Jaguar Cars

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Jaguar Cars logo

Owner / user Jaguar Land Rover
Introductory year 1922
(as Swallow Sidecars )
Markets Worldwide
former logo (until 2012)

Jaguar (English pronunciation: [ˈdʒægjuːə] in Great Britain, [ˈdʒægˌwɑɹ] in the United States ) is an automobile brand of the subsidiary Jaguar Land Rover of the Indian Tata Motors in the premium segment.

There is a development center in Whitley, south of Coventry, as well as factories in Castle Bromwich near Birmingham and Halewood near Liverpool (all in the UK ). From the end of 1998, the company was part of the Premier Automotive Group of Ford , which in March 2008 along with Land Rover to Tata Motors sold.

On December 28, 2012, the business of the Land Rover Private Unlimited Company was transferred to Jaguar Cars Limited and the name was changed to Jaguar Land Rover Limited . The Land Rover Private Unlimited Company continues to exist, the brand names are continued separately.

Jaguar has been purveyor to the British royal family since 1951 . After the merger, Jaguar Land Rover is the only automobile manufacturer that is allowed to wear all three royal coats of arms, the “Royal Warrants”.



In 1922 William Lyons founded the Swallow Sidecars company with William Walmsley in Blackpool and initially manufactured motorcycle sidecars . From autumn 1926, after moving to a larger workshop, the company also offered body repairs. Since 1927, complete, sporty and elegant bodies have been produced, initially u. a. based on the Austin Seven , from 1929 also for Standard chassis . In 1928 the company moved to Foleshill on the northern edge of Coventry . In 1931 the first vehicle with a particularly low chassis manufactured especially for Swallow was presented. However, the chassis was still assembled at Standard. No agreement could be reached as to whether this car should be named "Standard" or "Swallow" first. A diplomatic solution was found with the brand name "SS". Especially in the early days, the spelling with two dots is also found, while Standard always put a slash between the two letters. At the beginning of 1935 a two-seater sports car with the designation SS 90 appeared on the basis of this SS 1 . In addition to the SS 1 with six-cylinder engines of 16 and 20 HP (tax horsepower, the specification corresponds to about 2 and 2½ liters of displacement), there was the SS 2 with initially 9, from model year 1934 10 and 12 HP. In 1933 the company took over the coachbuilder Holbrook Bodies on Holbrook Lane in Coventry to expand capacities.

SS 100

In October 1935 Lyons presented its first four-door sedan, for which the standard engine received overhead valves (OHV) with the help of Harry Weslake and thus delivered over 100 hp. Again there was a variant with a four-cylinder engine with a displacement of a good 1.5 liters, which still had valves on the side. The six-cylinder high-performance engine was also used in the previous SS 1 Tourer and the sports car, which was now almost 100 mph (160 km / h) and was therefore called the SS 100 . These new SS models were very inexpensive compared to similar cars from Bentley or Alvis , so that "Jaguar" had the reputation of a particularly inexpensive sports sedan from the start. The 3.5 liter with 125 bhp was added as the top model at the end of 1937, both in the sedan and in the sports car. At the same time, a two-door convertible version with all three engine sizes was presented, the Drophead Coupé .

post war period

Jaguar XK 120 OTS (Open Two Seater), (1953)

After World War II , the company gave up the trademark "SS" and the name "Jaguar" was promoted in 1945 to brand name - the abbreviation SS aroused in England too strong associations with the Schutzstaffel of the German Nazis . In October 1948 Jaguar presented the XK 120 at the London Motor Show , which attracted a lot of attention with its lines and excellent driving performance. It was named after the newly designed XK engine with two overhead camshafts (DOHC) and hemispherical combustion chambers. The designation "XK" comes from the development phase of the engine and is still used today for the brand's sporty models. The "X" stands for "Experimental", behind which the different versions of the engine are marked with different letters. The individual development stages XA , XB etc. led up to the XK engine.

The pre-war sedans and Drophead Coupés were initially built largely unchanged, but were also given successors in 1948 in the form of the Mark V Saloon and Drophead Coupé, which were further developed in numerous details . This designation, which was new for Jaguar, meant that the predecessor was soon used to distinguish it as "Mark IV".


Jaguar XK 120 FHC (Fixed Head Coupé)
Jaguar Mk 2

The XK engine was actually designed for a new four-door luxury sedan, but development took until 1950. This successor to the Mark V was introduced under the name Mark VII (the name Mark VI was already used by Bentley). For the first time, a drophead coupé was no longer available. The Mark VII evolved into the even more powerful Mark VII M in 1954, which won the Monte Carlo Rally in 1956 under Ronald Adams, Frank Bigger and Derek Johnston .

Also in 1954, the now also available as a closed coupé (Fixed Head Coupé since 1951) and weatherproof convertible (Drophead Coupé since 1953) and as a performance-enhanced XK 120 Special Equipment (since 1951) was further developed into the more spacious XK 140 with rack-and-pinion steering and more powerful engines. 1956 - Lyons had just been knighted and now to be addressed as Sir William - the stylistically revised Mark VIII appeared , while the sports car was only presented in 1957 in the final XK 150 version, with Dunlop disc brakes all round as standard for the first time . In the fall of 1958, the sedan was bored out to 3.8 liters and launched with disc brakes as the Mark IX . The larger machine was soon also available in the XK 150 upon request, as was the performance-enhancing third carburetor for both engine sizes, which makes this XK 150 S a particularly sought-after collector's item.

These models all had a frame . More and more large-scale manufacturers are now switching to the more stable and cheaper to manufacture self-supporting bodies. Jaguar initially experimented with this design with the rather compact 2.4 liter , presented in October 1955 . Since this did not offer enough power, especially for American tastes, it was also available with the 3.4-liter engine from March 1957 - just a few weeks after the great factory fire. In October 1959, the model Mark 2 , which was further developed from it, was presented , a downright classic touring car, especially with the 3.8-liter XK engine now also available here (four-fold victory in the Tour de France for automobiles in a row under Bernard Consten and Jacques Renel, Winning the first European Touring Car Championship in 1963 under Peter Nöcker ).


In May 1960 Lyons bought the Daimler Motor Company , the vehicle manufacturer preferred by British royalty until the mid-1950s, from the Birmingham Small Arms Company , the maker of the BSA, Triumph and Ariel motorcycles . New sedans Majestic Major and DR 450 with 4.5-liter V8 engines were being developed there, while the plastic sports car Daimler SP 250 (developed under the name Dart, which was already occupied by Dodge) with a chassis based on the Triumph Roadster, was already under development had been presented the year before. The latter was significantly improved until it was removed from the offer in 1964. Its engine was used in the Mark 2 from autumn 1962 , which in this version was called the Daimler V8 2.5 liter and from the autumn of 1967 the 250 V8.

Jaguar E-Type (in racing trim)
Jaguar Mk X 420G

In 1961, the E-Type , known as the XK-E in the USA, was presented to the public at the Geneva Motor Show . The E-Type had a tubular frame under the bonnet, while the body was designed to be self-supporting from the rear wall of the engine compartment. Its rear independent suspension on double wishbones was unusual at the time. For reasons of noise insulation, it was built into a bridge-like subframe on which the body rested with rubber blocks. This allows the rear suspension, including the wheels, differential and internal disc brakes, to be separated from the vehicle. A similar design of the rear suspension was retained until 2004, up to the XJ models, the XJS and the Aston Martin DB 7.

The Mark X with a self-supporting body and the flat, elongated shape with twin headlights ended the era of separate chassis at Jaguar in autumn 1961. The styling of this model, like the basic shape of the E-Type, influenced Jaguar design well beyond the turn of the millennium. In addition, from 1963 the S-Type (3.4 or 3.8 S) came with the slightly extended Mark 2 body and the rear suspension of the larger models. Since the car did not look very balanced stylistically, the 420 based on the S-Type with the front section familiar from the Mark X (now 420 G) was added to the already unusually wide range of models. There was also a slightly more luxurious version of the 420 called the Daimler Sovereign . The radiator grille and the trunk lid with fluted ("fluted") tops were the outward Daimler insignia.

The Mark X and E-Type received engines enlarged to 4.2 liters from autumn 1964, and the E-Type evolved into the Series 2, which was slightly modified from the outside in 1968. In order to reduce emissions, the vehicles destined for the USA now only have two Stromberg carburettors.

In 1966 Jaguar was with the British Motor Corporation ( BMC , which included Austin , Morris and MG ) for British Motor Holdings (BMH) and beyond this in 1968 with Leyland ( Rover and Triumph ) for the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC) merged, later just called British Leyland.

In 1968 the XJ 6 was introduced with the tried and tested, long-stroke 4.2-liter XK engine and a new short-stroke variant with a displacement of 2.8 liters. Apart from a few details, this car was technically and visually very similar to its predecessors. It was named "Car of the Year" in England.


In 1971 Jaguar brought out the V12 engine. The V12 was originally developed for the XJ 13 mid-engined sports car , with which Jaguar intended to get involved again in Le Mans in the mid- 1960s. The original design had four overhead camshafts, but the series version only had two. Instead of an injection system for which no manufacturer could be found, there were four Stromberg carburettors. Jaguar introduced the engine in the E-Type (which became the Series 3), but a year later it was also available in the XJ 12 sedan . This was the first four-door, twelve-cylinder sedan after World War II.

Jaguar XJ12 C

The XJ Series 2 models offered by the IAA from 1973 to the beginning of 1979 were given a longer wheelbase - apart from a few early XJ 6s - which had already been introduced in 1972 on some Series 1 models. At the same time, the XJ 6 C and XJ 12 C coupes were built on the short chassis . Production did not start until 1975 and ended in 1977. The XJ Coupe is undisputed among designers as one of the most beautiful automobiles of all time.

The world premiere of the Jaguar XJ-S Coupe at the IAA in Frankfurt also took place in 1975. With its large coupé body and powerful bumpers, according to the latest US standards, it initially did not meet the expectations of an E-Type successor. These bumpers were compulsory in the USA because a vehicle had to be able to withstand a frontal collision at 8 km / h undamaged. Since the start of production, the XJ-S Coupe had a gasoline injection system that reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions to a level that was acceptable against the background of the "oil crisis" and US legislation at the time.

As early as 1966, William Lyons merged his company with the British Motor Corporation (BMC), which had bought Pressed Steel , the supplier of the bodywork. Jaguar thus became part of the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC), which was formed shortly thereafter . In the mid-1970s, BLMC ran out of capital due to declining sales and was therefore placed under state control. Bad workmanship, mismanagement and a very strained relationship with the unions were the reasons for the sharply declining sales figures of BLMC.


Jaguar XJ6 (Series III) (1987)

During the BLMC years, the head of development, Bob Knight, knew how to preserve the brand's technical independence. In 1980, however, Sir John Egan took over the management of Jaguar. This year only 13,000 Jaguar vehicles could be sold. At first Egan suspected weaknesses in sales as the cause, but soon set about improving the quality of both assembly and supplier parts considerably in order to achieve the high standards of Daimler-Benz . This soon became noticeable to customers, and so sales of the XJ Series 3, which have been available since 1979, rose steadily.

From 1981 onwards, sales were also helped by the further technical development of the V12 engine to the indeed surprisingly economical HE (High Efficiency). Its secret was the unusually high compression ratio of 12.5: 1, which was made possible by swirling the mixture with the help of the Fireball combustion chamber developed by Michael May. The introduction of this power unit in the XJ-S HE Coupe went hand in hand with a major overhaul that finally made the car look as elegant and luxurious as the high price would have expected from the outset, with less clumsy, gleaming chrome bumpers and wood-decorated interior .

Jaguar XJ-S V12 Convertible

In 1982 the Austin Rover Group (ARG) was founded, in which most of the British Leyland brands were continued. Jaguar and Daimler continued to run in Jaguar Car Holdings until they were separated from the parent company by means of a share issue in August 1984.

The call for an open version of the XJ-S became louder and louder . That is why in October 1983 the XJ-SC 3.6 with a fixed roof bracket was presented as a temporary solution. This was the first to receive the AJ6 engine with a displacement of 3.6 liters, developed as a successor to the tried and tested XK machine, Jaguar's first series four-valve engine. For the 1986 model year, the XJ-SC HE was also available with the V12 engine. The XJ-SC HE was replaced at the beginning of 1988 by the fully convertible XJ-S V 12 Convertible, which was initially only available with a V12 engine.

Daimler 3.6 from the XJ 40 series (1988)

In October 1986, the completely redesigned XJ 40 was presented as the successor to the XJ 6, in the well-known versions XJ 6, Sovereign and Daimler (called Jaguar Vanden Plas in USA), powered by the now heavily refined AJ6 engine, which is also featured here with a displacement of 2.9 liters and a twelve-cylinder head with only two valves per cylinder. The engines were enlarged to 4.0 in 1988 and 3.2 liters in 1989, the latter being converted to the cylinder head design of the 4.0. The V12 itself, enlarged to six liters, was not used in the modern sedan with the code XJ 81 until February 1993 . A short time later, the more upscale versions of the XJ 40 and XJ 81 were also available as Majestic with a long wheelbase (not to be confused with a special model of the same name for the USA from 1990).

At the end of 1989 Jaguar was taken over by the American Ford Motor Company .


Jaguar XJS Coupe

From 1991 the entire XJ-S series was thoroughly revised; henceforth the hyphen was dropped in the model name. The four-liter engine introduced during this revision was also available in the convertible from 1992. In the spring of 1993, the Jaguar XJS took over the V12, which had been expanded and revised from 5.3 to 6.0 liters. Modifications such as the driver's airbag and immobilizer became standard equipment. With additional seat cushions at the rear instead of storage space, the convertible advanced to a shapely, but rather narrow 2 + 2. The XJS 4.0 received a passenger airbag in mid-1994, revised leather upholstery and the greatly improved AJ 16 engine (just as the newly introduced sedan a few months later); the V12 remained unchanged. The series was discontinued in April 1996 after the production of over 100,000 units and more than twenty years of construction. A potential successor had been developed in the meantime, but Jaguar rejected this design, which was finally modified further when the DB7 of the sister brand Aston Martin came on the market.

In the mid-1990s, Jaguar achieved profitability for the first time under Ford management. This was thanks to two models: the XJ6 / XJ12 / XJR sedans introduced in autumn 1994 (the latter with supercharged Jaguar for the first time) of the X 300 series and the XK 8 sports car introduced in autumn 1996, with its lines influenced by the E-Type . The sedan was not redesigned, but arose from a profound facelift of the previous series with AJ 16 and V12 engines. Jaguar's completely redesigned AJ-V8 four-liter V8 engine made its debut in the XK 8, which was also available in the sedans a year later, there also with 3.2 liter displacement and with a compressor in the XJR, soon afterwards also in the XKR sports car . The production of the V12 was stopped after more than 25 years of construction. The Jaguar V12 is considered by experts to be the quietest-running gasoline engine of all time. The series, now internally titled X 308, was outwardly difficult to distinguish from its predecessors, whereas the interior and dashboard had been redesigned.

In 1998, Ford combined the brands Jaguar, Aston Martin and Lincoln to form the Premier Automotive Group (PAG for short). However, the Lincoln brand was soon removed from PAG. Ford acquired Volvo in 1999 and Land Rover in 2000 and incorporated both companies into PAG.


Jaguar X-Type

With the help of two more compact sedan series, the production capacity was to be expanded from 50,000 to 200,000 units per year. While the S-Type, which has been available from the Castle Bromwich plant since 1999, fulfilled the expectations cherished in it despite initial weaknesses that were eliminated as part of the model upgrade until 2002, this did not succeed with the smaller, all-wheel-drive X-Type , which was built in the Halewood plant from 2001 . This plant near Liverpool , which was taken over by Ford, had been completely renovated for this purpose (the Ford Escort had been assembled there by the end of the 1990s ).

This was also the time of Ford's costly five-year Formula 1 commitment under the Jaguar Racing brand . At the same time, the F-Type sports car prototype, which was in demand by customers, did not find its way into series production despite numerous pre-orders. Both decisions were made by Jacques Nasser , then Chief Executive at Ford, and Jaguar and PAG boss Dr. Wolfgang Reitzle , who had previously been technology director at BMW for many years and returned to Germany in 2003.

It was only with the diesel engine (2.0 and 2.2 liters) and the sporty and elegant X-Type Estate station wagon that sales figures for the model series improved. Nevertheless, Jaguar struggled with considerable overcapacity - the reason for the high losses that Jaguar now had to cope with. In 2005, Jaguar cut 1150 jobs in England and sold the Jaguar parent plant in Browns Lane in Allesley near Coventry , which had been in use since 1952 . The Halewood plant was henceforth used by Land Rover .

With the X 350 series introduced in 2003 , Jaguar's top-of-the-line XJ model again achieved a leading position: This sedan was Jaguar's first attempt with an aluminum body in series production, which managed almost completely without the extrusion profiles common with other makes . The V8 engines had a displacement of 3.5 or 4.2 liters, the automatic gearshift six gears. The offer was supplemented at the beginning of 2005 with the 2.7-liter diesel engine, which had already been available in the S-Type for a year . The air suspension offered first-class driving comfort despite its low weight.

With the XK / XKR aluminum sports car presented in 2005 following the “Advanced Lightweight Coupé” study , the Jaguar brand also became more attractive for sports car drivers. The compressor version of the 4.2 liter came to 416 hp. The automatic was supplemented by a version with manual gear selection via paddles behind the steering wheel. In April 2009, 5-liter engines with 385 or 510 hp were introduced.

After Aston Martin was separated from PAG in early 2007 and sold, the Jaguar and Land Rover brands were sold to the Indian Tata Group in the first half of the year . Tata thus also acquired the naming rights to Daimler , Lanchester and Rover .

Jaguar XF model year 2010

Jaguar presented the successor to the S-Type at the IAA 2007 (after the C-XF study was presented at the beginning of the year). With the name Jaguar XF , Jaguar turned away from its tradition as well as with the design. Technically, however, the new car remained very similar to its predecessor, apart from the gear selection via paddles and numerous electronic details. The car did not go into production until spring 2008, and just a year later the diesel engines were enlarged to 3 liters (240 or 275 hp) and the large gasoline engine to 5 liters (385 or 510 hp).

2010 until today

Jaguar XJ 3.0
Jaguar I-Pace

In 2010 the X351 model , a newly developed XJ luxury sedan, came onto the market. The body, like that of the previous X350 model from 2003, is mainly made of aluminum. With the new XJ, too, Jaguar was no longer based on the appearance of the previous series, but continued the design development that began with the XF towards more modern forms.

In the summer of 2011, the XF sedan was revised and externally more closely based on the XJ, since autumn 2012 the XF has also been offered as a station wagon XF Sportbrake. The second generation of the vehicle has been available since 2015 (X260) .

In September 2012 Jaguar presented the newly developed two-seater F-Type sports car at the Paris Motor Show , which has been on the market since May 2013: Two models are offered with a 3-liter V6 engine and one with a 5-liter V8 engine, all engines are charged with a compressor.

In September 2014, Jaguar presented the newly developed mid- range model Jaguar XE (code name X760) at the Paris Motor Show , which has been on the market since 2015. The vehicle follows the X-Type produced until 2009 in this market segment.

In early 2015, Jaguar presented the F-Pace at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. It is the British manufacturer's first SUV . In contrast to the Range Rover models established under the Jaguar Land Rover umbrella brand , the F-Pace is intended as a crossover SUV to blend in with the sporting orientation of the Jaguar brand. After its launch in 2016, total Jaguar sales increased 77 percent.

At the Los Angeles Auto Show 2016, Jaguar presented the Jaguar I-Pace study, its first all-electric model. The first vehicles were delivered in autumn 2018.

Jaguar in motorsport

Modern hood ornament: The so-called Leaper is no longer factory-assembled by Jaguar due to the risk of injury, but is available for enthusiasts in the accessory trade.

The biggest successes:

  • 1951, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1988 and 1990 victories in the Le Mans 24-hour race
  • 1956 also victory in the Monte Carlo Rally
  • 1963 and 1984 European Touring Car Champion
  • 1987 and 1988 sports car world champion
  • 1988, 1990 and 1992 victories at the Daytona 24-hour race

Even as a young man, William Lyons was successful in motorcycle racing. When he started with the Swallow sidecar production, he made sure that his products were soon present in sidecar racing, for example at the Sidecar TT (part of the legendary Tourist Trophy on the Isle of Man ).

From 1936 the SS 100 was used in races and rallies. The glacier cup from the Alpine Tour in 1936 (Tommy and Elsie Wisdom ) and a double victory in 1937 at the RAC (Royal Automobile Club) Rally (Jack Harrop, Tommy Wisdom ) underpinned the success of the SS 100.

In 1949 the XK 120 recorded a double victory in the first series car race on the newly opened British airfield race track at Silverstone (Leslie Johnson, Peter Walker). The XK 120 also finished victoriously in the International Austrian Alpine Tour in 1950 under Ian and Pat Appleyard - the latter was Lyons' daughter. The team's multiple participation without penalty points was honored with a golden Alpine Cup in 1953.

In 1950 Jaguar decided to take part in the Le Mans 24-hour race with the XK 120. The sports car proved to be sufficiently durable and fast to be able to keep up in this tough endurance race. A considerably improved racing model was developed for 1951, the XK 120 C or C-Type (C for competition) with a more aerodynamically optimized aluminum body designed by Malcolm Sayer , a filigree tubular space frame and an even more powerful XK machine.

C-Type tubular space frame
Jaguar C-Type XKC 045
Jaguar D-Type (1954)
Jaguar E-Type 1963 on the Nürburgring
Peter Lindner (behind the car) and Peter Nöcker (with helmet) in 1964 during the 1000 km race on the Nürburgring with the lightweight at the pit stop

Three C-Type vehicles competed in Le Mans, the young Stirling Moss was one of the drivers. Jaguar won the race in both 1951 (Peter Whitehead and Peter Walker) and 1953 (Tony Rolt and Duncan Hamilton). Jaguar won the 24-hour race with the further developed D-Type in 1955 (Ivor Bueb and Mike Hawthorn), 1956 (Ron Flockhart and Ninian Sanderson) and 1957 (Ron Flockhart and Ivor Bueb). In 1957, the D-Type also came in second, third, fourth and sixth.

Jaguar had already officially withdrawn from racing at the end of 1956, but continued to provide technical support to private drivers and racing teams such as Écurie Ecosse to a considerable extent.

Based on the D-Type , the XK-SS was developed in 1956 as a roadworthy version of this racing sports car. The small series production of this roadster was ended in February 1957 by a major fire that killed more than a third of Jaguar's production facilities. The 17 built XK-SS are as coveted collector's items as the C-Type and D-Type themselves.

With a bit of luck, the E-Type also won the 1961 first race appearance. In order to keep up with the rapid development of racing cars, the small series Lightweight was created in 1963 with an aluminum body, additional horsepower, better brakes and far wider tires. The lightweight was superior in terms of driving characteristics and road holding. The no longer cutting-edge XK engine could no longer be tuned to the performance level of the competition. The then Wiesbaden Jaguar importer Peter Lindner owned such a lightweight. He had a fatal accident in Montlhéry near Paris, being thrown into a marshals tent. The E-Type was completely destroyed, but later largely rebuilt with new parts.

In the mid-1960s, Jaguar was working on a mid-engined racing prototype with a V12 engine. However, this XJ 13 was never supposed to participate in a real race - mainly because of the rapid progress in racing car technology in those years - and was kept top secret for several years.

Under the aegis of British Leyland, Jaguar briefly returned to touring car racing in 1976/77 with the XJ 12 C, but quickly realized that the car's sophisticated technical concept ultimately forced too great concessions in terms of reliability.

The Scot Tom Walkinshaw discovered the potential of the XJ-S at the beginning of the eighties and prepared it for the touring car class that was dominated by BMW at the time. The wheel suspension of the XJ-S allowed the regulation-compliant widening of the tires towards the inside, while the outside was not allowed, to the chagrin of BMW. Walkinshaw countered the protest from BMW with a homologation sheet that identified the XJ-S with its rear wheel arches widened inwards as a winter version for the Third World. From a German perspective, Hans Heyer is particularly worth mentioning, who was on the XJ-S TWR.

Tom Walkinshaw Racing won the European Touring Car Championship with the Jaguar XJ-S in 1984. In the same year the American Bob Tullius came to Le Mans with his “Group 44” team and Jaguar factory support. But it took another four years before TWR succeeded in 1988 with the V12-motorized XJR 9 under Jan Lammers , Johnny Dumfries and Andy Wallace in the race as the winner.

In the same year, Jaguar won a double victory at the Daytona 24 Hours and, for the second time in a row, the World Sports Car Championship.

In 1990 Jaguar achieved one-two victories in Le Mans (Pryce Cobb, John Nielsen and Martin Brundle and in second place Jan Lammers, Andy Wallace and Franz Konrad) and in Daytona (Davy Jones, Jan Lammers and Andy Wallace as well as Martin Brundle, John Nielsen and Pryce Cobb). Jaguar was also victorious there in 1992, while the XJ 220 C (David Brabham, John Nielsen, David Coulthard) at least achieved a class victory at Le Mans in 1993, which was later revoked. Like the competition, who were not bothered about it, they started without a cat, and so the trophy was actually never reclaimed.

Ford's attempt to gain a foothold in Formula 1 with the Jaguar brand (from 2000 to 2004) was unsuccessful. Jackie Stewart's racing team, which had previously been quite successful with the Ford Cosworth V10 engine , was bought by Ford and provided with a lot of capital. Even now the engine came from sister company Cosworth . Drivers were Eddie Irvine and Johnny Herbert , later Mark Webber was particularly successful. The Jaguar racing team was taken over by Red Bull in Austria at the end of 2004.

Jaguar models at a glance

Overview of the traditional limousines:

  • 1 12 liters, 2 12 liters and 3 12 liters (1946–1948): Continuation of the sedan series from the prewar period, last year also as an elegant convertible (called Drophead Coupé).
  • Mark V (1948–1950): Outwardly adhering to tradition, this car anticipated the chassis technology of the XK 120 sports car.
  • Mark VII (1951–1954): Thanks to the XK engine, this large representative car reached the then sensational top speed of 160 km / h.
  • Mark VII M (1955/1956): With a “sharper” camshaft, a considerable increase in performance was achieved.
  • Mark VIII (1956–1958): Stylistically refined, with a more classic radiator grille and often in an interesting two-tone paintwork.
  • Mark IX (1959–1961): Despite the machine being drilled out to 3.8 liters and state-of-the-art disc brakes, not quite up to date.
  • Mark X, later 420 G (1962–1970): A mixture of modern technology from the E-Type with traditionally luxurious equipment. Its technology lived on in the Daimler chauffeur sedan DS 420 from 1968 to 1992.

Overview of the classic limousines:

  • 2.4 liter (1955–1959): First self-supporting Jaguar, with a short-stroke XK engine, from 1957 optionally with the classic 3.4-liter XK engine.
  • Mark 2/240 and 340: (1960–1969): “The iron fist in a silk glove” was what this touring car was called at the time.
  • S-Type : Mark II with rear suspension and rear of the Mark X, classic luxury and moderate road holding.
  • 420 (1967–1969): S-Type with machine drilled out to 4.2 liters (available from E-Type and Mark X since October 1964) and face of the Mark X.
  • XJ Series 1 (1969–1973): Stylistically great achievement and legacy of Sir William Lyons . Short-stroke 2.8 and proven 4.2-liter engine, from 1972 also V12. Series 1 usually as SWB (Short-Wheel-Base).
  • XJ Series 2 (1974–1979): 4.2 and - from 1975 - 3.4 liters, plus the V12 engine with fuel injection from 1975. Series 2 usually uses the wheelbase that is ten centimeters longer. The two-door sports coupes XJ 6 and XJ 12 with a short wheelbase were only built from 1975 to 1977.
  • XJ Series 3 (1980–1992): 3.4 liter carburettor and 4.2 liter injection engine up to 1986/87; V12 from 1981 as a more economical HE
  • XJ 40 (1987–1994): Completely new design, with a new AJ6 engine (initially 2.9 and 3.6 liters, from 1989/90 3.2 and 4.0 liters) and from 1992 as a 6-liter V12 ( XJ 81); in the last year of construction also as a Majestic with a long wheelbase.
  • X 300 (1995–1997): Revised lines without major technical innovations, than X 330 from model year 1996 also with a long wheelbase; for the time being last XJ 6 and XJ 12.
  • X 308 (1997–2002): differs from its predecessor in that it has new V8 engines with 3.2 and 4.0 liters displacement; hence the new designation XJ 8.
  • X 350 (2003–2009): First self-supporting body made of aluminum.
  • X 351 (2009-2019): The design of the last XJ for the time being was based on the 2008 XF .

Overview of the sporty limousines:

  • S-Type (1999–2007): More compact format, state-of-the-art technology was hidden here in a retro body that is clearly reminiscent of the Mark 2.
  • X 250 (2008–2015): As an XF located in the upper middle class, facelift in August 2011; since 2012 also available as a Sportbrake .
  • X 260 (since 2015): Most of the changes to the new XF can be found under the body (less weight than its predecessor and the introduction of additional assistance systems); Market launch with three diesel and two gasoline engines.
  • Jaguar XE (since 2015): The X760 is a mid- range model from the British with a choice of three petrol and two diesel units.

Overview of the sports car models:

  • XK 120 (1949–1954): Its name indicates that the car has a top speed of 120 miles per hour (about 193 km / h).
  • XK 140 (1955–1957): The somewhat heavier successor was very much designed with American taste in mind. Despite a more powerful engine, it failed to reach 140 mph.
  • XK 150 (1957–1961): In the end, it did not find the same market response as its predecessor, because the design with a separate chassis was no longer very modern.
  • E-Type (1961–1975): The classic was built in three series, the third of which was fitted with a V12 engine. Unofficially, there was also a series 1 ½.
  • XJ-S / XJS (1976–1996): Suffered in Europe initially from the fact that it did not look like an E-Type successor would be imagined. The XJ-S was designed with the US market in mind, where more than 80% of all E-Types were sold. The XJ-S is the only Jaguar sports car to win the European Touring Car Championship.
  • XK 8 and XKR (1997–2005): The four-liter V8 that was completely redesigned by Jaguar was introduced with the sports car, which was formally linked to the legendary E-Type. Jaguar's first supercharged sports car soon followed with the XJR.
  • XK, XKR-S and XK 60 (2006–2014): The successor to the X100 (XK 8, XKR) introduced the design development towards more modern forms with its aluminum body. It was equipped with V8 engines between 3.5 and five liters.
  • F-Type (since 2013): Newly developed two-seater with 3-liter V6 or 5-liter V8 supercharged engines.
Jaguar E-Pace


  • Jaguar F-Pace (X761) (since 2016): the manufacturer's first SUV with petrol and diesel engines with an output between 180 and 380 hp
  • Jaguar E-Pace (X761) (since 2018): The manufacturer's SUV based on the Range Rover Evoque .
  • Jaguar I-Pace (EV400) (since 2018): First fully electric SUV from a European brand manufacturer; Decorated with numerous prizes in the year of publication.

Overview of the supercars:

  • XK-SS (1956/57): Street version of the D-type racing car.
  • XJR-15 (1991/92): Street version of the 1988 Le Mans winning car, the XJR-9; only 49 pieces were built.
  • XJ 220 (1992–1994): series version with V6 engine of a V12 prototype from the end of 1988; Long held the title of the fastest production car in the world.

Overview of the racing cars:

  • XK 120 C (C-Type) (1951–1953): Built for the 24-hour race in Le Mans and victorious there in 1951 and again in 1953 for the first time.
  • D-Type (1954–1956): Equally successful racing car with a hat-trick series of victories at Le Mans from 1955 to 1957.
  • E-Type Lightweight (1963): Spectacular, performance-enhanced aluminum version of the E-Type Roadster.
  • XJ 13 (1966): racing car prototype with V12 mid-engine (4 overhead camshafts) and ZF five-speed gearbox. The vehicle was designed in response to the Ford GT40 . Malcolm Sayer , who designed the C, D and E types as well as the XJ-S, was responsible for the shape. The only prototype produced had an accident during a demonstration due to tire damage at the rear due to excessive lateral acceleration . The wreck was rebuilt and is now in the factory museum (Daimler-Jaguar Heritage Trust). The test driver Norman Dewis survived the serious accident almost uninjured. True-to-the-original replicas are available on the market today.
  • XJR-5 to 17 : Sports prototypes, first by Bob Tullius in USA, then by Tom Walkinshaw Racing (TWR); 1988 and 1990 victories at Le Mans.
  • XJ 220 S (1993): Special model of the XJ 220 for the GT class at Le Mans - but the victory there in 1993 was subsequently revoked.
  • R1 to R5 (2000–2004): Unfortunate attempt by the Ford concern to continue the success of the Stewart racing team under the Jaguar brand. The engines were from Cosworth; Eddie Irvine , Johnny Herbert and Mark Webber in particular acted as drivers .

Overview of models

Models 1931-1940

Jaguar XK 120 FHC (1953)
Jaguar Mark II (1962)
Jaguar Sovereign 4.2 Series 3
Type Model years
SS 1 1932-1936
SS 2 1932-1936
SS 90 1935
SS Jaguar 1½ liter 1936-1940
SS Jaguar 2½ liter 1936-1940
SS Jaguar 3½ liter 1938-1940
SS 100 1936-1939

Models from 1945

Type Model years
Jaguar 1½ liter 1946-1948
Jaguar 2½ liter 1946-1948
Jaguar 3½ liter 1946-1948
Jaguar Mark V 1949-1950
Jaguar XK 120 1949-1954
Jaguar XK 120 C "C-Type" 1951-1953
Jaguar Mark VII 1951-1956
Jaguar D-Type 1954-1956
Jaguar XK 140 1955-1957
Jaguar 2.4 liter 1956-1959
Jaguar Mark VIII 1957-1958
Jaguar XK-SS 1957
Jaguar 3.4 liter 1957-1959
Jaguar XK 150 1957-1961
Jaguar Mark IX 1959-1961
Jaguar Mark 2 2.4 / 3.4 / 3.8 1960-1967
Jaguar E-Type 1961-1974
Jaguar Mark X 1962-1966
Jaguar S-Type (3.4 S and 3.8 S) 1964-1968
Jaguar XJ 13 1966
Jaguar 420 1967/1968
Jaguar 420 G 1967-1970
240 1968/1969
340 1968
Jaguar XJ (Series 1) 1969-1973
Jaguar XJ (Series 2) and XJ C 1974-1979
Jaguar XJ-S 1976-1991
Jaguar XJ (Series 3) 1979-1987/1992
Jaguar XJ (XJ40) 1987-1994
Jaguar XJR-15 1991
Jaguar XJS 1991-1996
Jaguar XJ220 1992-1994
Jaguar XJ (X300) 1995-1997
Jaguar XK8 / XKR 1996-2005
Jaguar XJ (X308) 1998-2002
Jaguar S-Type 1999-2007
Jaguar X-Type 2001-2009
Jaguar XJ (X350) 2003-2009
Jaguar XK / XKR 2005-2014
Jaguar XF (X250) 2008-2015
Jaguar XJ (X351) 2009-2019
Jaguar F-Type since 2013
Jaguar XE since 2015
Jaguar XF (X260) since 2015
Jaguar F-Pace since 2016
Jaguar E-Pace since 2018
Jaguar I-Pace since 2018

Jaguar designer

Results in motorsport

Victories in the sports car world championship
year run vehicle Driver 1 Driver 2 Driver 3
1953 Le Mans 24 hour race Jaguar C-Type United KingdomUnited Kingdom Tony Rolt United KingdomUnited Kingdom Duncan Hamilton
1955 Le Mans 24 hour race Jaguar D-Type United KingdomUnited Kingdom Mike Hawthorn United KingdomUnited Kingdom Ivor Bueb
1986 Silverstone 1000km race Jaguar XJR-6 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Derek Warwick United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
1987 Jarama 360 km race Jaguar XJR-8 NetherlandsNetherlands Jan Lammers United KingdomUnited Kingdom John Watson
1000 km race from Jerez Jaguar XJR-8 BrazilBrazil Raul Boesel United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
1000 km race from Monza Jaguar XJR-8 NetherlandsNetherlands Jan Lammers United KingdomUnited Kingdom John Watson
Silverstone 1000km race Jaguar XJR-8 BrazilBrazil Raul Boesel United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
Brands Hatch 1000km race Jaguar XJR-8 BrazilBrazil Raul Boesel DenmarkDenmark John Nielsen
1000 km race on the Nürburgring Jaguar XJR-8 BrazilBrazil Raul Boesel United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
1000 km race from Spa-Francorchamps Jaguar XJR-8 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle United KingdomUnited Kingdom Johnny Dumfries
Fuji 1000 km race Jaguar XJR-8 NetherlandsNetherlands Jan Lammers United KingdomUnited Kingdom John Watson
1988 Jarama 360 km race Jaguar XJR-9 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
1000 km race from Monza Jaguar XJR-9 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
Silverstone 1000km race Jaguar XJR-9 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever
Le Mans 24 hour race Jaguar XJR-9 NetherlandsNetherlands Jan Lammers United KingdomUnited Kingdom Johnny Dumfries United KingdomUnited Kingdom Andy Wallace
Brands Hatch 1000km race Jaguar XJR-9 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle DenmarkDenmark John Nielsen United KingdomUnited Kingdom Andy Wallace
Fuji 1000 km race Jaguar XJR-9 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle United StatesUnited States Eddie Cheever DenmarkDenmark John Nielsen
1990 500 mile race from Silverstone Jaguar XJR-11 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle FranceFrance Alain Ferté
Le Mans 24 hour race Jaguar XJR-12 DenmarkDenmark John Nielsen United StatesUnited States Price Cobb United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle
1991 430km race from Monza Jaguar XJR-14 United KingdomUnited Kingdom Martin Brundle United KingdomUnited Kingdom Derek Warwick
430km Silverstone Race Jaguar XJR-14 ItalyItaly Teo Fabi United KingdomUnited Kingdom Derek Warwick
430 km race on the Nürburgring Jaguar XJR-14 AustraliaAustralia David Brabham United KingdomUnited Kingdom Derek Warwick

Jaguar and the arts

Jaguar Art Project with Szczesny shadow sculpture in Saint-Tropez, 2011

Jaguar has also been involved in the international art scene for some time. In particular, there has been a cooperation with the renowned artist Stefan Szczesny since the beginning of 2011 , within the framework of which extensive exhibition projects (Jaguar Art Projects) have already been implemented. In 2011, for example, Jaguar presented the exhibition "Shadows in ...", which included the installation of Szczesny's so-called "shadow sculptures" in Sankt-Moritz, on Sylt and in Saint-Tropez. In 2012, a large number of Szczesny's sculptures, ceramics and paintings were shown in Frankfurt (especially in the Palmengarten ).

A "Jaguar Art Edition" was created as part of the collaboration with Szczesny.


  • Bernard F. Viart, Xavier de Nombel: The Jaguar Myth. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-613-01490-4 .
  • Halwart Schrader: Jaguar type compass - passenger cars since 1931. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-613-02704-6 .
  • Halwart Schrader: Jaguar. The complete brand history. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-613-02259-1 .
  • Philip Porter: Jaguar XK. Heel Verlag, Königswinter 2000, ISBN 3-89365-197-7 .
  • Nigel Thorley, Paul Debois: Jaguar Mark I / Mark II. Heel, Königswinter 2001, ISBN 3-89365-923-4 .
  • Nigel Thorley: Jaguar E-Type. Heel, Königswinter 2002, ISBN 3-89880-108-X .
  • Philip Porter, Tim Andrew: Jaguar E. 2nd edition. Heel, Königswinter 2002, ISBN 3-89365-255-8 .
  • Urs Schmid: Jaguar XK 120 - anatomy of a cult object. Vulcan Verlag, Solothurn 2003, ISBN 3-9521878-0-1 .
  • Nigel Thorley: Jaguar XJ Series I to III - The Complete Guide. Heel, Königswinter 2004, ISBN 3-89880-200-0 .
  • Matthias Pfannmüller: Jaguar Coupés 1932-2007. 75 years of luxury and passion. Wieland-Verlag, Bruckmühl 2005, ISBN 3-938711-00-0 .
  • Heiner Stertkamp: Jaguar. The complete chronicle from 1922 to today. 2nd Edition. Heel, Königswinter 2006, ISBN 3-89880-337-6 .
  • Hans Seper, Martin Pfundner, Hans Peter Lenz: Austrian automobile history. Eurotax, Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-905566-01-X .
  • Nick Walker: AZ of British Coachbuilders, 1919-1960 ; Bay View Books, Bideford, Devon, UK 1997, ISBN 1-870979-93-1 (English)
  • Walter drafter: Jaguar E-Type & Mark II 1955–1975. (= Schrader engine chronicle). 1st edition. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-613-03143-2 .
  • Heiner Stertkamp: Lyons' Jaguar XJ - A legacy in three series. Monsenstein and Vannerdat , Münster 2013, ISBN 978-3-942153-10-2 .

Web links

Commons : Jaguar  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Indians buy Jaguars and Land Rover. (No longer available online.) Financial Times Deutschland, March 26, 2008, archived from the original on August 1, 2012 ; Retrieved November 3, 2012 .
  3. Jaguar Land Rover at the big celebration for the Queen's 90th birthday . In: . ( [accessed on November 11, 2018]).
  4. Nick Walker: AZ of British Coachbuilders, 1919-1960 . Herridge & Sons Ltd, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9549981-6-5 , pp. 125 .
  5. auto motor und sport: Everything about Jaguar XE from October 1, 2014
  6. ^ Ray Massey: Revealed: The 'baby' Jaguar XE which the UK manufacturer hopes will win over the world's middle classes from the BMW 3-Series. In: This Is Money. March 4, 2014, accessed March 4, 2014 .
  7. Deutsche Welle ( Best seller: Jaguar F-Pace 25d | DW | 07/18/2017. Retrieved November 11, 2018 .
  8. a b World Sportscar Championship - Championships 1953-1964. RacingSportsCars, accessed November 5, 2012 .
  9. a b c d e World Sportscar Championship - Championships 1981-1991. RacingSportsCars, accessed November 5, 2012 .