List of monuments
All recognized monuments of a regional authority are listed in a list of monuments , including a monument book , monument register or monument register . These directories are the result of an inventory .
The monument topography (referred to as art topography in Austria ), which shows the monuments in connection with the geographical situation and the historical development of the description area, and the monument inventory , which shows the monument objects and their development in great detail, must be distinguished from the list of monuments as a mere listing of the monument inventory and also includes lost monuments.
Types of monument lists
Declaratory or memorial lists of monuments
Declaratory monument lists are kept for information. It includes objects that meet the requirements specified in the respective law, whereby the monument quality of an object does not depend on its entry in the list. There are special regulations for movable monuments.
Constitutive monument lists
Constituent monument lists are not only used for inventory purposes , but are also tools under administrative law. A monument is only legally protected if it has been included in the list by means of a final administrative act. The relevant bodies are to be heard for this purpose, the monument owner has the option of taking action against inclusion in the list of monuments.
If an owner does not agree with the monument designation, he can contest it, the procedures range from a simple objection (Austria) to an objection (if provided for under national law) to an action for rescission or declaratory judgment.
Karl Friedrich Schinkel had already created monument registers. Ferdinand von Quast worked on recording the monuments in Prussia with the help of questionnaires. In 1900, Georg Dehio made the decision to publish a handbook of German art monuments - which, as 'Der Dehio', is the stand of the monument registers for Germany and Austria to this day.
Official monuments began in Europe as early as the 1920s, further milestones are the land registers of the large states of China (1961) and the USA (1966), and since the 1970s at the latest ( World Heritage Convention 1972/75), the inventory of objects worthy of monuments has been a global concern .
From an international perspective, Blue Shield is now concerned with the definition and inventory of monuments as evidence of past cultural history. This applies particularly to military conflicts. "No-strike lists" are created with the support of local experts. For example , when NATO wanted to take action in Libya , Blue Shield created a “no-strike list”, a list of important sites, museums and libraries that must not be bombed under any circumstances. This list was given to NATO. The “No-strike list” for Yemen included information from Google Earth with historical field recordings including around 40,000 photos of the Royal Air Force (RAF) from the 1950s to 1970s.
Since monument protection in Germany falls under the cultural sovereignty of the federal states , each federal state has its own monument protection law. The exact regulations for keeping the list of monuments are part of the monument protection law and thus differ from state to state.
The content of an entry in the list of monuments is the abbreviation of the monument, its location, its characteristic features (i.e. why the object is a monument) and the date of entry.
Depending on the respective federal state, not all cultural monuments are necessarily in the list of monuments: For example, movable monuments are only entered in some federal states if there is a historically based location reference.
The list of monuments is public, only in some federal states “the legitimate interest” still has to be proven. In some federal states, only the owners or persons authorized by them are allowed to view the list of movable monuments. The list can be found at the lower monument (protection) authority , which is located at the lower administrative authority (district, urban district) or the municipality.
Monument lists in Germany are mainly divided into declaratory monument lists , constitutive monument lists and monument books .
- There are declaratory lists in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Lower Saxony, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.
- Constituent lists are kept in North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein.
- The monument book and the list of monuments is often understood as synonymous . In some federal states, however, a separate monument book is kept in addition to the monument lists . In Baden-Württemberg, for example, cultural monuments of particular importance (DSchG-BW §12) are specifically entered in the monument book, while otherwise a declaratory list of monuments is kept, i.e. H. A cultural monument is defined by the Monument Protection Act (DSchG-BW §2) and not only through an entry in the list of monuments.
The protection status is explained here using the Monument Protection Act (North Rhine-Westphalia) . The topic of the list of monuments is dealt with explicitly in § 3 DSchG NRW and in the attached ordinance on keeping the list of monuments (monument list ordinance) .
The impetus to add a monument to the list is given either by the owner, the regional association or by his own motion. The Lower Monument Authority is responsible for editing and registering a monument.
- First of all, it is checked whether the proposed property has the necessary monument properties according to the DSchG. This is done by establishing a relationship between the Lower Monument Authority and the regional association . The located there Conservation Office ( conservation office ) created a detailed historical value justification which indicates the importance of the object according to the different criteria of the Monument Protection Act as part of this process step.
- When assessing the monument value, there is no balancing with other public or private interests. If the monument value is determined, the property must be registered (two-stage process). A consideration is only made in the second stage, if changes to the monument are intended - permission under monument law .
- In the event of differences between the Lower Monument Authority and the Landscape Association about the monument value, the Landscape Association can seek a decision from the Supreme Monument Authority (the responsible ministry). This decision is binding on both sides.
- This is followed by a hearing with the owner and / or beneficial owner. During this conversation, the owner is made aware of the rights and obligations of owning a monument.
- If the property is included in the list of monuments, the owner will be informed. The rights and obligations that he has thus assumed will be communicated to him again. He can bring an action before the administrative court within one month .
If the property is not included in the list of monuments, the owner / authorized user cannot legally enforce protection. If, after the monument has been entered in the list of monuments, the prerequisites for protection are no longer (in whole or in part), the property will be officially deleted from the list of monuments (in whole or in part) (see Metropol (Bonn) ).
- Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany
- Article on monument lists of the states of Bavaria , Brandenburg , Rhineland-Palatinate
Austria: List of monuments
The Austrian List of Monuments is kept in the Monuments Register department of the Federal Monuments Office , as it is anchored in (5) Monument Protection Act. The Federal Monuments Office (BDA) also maintains an electronic monument database. In December 2010, the number of immovable objects under monument protection in Austria was around 36,500, the Federal Monuments Office estimates the total number of immovable (non-archaeological) objects worthy of protection at around 60,000. The list of immovable monuments under monument protection is available on the website of the Federal Monuments Office. It is to be published annually by July 1st as of January 1st. Around two thirds of all immovable monuments in Austria correspond to the secular building type (palaces and fortresses, residential buildings, small monuments, etc.), one third are sacred buildings (monasteries, churches, chapels, cemeteries), the rest fall into the area of soil monuments, horticultural monuments , Technical monuments, gardens and parks or horticultural monuments. In addition to the official register of monuments, the Austrian editions of the Dehio handbook , which are being prepared by the BDA's inventory and monument research department, are also of great interest .
In Slovakia , the national monument lists are administered by the Pamiatkový úrad Slovenskej republiky monument authority , which is subject to the Slovak Ministry of Culture. The Slovak list of monuments is also published on the website of this authority.
- People's Republic of China : the list of monuments of the People's Republic of China ( 全国 重点文物保护单位 , Quánguó zhòngdiǎn wénwù bǎohù dānwèi - "National historical sites and cultural assets under state protection")
- France : the base Mérimée
- Namibia : the list of National Monuments in Namibia
- Czech Republic : the central list of the cultural heritage of the Czech Republic , Czech: Ústřední seznam kulturních památek České republiky - online in MonumNet
- United States : the National Register of Historic Places in the United States
- United Kingdom : the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest (separate for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland)
- www.denkmalliste.org (address directory of listed monuments in Germany on the Internet)
- List of monuments of the Austrian Federal Monuments Office
- Cf. u. a. Eden Stiffman: “Cultural Preservation in Disasters, War Zones. Presents Big Challenges ”in: The Chronicle Of Philanthropy, May 11, 2015; Hans Haider in an interview with Karl Habsburg: “Abuse of cultural goods is punishable” in: Wiener Zeitung of June 29, 2012.
- See Joris Kila in an interview in “Monument Men of the Present. Protection against bombs and looting ”in: Kölner Stadtanzeiger from February 20, 2014.
- Cf. Aisling Irwin: “A no-strike list may shield Yemen's ancient treasures from war” in: Daily News of January 23, 2017.
- Hamburg Monument List. In: hamburg.de. Retrieved February 10, 2020 .
- General Directorate for Cultural Heritage Rhineland-Palatinate: Informational directory of the cultural monuments of Rhineland-Palatinate
- monuments , Federal Monuments Office
- Inventory of listed objects in 2006 by federal state. In: Statistics → Education, Culture → Culture → Architectural Heritage. Statistics Austria , December 18, 2007, accessed on March 1, 2009 .
- Monument List Austria ( Memento of the original dated December 30, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Evidencia národných kultúrnych pamiatok na Slovensku . Slovak, accessed April 20, 2013.
- National Monuments in Namibia - An inventory of the proclaimed national monuments in the Republic of Namibia , Andreas Vogt , Gamsberg Macmillan Verlag, Windhoek, 2006
- , Národní památkový ústav (Czech.)
- monumnet.npu.cz or search mask in the monument catalog pamatkovykatalog.cz (Czech).