont , Massachusetts , New Hampshire, and Maine widely.
    • Black juniper ( Juniperus indica Berthel. ): There have been two varieties in the Himalayas since 2005 :
      • Juniperus indica Berthel. var. indica (Syn .: Juniperus wallichiana Hook. f. et Thomson ): It occurs in northern Pakistan, Nepal and northwestern Yunnan.
      • Juniperus indica var. Caespitosa Farjon : It was first described in 2005 and occurs in southern Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal .
    • Jalisco Juniper ( Juniperus jaliscana Martínez ): It occurs only in the Mexican states of southern Durango and northwestern Jalisco .
    • Juniperus komarovii Florin (Syn .: Juniperus glaucescens Florin ): It occurs in the Chinese provinces of southern Qinghai and northwestern Sichuan and in Russia around the Ussuri .
    • Juniperus maritima R.P.Adams : It comes only on the coasts around the Puget Sound Whidbey Iceland to Lesqueti Iceland and the adjacent coast of Vancouver Iceland in western North America in Canada's British Columbia and in Washington state before. With one exception, a dune, it only thrives on rocks near the coast.
    • Juniperus martinezii Pérez de la Rosa (Syn .: Juniperus flaccida var. Martinezii (Pérez de la Rosa) Silba , Juniperus flaccida subsp. Martinezii (Pérez de la Rosa) Silba ): Since Adam and Schwarzenbach in 2015 there is no longer subtaxa. This endemic occurs only in the Sierra Cuatralba in the Mexican state of Jalisco.
    • Juniperus monosperma ( Juniperus monosperma ( Engelm. ) Coffin. , Juniperus occidentalis var. Monosperma Engelm. , Juniperus occidentalis var. Gymnocarpa Lemmon , Juniperus californica var. Monosperma . (Engelm) Lemmon , Juniperus mexicana var. Monosperma (Engelm.) Cory , Juniperus gymnocarpa (Lemmon) Cory ): It occurs in the US states Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas and in the neighboring Mexican states of northern Sonora and Chihuahua.
    • Mountain juniper ( Juniperus monticola Martínez , Syn .: Juniperus mexicana Spreng. Nom. Superfl., Juniperus tetragona Schltdl. Nom. Illeg., Juniperus sabinoides (Kunth) Nees nom. Illeg., Juniperus sabinoides Humb. Ex Lindl. & Gordon nom Illegal, Juniperus monticola subsp. orizabensis (Martínez) Silba , Juniperus monticola f. orizabensis Martínez ): Forms have been described, these are not recognized by some authors. It is common in Mexico.
    • Juniperus morrisonicola Hayata : This endemic thrives only in the central mountain range at altitudes above 3000 meters in Taiwan. Before 2000 it was considered a variety Juniperus squamata var. Morrisonicola (Hayata) Li & Keng . Their independence was recognized through molecular genetic and phytochemical studies.
    • Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis Hook. , Syn .: Juniperus andina Nutt. , Juniperus pseudocupressus Dieck ): It occurs in western US states.
    • Utah juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma ( Torr. ) Little ): Found in western US states.
    • Phoenician juniper ( Juniperus phoenicea L. ): With two varieties, which are also mentioned as subspecies in various sources:
      • Juniperus phoenicea L. var. Phoenicea in Portugal , on the coasts of the Mediterranean region, on the Balkan Peninsula , Turkey , in Saudi Arabia and in Israel . The variety can also be found in the states of North Africa south of the Mediterranean.
      • Juniperus phoenicea var. Turbinata ( cast. ) Parl. From the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canary Islands over the coastal regions of France , furthermore in Italy , Greece and on the islands of the Mediterranean and in western North Africa .
    • Texas juniper ( Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. ): It is found in southern US states and northern Mexico.
    • Juniperus pingii W.C.Cheng : There are four varieties:
      • Juniperus pingii W.C.Cheng var. Pingii : It thrives in forests on mountain slopes at altitudes of 2600 to 3800 meters in the Chinese provinces of southwestern Sichuan and northwestern Yunnan .
      • Juniperus pingii var. Chengii (LKFu & YFYu) Farjon (Syn .: Juniperus chengii L.K.Fu & YFYu ): It was first described as a species in 1998 and has been a variety since 2005. This endemic occurs only in the Chinese province of northwestern Yunnan .
      • Juniperus pingii var. Miehei Farjon : It was first described in 2005 from southern Tibet.
      • Juniperus pingii var. Wilsonii (Rehder) Silba (Syn .: Juniperus squamata subsp. Wilsonii (Rehder) Silba , Juniperus squamata var. Wilsonii (Rehder) RPAdams , Juniperus wallichiana var. Loderi Hornibr. , Juniperus squamata var. Loderi (Hornibr.) Hornibr. Ex FJChittenden , Juniperus pingii var. Carinata Y.F.Yu & LKFu , Juniperus carinata (YFYu & LKFu) RPAdams ): It occurs in Tibet and in the Chinese provinces of southern Gansu , northwestern Hubei , southern Qinghai , southern Shaanxi , Sichuan and Yunnan.
    • Persian juniper ( Juniperus polycarpos K.Koch ): With three varieties in a wide distribution area from Oman on the Arabian Peninsula through the Middle East and the Caucasus region to areas of Central Asia and the north of the Indian subcontinent .
      • Juniperus polycarpos K. Koch var. Polycarpos
      • Juniperus polycarpos var. Seravschanica Kom.
      • Juniperus polycarpos var. Turcomanica ( B.Fedtsch. ) RPAdams
    • Juniperus poblana (Martínez) RPAdams (Syn .: Juniperus flaccida var. Poblana Martínez ): This new combination took place in 2006. Since 2015 there are two varieties:
      • Juniperus poblana var. Decurrens R.P. Adams
      • Juniperus poblana (Martínez) RPAdams var. Poblana
    • East African juniper ( Juniperus procera Hochst. Ex Endl.): It occurs in East Africa and in the mountains of Yemen and Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea.
    • Creeping juniper ( Juniperus procumbens (Siebold ex Endl.) Miq. ): It occurs only on the Japanese Bonin Islands and on Kyūshū .
    • Juniperus przewalskii Kom .: It occurs in the Chinese provinces of Gansu , Qinghai and Sichuan .
    • Juniperus pseudosabina fish. & CAMey. is a species widespread in Asia from southern Siberia through areas of Central Asia and the northwest Chinese Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to Pakistan and Afghanistan .
    • Hanging juniper ( Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. , Syn .: Juniperus butanensis Wender. , Juniperus canescens Wall. Ex Gordon & Glend. , Juniperus incurva Buch.-Ham. Ex Endl. , Juniperus lambertiana Wall. Ex Endl. , Juniperus lorulasi K. Koch , Juniperus nepalensis Rinz. ex Gordon & Glend. , Juniperus procumbens Siebold ex Lindl. , Juniperus religiosa Royle , Juniperus repanda Carrière , Juniperus squamosa Buch.-Ham. ex Wall. nom. nud., Juniperus uncinata (RPAdams) RPAdams , Juniperus uvifera Loudon , Juniperus recurva var. tenuifolia Spach , Juniperus recurva var. typica Patschke , Juniperus recurva var. uncinata R.P.Adams ): There are two varieties:
      • Juniperus recurva var. Coxii (ABJacks.) Melville (Syn .: Juniperus coxii A.B.Jacks. ): It comes in the Himalayas in Bhutan , Sikkim , northern Myanmar , southeastern Tibet and northwestern Yunnan ago.
      • Juniperus recurva Buch.-Ham. var. recurva : It occurs in the Himalayas in Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, in the northern Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh and Kumaun , in Kashmir , Pakistan , Afghanistan , in southeastern Tibet and in northwestern Yunnan.
    • Sadebaum ( Juniperus sabina L. ): Since 2005 there are four varieties:
      • Juniperus sabina L. var. Sabina is a widespread species that can be found in many regions of Asia in addition to Africa and most of Europe.
      • Juniperus sabina var. Arenaria (EHWilson) Farjon in Mongolia and some northern provinces of China.
      • Juniperus sabina var. Davurica (Pall.) Farjon (Syn .: Juniperus davurica Pall. ): It has had the status of a variety since 2005. It is common in Siberia, southeastern Russia, northeastern China, and northern Mongolia.
      • Juniperus sabina var. Mongolensis R.P. Adams in Mongolia .
    • Juniperus saltillensis M.T. Hall in predominantly northern states of Mexico.
    • Sichuan juniper ( Juniperus saltuaria Rehder & EHWilson ) common in the Chinese provinces of Gansu , Qinghai , Sichuan and Yunnan as well as the Tibet Autonomous Region.
    • Juniperus saxicola Britton & P.Wilson : It is a local endemic to the Cuban Sierra Maestra at altitudes of 1600 to 1700 meters.
    • Rocky Mountain Juniper or Rock Mountain Juniper ( Juniperus scopulorum coffin. ) In a wide strip along the Rocky Mountains from Canada through the United States of America to northern Mexico.
    • Hemispherical juniper ( Juniperus semiglobosa rule ): There have been two varieties since 2012:
      • Juniperus semiglobosa var. Jarkendensis (Kom.) RPAdams (Syn .: Juniperus jarkendensis Kom. , Juniperus sabina var. Jarkendensis (Kom.) Silba ): This new combination took place in 2012. It occurs in the northwestern Chinese Uighur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang .
      • Juniperus semiglobosa rule . Var semiglobosa (Syn .: Juniperus talassica Lipsky , Juniperus shugnanica . Kom , Juniperus excelsa auct non. M. Bieb , Juniperus macropoda auct non. Boiss ): It grows in the high mountains in the western Central Asia ( Kyrgyzstan , Kazakhstan , Uzbekistan , Tajikistan ), Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan and along the Karakoram to Kashmir in Pakistan and in the northwest Himalayas in India to Garhwal .
    • Scaled juniper ( Juniperus squamata Buch.-Ham. ) With four varieties in large parts of Central Asia , in East Asia, in the northernmost parts of South Asia and also in Southeast Asian Myanmar.
      • Juniperus squamata Buch.-Ham. var. squamata
      • Juniperus squamata var. Fargesii Rehder & EHWilson
      • Juniperus squamata var. Hongxiensis Y.F.Yu & LKFu
      • Juniperus squamata var. Parviflora Y.F.Yu & LKFu
    • Juniperus standleyi Steyerm. in the highlands of Guatemala and Mexico.
    • Spanish juniper ( Juniperus thurifera L. ) in Spain, France, Morocco and Algeria:
      • Juniperus thurifera L. var. Thurifera
      • Juniperus thurifera var. Africana Maire is only listed as a synonym for Juniperus thurifera L. by other sources .
    • Tibetan Juniper ( Juniperus tibetica Kom. ): It is found in the Chinese provinces of Gansu , Qinghai , Sichuan and the Tibet Autonomous Region.
    • Virginian juniper ( Juniperus virginiana L. ): There are two varieties:
    • Juniperus zanonii R.P.Adams (Syn .: Juniperus compacta (Martínez) RPAdams , Juniperus monticola subsp. Compacta (Martínez) Silba , Juniperus monticola f. Compacta Martínez ): This endemic occurs only in the northern Mexican state of Nuevo León .

The Sabina section is sometimes seen as an independent genus; Some botanists assume that the species in this section / genus represent an independent development with a different phylogenetic origin.

Hazards and protective measures

Although the juniper species are generally well adapted and also widespread, there are still many species that the International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN) has on the Red List of Threatened Species , but designated as “Least Concern”. Out of a total of 55 listed species, 13 species are assigned a hazard category. These are exclusively species that are native to the Caribbean and the Atlantic islands of the Azores and Canaries or in Mexico and Guatemala :

  • Two species ( Bermuda juniper and Juniperus saxicola ) are considered critically endangered.
  • Seven species are listed as ″ Endangered ″.
  • Four species are listed as ″ Vulnerable ″.

In many cases, the causes of the threat are ongoing deforestation and overgrazing.

The common juniper Juniperus communis s. str., Juniperus communis subsp. nana as a synonym for the alpine juniper or dwarf juniper Juniperus communis var. saxatilis and the Sead tree Juniperus sabina listed and designated as not endangered (LC).

At the European level, with the Bern Convention Appendix I of the Council of Europe, the short-leaved juniper or Azores juniper ( Juniperus brevifolia ) was designated as a strictly protected wild plant.

With the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive No. 92/43 / EEC in the updated version of January 1, 2007 of the European Union (FFH-RL) Appendix 1, protected area designations are required for the following habitat types to which juniper species belong:

  • Mediterranean coastal dunes with juniper species Juniperus spp. - The protection of these habitats is required as a priority
  • Formations of the common juniper Juniperus communis on limestone heaths and lawns
  • Tree-shaped hardwood bushes (Matorrals) with junipers . Species Juniperus spp.
  • Endemic forests with juniper species Juniperus spp. - The protection of these habitats is seen as a priority

In the Federal Republic of Germany, the cedar juniper Juniperus cedrus is protected as a strictly protected species in the Federal Species Protection Ordinance (BArtSchV).

On the North American continent, the USA lists eight species of juniper across various states as endangered species that need to be protected.

The variety Juniperus procumbens 'Nana'
The variety Juniperus squamata 'Meyeri'


Ornamental plant

Many varieties of some Juniperus species are used as ornamental plants in gardens and in parks and cemetery grounds . These are mostly elite forms that are propagated vegetatively. In Asia juniper species have been ornamental plants for centuries, for example the Chinese golden juniper.

Spore bearing of the pear grate on the juniper

The spread of juniper species and their varieties as easy-care and evergreen ornamental plants in parks and gardens has led to the increasing spread of pear grids . This fungal disease is dependent on juniper as a host plant , although the native common juniper is probably less susceptible. As a result, the population of pear trees has decreased significantly.

Juniper in medicine

Juniper as a tea promotes digestion, urine excretion and is effective against heartburn . He supports rheumatism and gout therapy.

However, juniper is not approved as a diuretic . The diuretic effect is due to the kidney-irritating ingredients of the dummy fruits . Juniper may therefore only be used in combination with other diuretics, since the use of juniper as a single drug can otherwise easily lead to an overdose and the resulting kidney damage.

In the Middle Ages juniper berries were used, among other things, as an ingredient in ointments in the treatment of joint diseases.


The berries are a raw material in the manufacture of some alcoholic beverages. In the 17th century, Franciscus Sylvius mixed juniper berries and alcohol with other herbs to create a medicine called genever . The juniper schnapps gin was later developed from this . The juniper berries also give spirits such as Krambambuli , Steinhäger , Borovička and the aforementioned genever their special flavor.

Juniper berries are also used as a flavoring for lemonades, for example in root beer or in Enbärsdricka in Sweden .

Young juniper shoots are used in Scandinavia to make beer.


In some regions of Switzerland a concentrate (juice) is made from juniper berries , which is then processed together with glucose syrup, raw sugar, water and caramel sugar to make Latwerge spread . The recipe for this spread has been passed down orally for a long time. For a few years now, latwerge has been available from major distributors and health food stores.

The cones of the Syrian juniper are collected by Anatolian mountain farmers and used as a vitamin and sugar-rich puree called Andiz Pekmezi.

Kitchen use

dried juniper berries

When dry, the juniper berry (Kronwittbirl), also called crabberry and, in some areas, spice berry, is often used in the preparation of sauerkraut, as well as in various meat preparations (sauerbraten, game roast).

It is also important in the production of smoked meat or fish. The berries are added to the Pökelmischungen in crushed state, both in the salt mixtures as well as in aqueous brine . The taste of the juniper berry promotes the development of the taste when smoking meat or fish. In old recipes you can find information like this: 8–12 juniper berries per kilogram of bacon or ham.

The wood of the juniper bush is also added to the usual smoking meal in the form of shavings in order to achieve flavoring through the smoke. In old recipes one often finds that one should add Kranewitt twigs (juniper twigs) to the embers in order to improve the taste.

Too high a dose of berries or wood leads to a soapy taste.

Further use

Juniper wood, branches and berries are often used for smoking . Juniper smoke is considered to be cleaning and disinfecting and was used as early as the Middle Ages. It smells very woody and at the same time fresh; the smoke development is moderate to heavy.

The juniper oil ( Oleum iuniperi ) is derived from juniper (from the vile juniper) by distillation essential oil.

Juniper is used in archery as so-called bow wood, whereby the wood is then stored for at least 2 years. Then the prepared trunk is quartered and then processed further. The further use is mostly as a so-called laminate to decorate bows and limbs.

Toxic effects of juniper

Juniper berries and needles contain slightly poisonous essential oils, which can cause irritation if they come into contact with the skin and if consumed. In contrast to the other juniper plants, only the berries ( Fructus Juniperi ) of Juniperus communis are poisonous. She is mature in her second year. The main active ingredients are 0.2–2.9% essential oils from alpha-pinene , terpineol , sabinene , myrcene , flavonoids and others. Overdosing will result in kidney pain, kidney failure, skin irritation and liver damage. Furthermore, the activity of the heart and breathing are increased; cramps may occur less often. Externally, the skin becomes red and blisters . The maximum dosage in adults is 2 g.


Martin Luther mistakenly translated the bush under which the biblical prophet Elijah lay down to sleep in his desperation (1 Kings 19: 5) as juniper , which was retained up to and including the revision of the Luther Bible of 1984. The Hebrew plant genus ROTEM is a type of gorse that occurs in the Middle East. Only in the revised edition of the Luther Bible from 2017 is the juniper replaced by gorse . Unlike the Luther Bible, the German translation of the Bible by Ludwig Philippson named the genus gorse bush as early as 1848 . Due to the dominance of the Luther Bible, however, the juniper has gone down in cultural history. B. in the oratorio Elias by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, in which a recitative is entitled: “See, he sleeps under the juniper”. In her poem Immer Noch Mitternacht, published in 1957, Nelly Sachs also connected Elijah with the juniper and not with the gorse: "So Elia; like a forest with torn roots / it rose under the juniper".

See also



  • Robert P. Adams: Junipers of the World: The genus Juniperus . 2nd Edition. Trafford Publishing Co., Vancouver 2008, ISBN 978-1-4251-6880-3 .

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Jörg Mildenberger: Anton Trutmann's 'Pharmacopoeia', Part II: Dictionary . Würzburg 1997 (= Würzburg medical-historical research . Volume 56), Volume V, p. 2257f.
  2. Kluge: Etymological dictionary of the German language . 23rd expanded edition, edited by Elmar Seebold. Berlin, New York 1999, ISBN 3-11-016392-6 .
  3. Heinrich Marzell : Dictionary of German plant names . Volume II, Leipzig 1972.
  4. ^ Siegfried Joneleit: Plant for all cases.
  5. ^ W. Schmitz in Contributions to German Philology. Volume 8–12 (1954, 1970) Machandel, Machangel, Wacholder in the Google book search
  6. Helmut Genaust: Etymological dictionary of botanical plant names. 3rd, completely revised and expanded edition. Birkhäuser, Basel / Boston / Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-7643-2390-6 .
  7. , accessed on December 3, 2016.
  8. Juniper berries on spice caravan accessed on August 14, 2020
  9. ^ Colin Tudge : The secret life of trees. Penguin books, London 2006, ISBN 0-14-101293-5 , p. 107.
  10. a b c d e f g Juniperus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Accessed March 31, 2019.
  11. ^ Robert P. Adams: Juniperus of Canada and United States: Taxonomy, Key and Distribution . In: Phytologia . tape 90 , no. 3 , 2008, p. 255–314 ( online [PDF; 4.5 MB ]). Online ( Memento of the original from October 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. ^ Robert P. Adams: The Juniperus of the World. Retrieved September 29, 2019 .
  13. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax Christopher J. Earle: Juniperus at The Gymnosperm Database , 2019.
  14. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Walter Erhardt, Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: Der große Zander. Encyclopedia of Plant Names. Volume 2: Types and Varieties. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7 .
  15. ^ Robert P. Adams, Lori E. Baker: Pleistocene Infraspecific Evolution in Juniperus ashei book. In: Phytologia . tape 89 , no. 1 , 2007, p. 8–23 ( online [PDF; 3 kB ]). Online ( Memento of the original from October 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. ^ Robert P. Adams, M. Socorro González Elizondo, Martha González Elizondo, Erin Slinkman: DNA fingerprinting and terpenoid analysis of Juniperus blancoi var. Huehuentensis (Cupressaceae), a new subalpine variety from Durango, Mexico . In: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . tape 34 , no. 3 , 2006, p. 205–211 , doi : 10.1016 / j.bse.2005.11.004 (English).
  17. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Liguo Fu, Yong-fu Yu, Robert P. Adams, Aljos Farjon: Cupressaceae. : Juniperus Linnaeus. , Pp. 69–73 - the same text online as the printed work In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (Ed.): Flora of China. Volume 4: Cycadaceae through Fagaceae. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis, 1999, ISBN 0-915279-70-3 .
  18. ^ A b Robert P. Adams, C.-F. Hsieh, J. Murata: Systematics of Juniperus chinensis and J. tsukusiensis from Japan and Taiwan: DNA sequencing and terpenoids. In: Phytologia , Volume 93, 2011, pp. 118-131.
  19. a b c Robert P. Adams, Anderea E. Schwarzbach: Taxonomy of Juniperus deppeana varieties and formas based on nrDNA (ITS), petN-psbM, trnS-trnG, trnD-trnT, trnL-trnF sequences. In Phytologia , Volume 95, 2013, pp. 161-166.
  20. a b c d e f Robert P. Adams, Andrea E. Schwarzbach: A new, flaccid, decurrent leaf variety of Juniperus poblana from Mexico: J. poblana var. Decurrens RP Adams & S. González. In: Phytologia , Volume 97, Issue 3, 2015, pp. 152-163.
  21. ^ Robert P. Adams, Systematics of the one seeded Juniperus of the eastern hemisphere based on leaf essential oils and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) . In: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . tape 28 , no. 6 , 2000, pp. 529-543 , doi : 10.1016 / S0305-1978 (99) 00096-4 (English).
  22. Robert P. Adams: Systematics of multiseeded eastern hemisphere Juniperus based of leaf essential oils and RAPD DNA fingerprinting . In: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology . tape 27 , no. 7 , 1999, p. 709–725 , doi : 10.1016 / S0305-1978 (99) 00016-2 (English, online [PDF; 732 kB ]). Online ( Memento of the original from June 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. ^ Robert P. Adams, Ram P. Chaudhary, R. Naresh Pandey, Ram Lakhan Singh: Juniperus recurva var. Uncinata, the Hooked Branchlet Juniper, a New Variety from Nepal . In: Phytologia . tape 91 , no. 3 , 2009, p. 361 ( Online [PDF; 1,2 MB ]). Online ( Memento of the original from October 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  24. a b Aljos Farjon : A handbook of the world's Conifers. 1st edition, BRILL, Leiden, Boston, 2010, ISBN 978-9-0041771-8-5 , Volume 1, pp. 1-526. doi : 10.1163 / 9789047430629
  25. ^ Robert P. Adams, Andrea E. Schwarzbach, Sanko Nguyen, Julie A. Morris, JQ. Liu: Geographic Variation in Juniperus sabina L., J. sabina var. Arenaria (EH Wilson) Farjon, J. sabina var. Davurica (Pall.) Farjon and J. sabina var. Mongolensis RP Adams . In: Phytologia . tape 89 , no. 2 , 2007, p. 153–166 ( online [PDF; 300 kB ]). Online ( Memento of the original from October 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  26. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN): Taxon: Juniperus saltillensis MT Hall. In: GRIN Taxonomy for Plants. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, accessed May 24, 2010 .
  27. ^ A b Robert P. Adams, Andrea E. Schwarzbach: Taxonomy of the multi-seeded, entire leaf taxa of Juniperus section Sabina: Sequence analysis of nrDNA and four cpDNA regions. In: Phytologia , Volume 94, 2012, pp. 350 to 366. Juniperus semiglobosa var. Jarliendensis (Komarov) RP Adams, comb. nov. on p. 354 scanned at .
  28. Juniperus thurifera. In: The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved January 26, 2011 .
  29. ^ Robert P. Adams, Andrea E. Schwarzbach: Taxonomy of the serrate leaf Juniperus of North America: Phylogenetic analyzes using nrDNA and four cpDNA regions. In: Phytologia , Volume 95, 2013, pp. 172-178.
  30. Juniperus in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020. Accessed July 17, 2020.
  31. ^ D. Moser, A. Gygax, B. Bäumler, N. Wyler, R. Palese: Red list of endangered species in Switzerland: fern and flowering plants . Federal Office for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, Bern; Center of the data network of the Swiss flora, Chambésy; Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, Chambésy, 2002, p. 1–118 ( page no longer available , search in web archives: online ).@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  32. ^ Council of Europe (ed.): Bern Convention-Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats . Bern 1979 (English, online ).
  33. Directive 92/43 / EEC of the Council of May 21, 1992 for the conservation of natural habitats and wild animals and plants (Habitats Directive) - version of January 1, 2007 . In: European Union (Ed.): OJ. L 206 of July 22, 1992 . S.  7 , Appendix I, pp. 17-19 and 23 ( online ).
  34. Appendix 1 of the Federal Species Protection Ordinance
  35. Plants Database: Plants Threatened & Endangered & Protected: Juniperus. In: NRCS Natural Resources Conceration Service. USDA United States Department of Agriculture, accessed May 25, 2010 .
  36. Gordon Cheers (Ed.): Botanica. The ABC of plants. 10,000 species in text and images . Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft, 2003, ISBN 3-8331-1600-5 (therein pages 491-494).
  37. Botanicgroup: Juniperus Chinensis Kuriwao Gold - Chinese gold juniper .
  38. ↑ Chamber of Agriculture: Pear Grate ( Memento of the original from November 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  39. Volker Fintelmann , Rudolf Fritz Weiss : Textbook of Phytotherapy . 11th edition. Hippokrates, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-8304-5345-0 , p.  251 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
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  44. ^ Josef Werlin: Three German juniper tracts from the Late Middle Ages. In: Sudhoffs Archiv , Volume 49, 1965, pp. 250-254.
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  48. Muzaffer Selik, Hubert Ziegler: The sugar, protein and vitamin content of the berry cone juice from Juniperus drupacea Labill. ("Andiz Pekmezi") . In: Qualitas Plantarum et Materiae Vegetabiles . tape 17 , no. 4 , p. 265-272 , doi : 10.1007 / BF01100190 .
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  53. Marzia Innocenti, Marco Michelozzi, Catia Giaccherini, Francesca Ieri, Franco Francesco Vincieri, Nadia Mulinacci: Flavonoids and biflavonoids in Tuscan berries of Juniperus communis L .: detection and quantitation by HPLC / DAD / ESI / MS In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry . Vol. 55, No. 16, 2007, pp. 6596-6602, PMID 17622155 .
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  55. Cf. with .
  56. Ludwig Philippson (ed.): The Israelite Bible - Second Part: The Prophets. Contains: the holy original text, the German translation, the general, detailed explanation with more than 500 English woodcuts. 2nd edition Leipzig 1858.
  57. Gellner, Christoph: ... nothing of silence, gentleness and edification. Elijah updates in literature. URL: (accessed December 8, 2019).

Supplementary literature

  • Heinrich Lehmann: Contributions to the history of Sambucus nigra, Juniperus communis and Juniperus Sabina. Math.-nat. Diss. Basel 1935.
  • Lutz Roth, Max Daunderer , Kurt Kormann: Poisonous plants, plant poisons: occurrence, effect, therapy, allergic and phototoxic reactions. 3. Edition. ecomed, Landsberg 1987, ISBN 3-609-64810-4 ; 6th edition, Nikol, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-86820-009-6 .
  • Sabine Kurschat-Fellinger: Kranewitt. Investigations into the old German translations of the Nordic juniper berry tract (= Medieval miracle drug tracts, III). (Medical dissertation Würzburg) Pattensen / Hanover (now at Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg) 1983 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 20).

Web links

Commons : Juniper ( Juniperus )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Juniper  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

further reading

  • RP Adams: Evolution of dioecious / monecious taxa in Juniperus, contrasted with Cupressus, Hesperocyparis, Callitropsis and Xanthocyparis (Cupressaceae). In: Phytologia , Volume 100, Issue 4, 2018, pp. 248-255. Full text PDF.