National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places ( NRHP , German "National Directory of Historic Places") is the official list of cultural monuments in the United States . The list of monuments listed buildings, structures, equipment and other significant objects and historic districts ( Historic District ), by the Federal Government as worth preserving monuments are classified.
The establishment of the directory was ordered in 1966 by the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The register's task is to support owners and interested groups in recognizing and protecting historically significant cultural monuments. Although the listing is mainly symbolic, financial support from the owner may be associated with it. Of the more than one million objects listed in the register, only around 80,000 cultural monuments are recorded as individual objects, the vast majority, however, as part of a historic district . Around 30,000 properties are added to the directory every year.
The administration of the National Register has so far been mainly the responsibility of the National Park Service (NPS).
The National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPO) were created on October 5, 1966 by the Historic Preservation Act. Initially, the existing National Historic Landmarks and other historic sites were recorded there under the care of the National Park System. The law, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, for the first time created a policy for comprehensive preservation of historic sites in the United States. The law stipulated that federal agencies must work with the SHPO and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) to avoid negative effects of federal measures on the protected sites.
Types of Registered Historic Places
The cultural monuments included in the register are divided into five groups: buildings, structures, objects, sites and districts. In addition, property within historical districts is divided into contributing and non-contributing . The definitions of these different categories of the National Register of Historic Places partly differ from the general understanding of the term.
Building ( "buildings") are provide space for the definition of the National Register of Historic Places such buildings, the human in the first place needs or actions, such as houses , stables , barns or churches , as well as theater or train stations .
To human needs and actions to give constructions which have not been built, unlike the buildings primarily a space to be in the Register as buildings designated ( "structures"). These include, for example, grain silos , bridges , lighthouses , but also vehicles such as ships or aircraft .
When objects ( "objects") are either predominantly as artworks considered classifiable works or compared to buildings and structures relatively small and simple constructions. Objects can be movable, but are usually associated with a specific environment, such as monuments , sculptures or fountains .
Sites ("sites") are places where significant historical or prehistoric events have occurred, with both existing and non-existing buildings or ruins being located at the site . In the case of sites, it is the point that is historically significant and has cultural or archaeological value. The current state of any existing constructions is immaterial. Examples of sites are shipwrecks, battlefields , settlement sites, or natural geographic objects.
Historic Districts have a concentration, association, or otherwise association between several of the other four types of property. Objects, structures, buildings and sites within a historical district historically or aesthetically form a unit, either through selection or based on the history of their origin.
The Cobblestone Path in Kentucky as an example of a structure
Multiple property submission
When multiple property submission (MPS) is called a thematic grouping several similar objects are entered together into the National Register of Historic Places in. Examples of multiple property submissions are the Diners of Massachusetts MPS or the Civil War Monuments of Kentucky MPS .
The Multiple Property Documentation Form is a kind of title document with which the criteria of these thematically related objects are determined; it creates the historical framework for the individual objects considered. Based on this information and criteria, the actual entry of the respective objects in the National Register of Historic Places takes place. These can be entered at the same time or at a later point in time so that the scope of an MPS can change over time. The individual entries in the register in the context of an MPS do not differ from other entries. The name of an MPS is based on the thematic grouping. A Multiple Property is formed by a Multiple Property Documentation Form and the respective individual National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms .
Before the term Multiple Property Submission was introduced in 1984, the terms Multiple Resource Areas (MRA) or Thematic Resources (TR) were used for such collective entries .
- John H. Sprinkle Jr .: Crafting Preservation Criteria: The National Register of Historic Places and American Historic Preservation. Routledge, London 2014, ISBN 978-0-415-64256-9 .
- National Register of Historic Places (English)
- NRHP database (English)
- National Historic Landmarks Program (English)
- Old Slater Mill, National Register Number: 66000001 ( Memento of the original from October 7, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- National Park Service Directors and Directorate , Historic Listing of National Park Service Officials, National Park Service . Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 , Public Law 102-575, National Register of Historic Places , Official Website. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- Barry Mackintosh: The Historic Sites Survey and National Historic Landmarks Program: A History , ( PDF ; 1.6 MB), Official Website of the National Historic Landmarks Program , Accessed March 23, 2007.
- TJ Ferguson: Native Americans and the Practice of Archeology , ( JSTOR ), Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 25, 1996, pp. 63-79. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
- Charles E. Fisher: Promoting the Preservation of Historic Buildings: Historic Preservation Policy in the United States , ( JSTOR ), In: APT Bulletin. Vol. 29, No. 3/4, Thirtieth Anniversary Issue. 1998, pp. 7-11. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation (PDF (13 MB)) In: National Register Bulletins . National Park Service . Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- Robie, Frederick C., House. ( Memento from July 31, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- Cobblestone Path. (No longer available online.) Our Historic Places, archived from the original January 7, 2009 ; accessed on February 6, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Antoinette J. Lee, Linda F. McClelland: How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form ( English , PDF; 7.1 MB) In: National Register Bulletin . National Park Service. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Multiple Property Submissions ( English ) National Park Service. Retrieved October 5, 2014.