Alfa Romeo Motorsport
|Surname||Alfa Romeo Motorsport|
|Companies||Alfa Romeo Automobiles SpA|
|Company headquarters||Milan , Italy|
|First Grand Prix||Great Britain 1950|
|Last Grand Prix||Australia 1985|
|Drivers World Championship||2 ( 1950 , 1951 )|
The Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo has written motorsport history over a period of almost 100 years. Exceptional achievements and numerous successes shape the long history of this commitment. The Milan-based company had already successfully participated in grand prizes before the war and became the origin of Scuderia Ferrari . After the Second World War , Alfa Romeo initially continued its motorsport involvement in Formula 1 ; Here too, the company initially dominated racing. The first two Formula 1 world championship titles went to Alfa Romeo drivers. After winning the championship title in 1951, Alfa Romeo turned away from Formula 1 for a long time. In the period that followed, Alfa Romeo was primarily involved in touring car racing, with sports cars being added later. From 1979 to 1985 Alfa Romeo was again represented in Formula 1, but could no longer build on previous successes.
The Alfa Romeo name has been back in Formula 1 since the 2018 season . The basis is a partnership with the Swiss Sauber team, which started in 2018 as the Alfa Romeo Sauber F1 Team, spanning several years . For 2019 , the Sauber team reports as Alfa Romeo Racing . Alfa Romeo's commitment to Sauber is limited to title sponsorship.
As early as 1911 - one year after the company was founded - Alfa took part in the Targa Florio with its first 24 HP model . Alfa quickly made a name for itself in motorsport, and the fame it gained spread to its production vehicles.
In 1925, Alfa Romeo won the first brand world championship ever held with the Type P2 and Gastone Brilli-Peri at the wheel . The car was developed by Vittorio Jano .
In the 1920s and 1930s, the Alfa Romeo P2, P3 , 6C and 8C 2300 scored numerous other successes on the famous racetracks in Europe. The Mille Miglia won of 1928 bis 1938 except for the year 1931 always Alfa Romeo. The Targa Florio was won six times in a row from 1930 to 1935 . At the 24-hour race at Le Mans , the 8C 2300 took overall victory four times in a row from 1931 to 1934 . In 1933 a fastest lap was recorded at Le Mans with an average speed of 146.4 km / h. Well-known and successful drivers were Tazio Nuvolari , Rudolf Caracciola , René Dreyfus , Raymond Sommer , Antonio Ascari .
In the course of the second half of the 1930s, more racing cars were developed: Bimotore , 12C , Tipo C , 158 and Tipo 512 . The experience gained in this way was the cornerstone of the success in Formula 1 in the early 1950s .
Enzo Ferrari started as a works racing driver at Alfa Romeo until he founded Scuderia Ferrari in 1929 , which for ten years only used Alfa Romeo cars. When a Ferrari racing car hit an Alfa Romeo factory car for the first time , Enzo Ferrari commented on it with the words: "I murdered my mother".
Grand Prix and Formula 1
Alfa Romeo took part in Formula 1 with a works team in 1950 and 1951 and from 1979 to 1985. In the years between, Alfa Romeo occasionally supplied engines to other Formula 1 teams. These approaches were intended to examine the competitiveness of the company's own products and prepare for a possible return to Formula 1.
1946 to 1951: successes in the early post-war era
Just a few months after the end of the Second World War, several smaller automobile races were held in Europe again. Alfa Romeo did not yet take part in competitions in 1945. The company was busy rebuilding the factory facilities in Milan that had been destroyed in the war. The racing department, which was newly formed at the same time, reactivated the racing cars that had been built in the late 1930s and, according to legend, had been hidden in the cellars of a cheese dairy during the war.
Alfa Romeo's first automobile race after the war was the Coupe René Le Bègue , which was held in June 1946 on a street circuit in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud . Apart from Talbot, Alfa Romeo was the only manufacturer that brought a works team to the start. Jean-Pierre Wimille and Giuseppe Farina started for Alfa, using the Tipo 158 designed in 1939 . In addition, numerous private drivers with older cars reported; Alfa Romeos were among them. Wimille and Farina did not finish the race; both failed after clutch or transmission damage. Three months later, at the Grand Prix des Nations in Geneva , Alfa Corse and ERA were the only factory teams. Alfa Romeo started with four cars and took all podium places in the final run with Giuseppe Farina, Carlo Felice Trossi and Jean-Pierre Wimille. Double victories followed at the Gran Premio del Valentino in Turin ( Achille Varzi before Wimille) and at the Circuito di Milano (Varzi before Trossi). Varzi's victory in Turin was arranged, however. The Alfa management insisted on an Italian driver winning in front of an Italian crowd, so that the actually faster Wimille had to back off.
In 1947 Alfa Romeo Corse was the dominant racing team. The team competed in four races and won all of them. The emergency vehicle was again the Tipo 158. At the Swiss Grand Prix , Varzi and Trossi won the first run, while Wimille and Consalvo Sanesi won the second run. In the final, all three podium places went to Alfa drivers: Wimille won ahead of Varzi and Trossi, Sanesi came in fifth. There was a fatal accident on the exit lap of the first run. Varzi ran over a boy who was crossing the track. The boy later succumbed to his injuries. In the second run, Leslie Johnson (Talbot) caused another fatal accident. In Belgium there was another triple victory (Wimille ahead of Varzi and Trossi) and in Bari a double victory (Varzi ahead of Sanesi). For the Italian Grand Prix Alfa Corse entered with four cars. They finished in the first four places. Trossi, Varzi and Sanesi finished on the podium, while Alessandro Gaboardi , who was actually a mechanic on the works team and had been registered at short notice to replace the disgraced Jean-Pierre Wimille, finished fourth.
for the 1948 Grand Prix season , Alfa Romeo developed the 158 into the Tipo 158D. The engine received larger compressors, which increased the power to 350 hp. The suspension has also been revised. Alfa Romeo's works team only appeared in four races this year. The first was the Swiss Grand Prix in early July. Four cars were registered for Sanesi, Trossi, Varzi and Wimille, with only Varzi having the latest version 158D available. Varzi had a fatal accident during training on July 1st on a wet slope. Sanesi, Trossi and Wimille nevertheless took part in the race. In the end, Trossi and Wimille took the first two places ahead of Luigi Villoresi in a private Maserati owned by Scuderia Ambrosiana , while Sanesi came fourth. Two weeks later in France added Alberto Ascari , the Alfa factory team; it was the only Grand Prix that Ascari contested for Alfa Romeo. At times, Villoresi put the Alfa drivers under pressure in the Ambrosiana Maserati. In the end, however, Wimille won the race in the Alfa Romeo 158D ahead of his teammates Sanesi and Ascari. The Alfa trio had lapped all other drivers at least twice at the finish. The Italian Grand Prix saw the first direct encounter between the Alfa factory team and Scuderia Ferrari , which fielded three Ferrari 125s for Raymond Sommer , Prince Bira and Giuseppe Farina. Two of the three factory Alfas dropped out in the race. Wimille won ahead of Villoresi (Maserati) and Sommer. The last race Alfa Romeo took part in in 1948 was the Autodrome Grand Prix in Monza . Here the four Alfa drivers Wimille, Trossi, Sanesi and Piero Taruffi took the first four places.
In 1949 , Alfa Romeo's works team did not contest any races. In addition to financial reasons, the team's temporary withdrawal is also attributed to the fact that Alfa Romeo no longer had any top drivers available that year: After Achille Varzi, Jean-Pierre Wimille also had a fatal accident in January 1949, and Trossi, who had cancer, was no longer there able to race. Other sources see Alfa's absence in 1949 as a tactical retreat, which the team was forced to by the increasing competition from Maserati and Ferrari.
1950 began the era of the Formula 1 World Championship , which Alfa won twice right from the start. The pre-war competition between Alfa Romeo and the German racing car manufacturers did not come back to life under the Formula 1 regulations. In Great Britain, British Racing Motors tried to revive the idea of the national project; Raymond Mays ' BRM P15 , however, was an unsuitable design and did not endanger Alfa Romeo. The French factory team from Talbot only used outdated vehicles. Alfa’s main competitors in the early years of Formula 1 were the Scuderia Ferrari and Maserati's works team.
In 1950 , Alfa Romeo's works team started with a further developed 158 with an engine output of almost 400 hp. Regular drivers were Giuseppe Farina, Juan Manuel Fangio and Luigi Fagioli ; in addition, Alfa Romeo used a fourth car for Reg Parnell , Consalvo Sanesi and Piero Taruffi for individual races . With the exception of the “Indy 500” , Alfa Romeo competed in every world championship run of the year and won all races. Farina won one race Formula in the first Great Britain as well as in Switzerland and in Italy , Fangio won the races in Monaco , Belgium and France . Fagioli added four second places and one third place to Alfa Romeo's successes. At the end of the year, Giuseppe Farina became the first world champion in Formula 1 history.
Alfa Romeo also took part in five factory Formula 1 races without world championship status . Here too the team won all races.
For the 1951 season , Alfa Romeo developed the 158 into the Tipo 159 Alfetta . The frame and suspensions have been redesigned; individual copies of the 159 received a De-Dion rear axle . The 1.5-liter in-line eight-cylinder engine again received new compressors. The gross output of the engine rose to 425 hp, but the compressors alone swallowed around a third of that. The petrol consumption of up to 170 liters per 100 km made time-consuming refueling during the races inevitable, impaired flexibility and made it difficult to drive the car with full tanks due to the high weight. The regular drivers of the Alfa works team were Juan Manuel Fangio, Giuseppe Farina and Consalvo Sanesi; there were also various guest drivers in individual races. One of them was Paul Pietsch , who had driven for Alfa’s competitor Auto Union before the war and competed with the third factory Alfa at the German Grand Prix .
In 1951 the pressure increased from Scuderia Ferrari, the Ascari, Taruffi and Villoresi and also occasionally José Froilán González reported and brought a completely redesigned car to the start with the 375F1 . For the first time since 1946, Alfa Romeo did not win all the races the team competed in. The first three European World Championship races were won by the Alfa drivers Fangio ( Switzerland and France ) and Farina ( Belgium ); in Great Britain , however, González scored Scuderia Ferrari's first victory in a world championship run. In France, however, Fangio was only able to win because, after a technical defect in his car, he took over the car of his team-mate Luigi Fagioli and ended the race with him. An incorrect tire choice prevented Ferrari from winning the Spanish Grand Prix , which Fangio eventually won. With a total of three victories and two second places, Fangio won the first of his five world championship titles with Alfa Romeo in 1951. Ferrari drivers Ascari and González took second and third place. The second best Alfa works driver was Giuseppe Farina in fourth place.
After the end of the 1951 season, Alfa Romeo withdrew from the World Championship. The decision was based primarily on the fact that the conceptually 14-year-old Tipo 158/159 had reached its final stage of development; further revisions no longer seemed promising. Alfa Romeo's decision coincided with the brand's reorientation in the early 1950s, which saw a move away from expensive luxury vehicles and towards lower-cost, high-volume vehicles. After Alfa Romeo withdrew and the continued lack of commitment from BRM, the FIA assumed that only Ferrari would be factory represented in Formula 1 in 1952, and feared an unattractive world championship. To prevent this from happening, she announced the automobile world championships in 1952 and 1953 for Formula 2 , in which there was a broader base of designers.
1970 to 1979: Alfa Romeo as a supplier of racing engines
In the 1970s, Alfa Romeo initially returned to Formula 1 as an engine supplier. This phase of Formula 1 involvement is generally viewed as disappointing. The first two years with McLaren and March were volatile, and in the four-year collaboration with Brabham Alfa Romeo only achieved two victories in world championship races, each of which was due to extraordinary circumstances.
In the 1970 Formula 1 season , the Bruce McLaren Racing team , which primarily fielded two vehicles with a Cosworth DFV engine, equipped a third car with an Alfa Romeo engine. The eight-cylinder V-engine was derived from the sports car engine of the Tipo 33 . Compared to the Cosworth DFV, the maximum speed of the Alfa engine was 1000 revolutions per minute higher, but it had a poorer performance curve. The maximum performance could only be obtained in a very narrow speed window.
McLaren's works team first used the Alfa eight-cylinder in the McLaren M7D and later in the McLaren M14D . Andrea de Adamich was reported with him ten times . In the first three races de Adamich failed each time due to the qualification; in the further course of the season there were two more non-qualifications. De Adamich finished three times. His best result was eighth place in the Italian Grand Prix , which Denis Hulme finished fifth in the McLaren-Cosworth. In Italy, a second McLaren Alfa was also registered for Nanni Galli , who had already failed in the qualification.
For the 1971 season, Alfa Romeo moved to March Engineering , whose works team contested its second Formula 1 season that year. Alfa Romeo's involvement came with a payment of £ 20,000 that allowed March to survive economically. The March factory team, which was sponsored by STP this year , was broadly based. Mostly four, sometimes five works cars took to the starting line in world championship races. Three of them were fitted with Cosworth DFV engines, while the fourth chassis had an Alfa engine and was used in all races with the exception of the Canadian Grand Prix . De Adamich drove the March-Alfa seven times and Galli three times. De Adamich dropped out four times due to technical problems. His best result of the season was eleventh place in the last race of the year in the USA . In the remaining races the car was driven by Nanni Galli. In France and Germany , two March-Alfa competitions were exceptional. In France, March's top driver Ronnie Peterson, who usually competed with a March-DFV, drove the second Alfa model, in Germany it was registered for Nanni Galli. Peterson, who was fighting for the world championship that year, retired from the Paul Ricard Circuit after an engine failure, while Galli finished eleventh at the Nürburgring . As a result, March did not score a world championship point with the Alfa engines. With the March-Cosworth, however, Peterson achieved four wins and a third place, so that he was runner-up behind Jackie Stewart ( Tyrrell -Cosworth) and March finished the constructors' championship in fourth.
At the end of the 1971 season, Alfa Romeo gave up Formula 1 racing with the T33 engine.
In 1976 Alfa Romeo returned to Formula 1 as an engine supplier. At that time the Cosworth DFV engine dominated; only Ferrari and Matra made their own engines.
Alfa Romeo returned to Formula 1 with the Tipo 115-12 designed by Carlo Chiti . The twelve-cylinder engine had a bank angle of 180 degrees and was a modification of a design that had been introduced in 1973 in the Tipo 33TT12 and had achieved success in sports car races. The engine was considered "quite heavy and quite thirsty". Its power was given with 510 hp, so it was about 40 hp over that of a Cosworth DFV. The Tipo 115-12 was used exclusively by the British Brabham team from 1976 until spring 1979 . Its team boss Bernie Ecclestone opted for the Alfa engine primarily for economic reasons: While Brabham had previously had to pay leasing fees for the DFV engines, the team received the 115-12 free of charge. At the same time, the Turin-based spirits manufacturer Martini & Rossi , which had been Brabham's sponsor since last year, increased its payments to the team.
The Alfa Romeo engine meant a sporting step backwards for Brabham in its first year. While the team in 1975 had two wins and three second and third places each with the Cosworth engine and had finished the season in second place in the constructors' championship, in 1976 it fell back to ninth place in the constructors’s championship. Three fourth places in Spain ( Carlos Reutemann ), France and Germany (both Carlos Pace ) were Brabham's best results. The following year , Brabham-Alfa established itself again in the midfield. Carlos Pace and John Watson finished second in the Argentina and France Grand Prix , and Hans-Joachim Stuck finished third in Germany and Austria . In addition, there were further target arrivals in the points, so that Brabham-Alfa ended the 1977 season with 27 points in fifth place in the constructors' championship. This placed Brabham ahead of Tyrrell, who were tied but only recorded two third places as the best results. In the 1978 season , the team even reached third place in the constructors' championship. The reigning world champion Niki Lauda came to Brabham-Alfa from Ferrari as a top driver. He won the Grand Prix of Sweden and Italy and achieved other podium positions. Nonetheless, the previous Brabham-Alfa concept had reached its limits. In 1978, the dominance of ground effect cars was foreseeable. Brabham was initially unable to counter this, because Alfa Romeo's broad twelve-cylinder engine, whose cylinder bank angle was 180 degrees, did not allow molded underbody profiles. Brabham's designer Gordon Murray reacted to this with the Brabham BT46B , known as the “vacuum cleaner” , which was officially supposed to be used for engine cooling, but actually primarily generated contact pressure through a large fan at the rear of the vehicle. The "vacuum cleaner" won its debut in Anderstorp ; thereafter, however, the concept was banned. For the 1979 season, Brabham designed the BT48 for the first time, a wing car with underbody profiles. Alfa Romeo contributed a new twelve-cylinder engine ( Tipo 1260 ), which was constructed within just two and a half months, with a cylinder bank angle of only 60 degrees, but apart from that, in the opinion of technicians, was essentially the same as the old 115-12 . Its output of 525 hp was only slightly higher than that of the best Cosworth DFV engines. The engine was very unreliable and suffered from fluctuations in performance. Lauda retired from April to August 1979 nine times in a row due to engine defects, his new team-mate Nelson Piquet five times. Brabham-Alfa did not reach a podium position in a world championship run throughout the year. The team was only successful at the Dino Ferrari Grand Prix 1979 in Imola , which Lauda won. However, the race did not have a world championship status. Bernie Ecclestone was disappointed with the development. He accused Carlo Chiti of concentrating primarily on his own Formula 1 project and neglecting Brabham. In the late summer of 1979, Brabham separated from Alfa Romeo and switched to Cosworth engines before the end of the season.
The 1260 engine was used in Alfa Romeo's works team from 1979 to 1982 and temporarily also in Osella in 1983.
1979 to 1985: return with a factory team
From 1979 Alfa Romeo was involved in Formula 1 racing with its own monoposto racing car. Initially, racing was organized by Alfa Romeo's motorsport department Autodelta ; From 1983 the company handed over responsibility for Formula 1 racing to Euroracing . In the first few years Marlboro supported the team, which led to the fact that the Alfa Romeo cars looked very similar to the outside of McLaren - the only difference in the color scheme was that the red shade of the Marlboro logo used by McLaren was more insistent with Alfa Romeo Orange went. From 1984 Benetton was the main sponsor, after which the vehicles were largely painted green.
In 1977, Alfa Romeo's Autodelta sports department designed the Alfa Romeo 177 , with which the factory comeback to Formula 1 was prepared in 1978. Alfa Romeo did "a year of hard development work". Since May 1978, Vittorio Brambilla , the "Gorilla of Monza", carried out extensive test drives with the 177, most of which took place on Alfa Romeo's own test track in Balocco , northern Italy . In August 1978, the then Brabham works driver Niki Lauda, who knew Alfa Romeo's boxer engine from the Brabham models, also did a few test laps. He was negative about the vehicle's competitiveness. As a result, the Alfa management postponed the start of the car for another six months. It was not until the beginning of 1979 that the decision was made to participate in world championship races.
The Alfa Romeo works team, registered as Autodelta, made its debut at the 1979 Belgian Grand Prix . Here and in a few other races, the team used the Alfa Romeo 177, which was powered by the twelve-cylinder naturally aspirated Tipo 115-12 engine with a cylinder angle of 180 degrees, which Brabham had been using since 1976. The "clunky" car was smiled at by observers as out of date. The team initially consisted of 10 employees. Due to its concept, the 177 did not develop a ground effect and was inferior to the competition. Alfa's works driver Bruno Giacomelli retired in Belgium for technical reasons and finished the team's second race with the 177 in France in 17th position. Alfa Romeo skipped the following four races. The Alfa Romeo 179 , designed as a wing car , then appeared at the Italian Grand Prix . It had the narrow Tipo 1260 engine with a cylinder bank angle of 60 degrees, which the Brabham works team had been using since the beginning of the year. In Italy, Alfa Romeo competed with two cars for the first time. Giacomelli took over the new 179 while the old 177 was given to Brambilla. Giacomelli retired on lap 29 after a driving mistake, while Brambilla finished the 177 one lap behind in 12th place. At the Canadian Grand Prix that followed, two 179 cars that Alfa Romeo reported for Brambilla and Giacomelli were ready to go. The organizers then demanded that both Alfas take part in a pre-qualification. Because the team refused, both reports were rejected. After protests by the team, a car (Brambilla) was approved as a compromise solution; at the same time the pre-qualification was omitted. In the race, Brambilla retired due to an electrical fault. At the last race of the season in the USA , both Alfas were allowed again. Brambilla missed qualification by four hundredths of a second. Giacomelli started the race from 18th place, but retired on the first lap after a driving error.
1980 was the first full season of the Alfa factory team, which now started with Marlboro as the main sponsor. The team reported two vehicles of the type 179. The first regular driver was Bruno Giacomelli. The second car was registered for Patrick Depailler , who came from Ligier . Depailler was killed on August 1, 1980 in an accident that he suffered test drives at the Hockenheimring . A break in the suspension is usually assumed to be the cause. His cockpit was initially taken over by Vittorio Brambilla and then Andrea de Cesaris . The year was unsuccessful for Alfa Romeo. The team's potential was partially evident; however, it often could not be translated into points. At the season finale in the USA , Giacomelli took pole position in practice and led the field for 30 laps in the race. Then, however, it failed due to an ignition defect. A total of 23 cancellations were recorded in the season, compared to only four finishings. The best results were Giacomelli's fifth places in Argentina and the UK . At the end of the year, Alfa Romeo finished 11th in the constructors' championship with four points.
In 1981 the Alfa Romeo 179 with the 1260 engine was used again. Autodelta experimented with various forms of suspension, including hydropneumatic suspension, which resulted in the 179C and 179D versions. At the end of the year, the 179F variant finally appeared with a monocoque made entirely of plastic , which in terms of strength clearly exceeded the earlier models of the 179. The development of the 179F went back to the French engineer Gérard Ducarouge , to whom Alfa Romeo had entrusted the chassis development in the summer of 1981. In addition to Bruno Giacomelli, Mario Andretti was Alfa Romeo's works driver this year . Andretti scored points in the opening race in Long Beach , which he finished fourth, and then no more for the entire year. Failures and finishings outside of the points took turns with him. It was similar with Giacomelli. He scored for the first time at the penultimate race of the season in Canada , where he was fourth. At the subsequent season finale in Las Vegas , Giacomelli achieved the best result to date for Alfa Romeo: Starting from eighth place, he finished third behind Alan Jones ( Williams ) and Alain Prost ( Renault ). At the end of the year, Alfa Romeo finished ninth in the constructors' championship with ten points. Alfa was tied with Tyrrell, but had the better race results with third place in Las Vegas.
In the second race of the 1982 season , the 182 was the first Alfa chassis designed by Gérard Ducarouge. The monocoque was made entirely of plastic. It was manufactured by Advanced Composite Technology in the UK and was significantly lighter in weight than Alfa’s previous designs. The naturally aspirated 1260 V12 engine continued to serve as the drive, producing 530 hp and having difficulties withstanding the turbo engines of the top teams. In addition to Bruno Giacomelli, Andrea de Cesaris was signed as the second regular driver. De Cesaris caused numerous accidents. During the season it failed ten times and destroyed three chassis (182/2, 182/4 and 182/5). Another chassis (182/1) Giacomelli destroyed. On the other hand, de Cesaris achieved third place in Monaco, the best result of the year for Alfa Romeo and also made positive headlines in Long Beach with a pole position. Giacomelli was out nine times. Fifth place in Germany was his best result of the season.
At the Italian Grand Prix , Alfa Romeo showed a newly developed turbo engine with eight cylinders ( Tipo 890T ) for the first time . The engine was a design by Carlo Chiti. At Monza, it was built into a modified 182 chassis that was designated the 182T. The car was tested in this form at times in Friday practice; However, it was not used in racing either in Italy or in any of the later races in 1982.
In total, Alfa Romeo had only scored seven points in the 1982 season and fell back to 10th place in the constructors' championship. It was sometimes suspected that Alfa Romeo would end its Formula 1 involvement at the end of the year.
Instead of the expected closure of the team, Alfa Romeo decided in December 1982 to outsource the operation of the racing team to the independent company Euroracing. Euroracing took over the material as well as parts of the staff and organized the racing on its own. The chassis was also designed by Euroracing from 1983. Alfa Romeo's contribution was limited to providing the engines.
In 1983, Euroracing started as Marlboro Team Alfa Romeo. The emergency vehicle was the Alfa Romeo 183T, which technically largely corresponded to the 182 used in the previous year, but had a flat underbody, because the use of wing profiles had been banned by the FISA at the beginning of the 1983 season for safety reasons. In fact, the first copy of the 183T was a revised version of the Alfa Romeo 182T shown in Italy in 1982. The drive was the 890T turbo engine, which had mechanical fuel injection and two KKK turbochargers . The power was given as 620 hp at 11,000 revolutions per minute. The 890T was considered heavy, consumptive, and unreliable. Factory drivers this season were Andrea De Cesaris and Mauro Baldi . Both drivers dropped out in two thirds of all races. On the other hand, de Cesaris achieved two second places and a fourth place, and Baldi also finished twice in the points. At the Belgian Grand Prix , de Cesaris set the fastest lap and led the field for half of the race before retiring due to a technical defect. The good performance of the team, but especially de Cesaris' podium positions, were bought at the cost of high fuel consumption. It is estimated that de Cesaris consumed over 300 liters of petrol at the Hockenheimring , where he finished second. Overall, Alfa Romeo's works team finished sixth in the constructors' championship with 18 points.
In 1984 Euroracing started as the Benetton Team Alfa Romeo. The emergency vehicle was the Alfa Romeo 184T , which was a further development of last year's 183T and thus conceptually dates back to 1982. The designers responsible for the initial version were Mario Tollentino and Luigi Marmiroli ; from the summer of 1984 Gustav Brunner revised the cars. They were still powered by the Tipo 890T engines. The high fuel consumption turned out to be particularly problematic because the FIA limited the amount of fuel this season to 220 liters for each race. Alfa Romeo responded primarily by lowering the boost pressure. While the 1983 version of the 890T was still regularly driven with a boost pressure of 3.0 bar and occasionally with 3.8 bar, Autodelta only allowed a pressure of 2.2 bar in some races in 1984. They achieved an output of less than 600 hp, so that they were only marginally more powerful than a Cosworth DFV suction engine. Factory drivers in 1984 were Riccardo Patrese and Eddie Cheever .
The season was marked by numerous failures. Patrese and Cheever only crossed the finish line six times; each driver dropped out ten times. The main reason for failure was the turbo engine: "If the engine did not explode beforehand, the drivers would be left without petrol before the end of the race." Cheever made it into the points once in 1984 and Patrese three times. Patrese finished sixth and fourth, and finished third in the Italian Grand Prix , his team's home race. It was the last podium finish for an Alfa Romeo in Formula 1. The low point was Cheevers' non-qualification at the Monaco Grand Prix , to which only 20 vehicles were allowed. Cheevers qualification time was only enough for 23rd place. He was 3.8 seconds above the pole time of Alain Prost in the McLaren and 0.35 seconds above the time of Stefan Bellof , who had qualified for 20th place with his naturally aspirated Tyrrell. In the end, Alfa Romeo finished eighth in the constructors' championship with 11 points.
In 1985 there were major changes: rally driver Sandro Munari became race director and Autodelta provided a revised engine. However, the team's performance did not improve. The Alfa Romeo 185T used at the beginning of the season proved to be problematic; Riccardo Patrese later described it as the worst car he had driven in his Formula 1 career. The car's shortcomings were so significant that Euroracing abandoned the 185T after an unsuccessful first half of the season and returned to the previous year's 184TB for the rest of the year . Alfa Romeo didn't even reach a point in the constructors' championship this season.
At the end of the 1985 season, Alfa Romeo withdrew again from Formula 1. As early as May 1985, Benetton, the sponsor of the team, had made it clear that it would no longer support Euroracing in 1986: In the spring, the Italian knitwear manufacturer joined forces with the British Toleman team, which was running on the Toleman cars parallel to Benetton's appearance at Euroracing advertised with the Benetton brands Sisley and 012 . At the end of 1985, Benetton took over the entire Toleman team and continued to run it under the name Benetton F1 . Due to the poor performance of the Euroracing team, no further sponsor could be found for 1986.
After a break of two years, Euroracing got involved again in Formula 1 in 1988 , when it launched the EuroBrun team together with the Swiss private team Brun Motorsport .
Failed new beginning in 1987
Developed since 1983 Autodelta Alfa Corse or its successor a new four-cylinder turbo engine of the type Alfa Romeo 415T . The objective was to make this engine available to an independent team in the 1987 season . Euroracing tested the engine on behalf of Alfa Romeo in May 1986 in a modified 185T on the in-house track in Balocco; The driver was Alfa's test pilot Giorgio Francia . In July 1986, Alfa Romeo signed an agreement with the French Équipe Ligier , which was to use the four-cylinder turbo engine in the 1987 season. Ligier finally designed the Ligier JS29 for the engine , which was first tested with the 415T in January 1987. Shortly before the first race of the season, however, there was a break between Alfa Romeo and Ligier, which was justified in the public image with derogatory remarks by Ligier driver René Arnoux about the Alfa engine, but was actually due to a political decision by the Fiat group, who had taken over Alfa Romeo in 1986 and did not need any other pillar in Formula 1 besides Scuderia Ferrari, which also belongs to the group . Alfa Romeo withdrew the engine and did not offer it to any other team. Ligier then moved up to Megatron engines.
Osella and EuroBrun with Alfa technology
Alfa Romeo's Formula 1 technology continued to be used by the Turin racing team Osella Squadra Corse in the 1980s . Osella took over an Alfa Romeo 183T from the beginning of 1984 and developed a number of its own vehicles from it, which began with the Osella FA1F . The first Osella FA1F was "in reality an adapted Alfa Romeo 183T". All other Osella racing cars from the turbo era up to 1988 were modifications of this model. Until 1988, Osella also used Alfa Romeo's turbo engines, which over the years have increasingly lost their competitiveness. Last year they were reported as the Osella 890T.
When Euroracing and the Swiss entrepreneur Walter Brun returned to Formula 1 in 1988 under the name EuroBrun, the team used the EuroBrun ER188, a car that was generally believed to be a revised version of the Alfa Romeo 184T from 1984; Günter Schmid, head of Rial Racing , summed it up as follows: “If you paint the EuroBrun red, you have an Alfa. They didn't do anything. "
Since 2018: Title sponsorship at Sauber
Since 2015, Fiat's CEO Sergio Marchionne has repeatedly publicly stated that Alfa Romeo “must” return to Formula 1 in the medium term. In 2016 , the takeover of the Swiss Sauber team, which was in considerable economic difficulties this season, was under discussion. A multi-year partnership with Sauber was announced on November 29, 2017 . The team started in 2018 as the Alfa Romeo Sauber F1 Team with the Sauber C37 and Ferrari engines of the current expansion stage.
In 2019 the team was renamed Alfa Romeo Racing . Alfa Romeo is only the title sponsor and namesake; Alfa Romeo has not taken over shares in Sauber. The operating company is still called Sauber Motorsport AG. In the media, Alfa Romeo's approach is sometimes criticized as a fraudulent label .
For touring car racing, Alfa Romeo first developed the Disco Volante model , in German: flying saucer, in the early 1950s . The car caused a sensation with its unusual shape; the sporting successes were largely absent. After Alfa Romeo customers had successfully taken part in Gran Turismo races in the 1950s with the 1300 cc Giulietta Sprint Veloce (90 hp) and Sprint Zagato (almost 100 hp) , Alfa Romeo started the new one For the last decade, increasingly focused on touring car and GT racing .
The Giulia TZ , which was only built one hundred times and manufactured by Autodelta , initially belonged to this area . With an output of 112 hp, which was developed by a 1.6 liter engine, and the low curb weight of 660 kg, the car with the tubular space frame was very fast. However, there were failures in numerous races.
From 1965, Alfa Romeo concentrated primarily on the Alfa Romeo GTA , (GTA = Gran Turismo Allegeritta), which was mainly made of aluminum for the purpose of weight optimization . In the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo achieved two dozen championships with the GTA, including seven European championship titles in racing touring cars, as well as numerous other touring car victories. Above all in the class up to 1.3 liters, the GTA Junior dominated the entire scene for almost a decade from 1968.
The one-make cup races popular with the public began in 1975 with the Alfasud . Gerhard Berger achieved his first major successes at the Alfasud Cup.
The Alfetta GTV 6 was very successful in touring car races in the 1980s. From 1982 to 1985 she achieved four European titles in a row. In 1987 Alfa Romeo developed a turbocharged racing version of the Alfa Romeo 75 , which was to take part in the World Touring Car Championship. The driving behavior of the car was problematic; it was used only occasionally and was unsuccessful.
In the 1990s, the Alfa 155 developed into a successful racing touring car. The 155 GTA with all-wheel drive , based on the successful Lancia Delta Integrale rally model, earned its first laurels in the Italian touring car scene in 1992. Alessandro Nannini and Nicola Larini won the championship straight away. In the following year, the turbocharged four-cylinder made way for the traditional Alfa V6. Alfa Romeo thus won the German Touring Car Championship (DTM) in 1993 . By the end of the popular and hotly contested racing series in 1996, the Alfas had collected numerous victories in the DTM and ITC . But also in the European Superturismo Championships, the 155, built according to class 2 regulations, proved to be a winner, for example in the Italian championship and the BTCC .
After the DTM or ITC 1996 Alfa drove in Super Tourenwagen Cup (STW). From 1998 the Alfa Romeo 156 , which replaced the 155, started in the Super Touring Car series (Supertourismo in Italy) and won the championship there in 1998 and 1999.
From 2000 the Alfa 156 competed in the European Super Touring Car Cup (STC), which Alfa Romeo won in 2000 and 2001. 2002 was the start of the European Touring Car Championship (ETCC). Alfa Romeo also won this high-level touring car series twice in a row with a 156 GTA - in 2002 and 2003 . Gabriele Tarquini replaced the long-time touring car winner Fabrizio Giovanardi .
For the 2005 season , the ETCC was converted into the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC), in which Alfa Romeo participated with five 156 works. Fabrizio Giovanardi was the best-placed Alfa driver with third place in the final classification. At the end of the season, the Milanese got out of the world championship and left the operations of the now somewhat aging Alfa 156 in 2006 and 2007 to the private team N.Technology . Alfa Romeo has not been part of the World Touring Car Championship since the 2008 season .
From the 2002 season, the Alfa 147 was also used in one-make cup races. All vehicles had a four-cylinder diesel engine with a displacement of 1.9 liters and common rail direct injection . The engine and gearbox were sealed. Under the same technical conditions, young drivers were able to demonstrate their driving talent to the delight of the spectators. In 2004 the Alfa 147 Cup was held for the last time.
The Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 first appeared in 1967 . It was a car developed only for racing with a tubular space frame and mid-engine. Over time, several variants emerged: V8 with a displacement of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 liters and later a three-liter V12. The Tipo 33 was particularly successful in long-distance races such as the Targa Florio , the Le Mans 24-hour race and the 1000 km race at the Nürburgring . Despite stiff competition, especially from Porsche, Alfa Romeo was able to achieve numerous victories in the following ten years. Alfa Romeo, represented by the German Willi Kauhsen Racing Team , won the sports car world championship in 1975 with the 33TT13 with seven victories in eight races. The successful drivers were Arturo Merzario , Vittorio Brambilla, Jacques Laffite , Henri Pescarolo , Derek Bell and Jochen Mass . With the further developed Tipo 33SC12, which won all eight races of the 1977 season, the World Sports Car Championship went to Alfa Romeo again this year . On the Salzburgring , the 33SC12 reached an average speed of 203.82 km / h. After winning the title in 1977, Alfa Romeo withdrew from the sports car world championship. The company then concentrated on its Formula 1 involvement.
In 1988 Alfa Romeo worked with the British racing team Motor Racing Developments to develop a prototype for the Procar series , the revival of which was planned for 1989. Touring cars equipped with Formula 1 naturally aspirated engines were to compete in the Procar series. The bodies were supposed to be reminiscent of series vehicles, of which at least 25,000 were made. The series, based on an idea by Bernie Ecclestone, was intended to win new engine manufacturers for Formula 1 in the medium term; they should have the opportunity to test their designs in the Procar series.
After Alfa's Formula 1 involvement came to an end as a result of the takeover by Fiat and the Alfa 75 was unsuccessful in touring car races in 1987, Alfa Romeo and its sports department, renamed Alfa Corse, concentrated on the development of one in the course of 1988 Procar vehicle. The body of the car was modeled on the new Alfa Romeo 164 ; the engine used was a newly designed ten-cylinder V-engine with a displacement of 3.5 liters. Its performance was given as over 600 hp. Alfa Romeo and Brabham made some prototypes.
The racing series was ultimately not realized, so that Alfa’s Procar vehicle was not used.
Indy Car Series
At the end of the 1980s, Alfa Romeo supplied engines for the Champ Car series (at that time still known as the PPG IndyCar World Series), which were not nearly as successful as the engines built by Cosworth or Ilmor , but were also used by well-known pilots such as for example Al Unser were used. The engine offered by Alfa Romeo was a V8 turbo with the 2648 cm³ displacement specified by the regulations, which was based on the Tipo 034 engine of the Ferrari 637 , which Ferrari had developed in 1985 for the IndyCar series and which ultimately was not used.
The first team to use Alfa engines was Alex Morales Motorsport , who used this engine in Roberto Guerrero's March chassis in 1989 . But Guerrero was only able to score occasionally and ended the season with 6 points in 23rd place. In 1990 the engine was used exclusively by the Patrick Racing team in the March and Lola chassis , which again brought Guerrero to the start and had Al Unser compete as the second driver in two races. Ours remained without points, while Guerrero was able to improve with a total of 24 points, equivalent to 16th place in the drivers' standings, and a fifth place as the best result. In 1991, Patrick Racing continued to use the Alfa engine in the Lola chassis, hiring Danny Sullivan as the new top driver , while Guerrero only competed in individual races. Sullivan was also able to score regularly, but did not get beyond fourth place at the season opener in Surfers Paradise, Australia as the best result and finished 11th in the ranking with 56 points at the end of the season. At the end of this season, however, Alfa Romeo stopped its commitment to the Champ Cars.
When Alfa Romeo won the Targa Florio for the first time with an RL in 1923 , the driver Ugo Sivocci had previously painted a green four-leaf clover on a white diamond as a lucky charm on the bonnet. The four corners of the white diamond stood for the four Alfa works drivers Antonio Ascari , Ugo Sivocci, Giulio Masetti and Giuseppe Campari . From there on, all the other works racing cars also wore the clover leaf on the white background. When Sivocci trained on September 8, 1923 with the new racing car called the P2 on the Monza racetrack, the Quadrifoglio Verde was still missing . Sivocci had a fatal accident in this training. He was thrown off the track in what would later become known as the "Ascari corner". Out of respect and as a sign that Ugo Sivocci is irreplaceable for Alfa, the clover leaf no longer has a diamond as a background, but a triangle.
To this day, quadrifoglio verde is a trademark for the Alfa Romeo vehicles used in racing. The former factory racing team Alfas Corse and the Autodelta racing car department adopted the clover leaf as a symbol of luck. In some Alfa Romeo models, the term Quadrifoglio was also used for sporty model variants.
Numbers and dates
Statistics in Formula 1
Status: end of season 1985
|season||Team name||chassis||engine||tires||Grand Prix||Victories||Second||Third||Poles||nice Round||Points||World Cup rank|
|1950||Alfa Romeo SpA||Alfa Romeo Tipo 158||Alfa Romeo L8C||P||6th||6th||4th||3||6th||6th||-||-|
|1951||Alfa Romeo SpA||Alfa Romeo Tipo 159||Alfa Romeo L8C||P||7th||4th||2||3||4th||7th||-||-|
|1952–1978: No Formula 1 involvement|
Alfa Romeo 177
Alfa Romeo 179
Alfa Romeo 115-12
Alfa Romeo 1260 V12
|1980||Marlboro Team Alfa Romeo||Alfa Romeo 179||Alfa Romeo 1260 V12||G||14th||-||-||-||1||-||4th||11|
|1981||Marlboro Team Alfa Romeo||
Alfa Romeo 179B
Alfa Romeo 179C
Alfa Romeo 179D
|Alfa Romeo 1260 V12||M.||15th||-||-||1||-||-||10||9|
|1982||Marlboro Team Alfa Romeo||
Alfa Romeo 179D
Alfa Romeo 182
|Alfa Romeo 1260 V12||M.||16||-||-||1||1||-||7th||10|
|1983||Marlboro Team Alfa Romeo||Alfa Romeo 183T||Alfa Romeo 890T V8||M.||15th||-||2||-||-||1||18th||6th|
|1984||Benetton Team Alfa Romeo||Alfa Romeo 184T||Alfa Romeo 890T V8||G||16||-||-||1||-||-||11||8th|
|1985||Benetton Team Alfa Romeo||
Alfa Romeo 185T
Alfa Romeo 184TB
|Alfa Romeo 890T V8||G||16||-||-||-||-||-||0||-|
All drivers of the Alfa Romeo works team in the Formula 1 World Championship
Status: end of season 1985
|Surname||Years||Grand Prix||Points||Victories||Second||Third||Poles||SR||best WM-Pos.|
|Bruno Giacomelli||1979-1982||49||13||-||-||-||1||-||15th ( 1981 )|
|Andrea de Cesaris||1980
|33||21st||-||2||1||1||1||8th ( 1983 )|
|Riccardo Patrese||1984-1985||32||13||-||-||1||-||-||13th ( 1984 )|
|Eddie Cheever||1984-1985||32||3||-||-||-||-||-||16. ( 1984 )|
|Mario Andretti||1981||15th||3||-||-||-||-||-||17th ( 1981 )|
|Mauro Baldi||1983||15th||3||-||-||-||-||-||16. ( 1983 )|
|Juan Manuel Fangio||1950-1951||13||64||6th||2||-||4th||4th||1. ( 1951 )|
|Giuseppe Farina||1950-1951||13||52||4th||-||3||2||3||1. ( 1950 )|
|Luigi Fagioli||1950-1951||7th||32||1||4th||1||-||-||3. ( 1950 )|
|Consalvo Sanesi||1950-1951||5||3||-||-||-||-||-||12. ( 1951 )|
|Felice Bonetto||1951||4th||7th||-||-||1||-||-||8. ( 1951 )|
|Toulo de Graffenried||1951||3||2||-||-||-||-||-||16. ( 1951 )|
|Reg Parnell||1950||1||4th||-||-||1||-||-||9th ( 1950 )|
- Malte Jürgens: Yesterday's clover. Alfa Romeo's bankruptcies in motorsport. In: Auto Motor und Sport, issue 9/1990, pp. 260 ff.
- ↑ The Sauber F1 Team enters a multi-year partnership agreement with Alfa Romeo. November 29, 2017, accessed November 29, 2017 .
- ↑ Quoted from Rancati: Enzo Ferrari . P. 27.
- ↑ Mike Lawrence: Grand Prix Cars 1945-1965 , Motor Racing Publications 1998, ISBN 1899870393 , p. 16.
- ↑ Statistics of the Coupe René le Bègue 1946 on the website www.statsf1.com (accessed on February 17, 2019).
- ^ Statistics of the 1st Grand Prix des Nations on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 18, 2019).
- ↑ Statistics of the III. Gran Premio del Valentino on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 19, 2019)
- ↑ Statistics of the III. Circuito di Milano on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 19, 2019).
- ↑ a b c Mike Lawrence: Grand Prix Cars 1945-1965 , Motor Racing Publications 1998, ISBN 1899870393 , p. 19.
- ↑ Statistics of the 1947 Swiss Grand Prix on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 19, 2019).
- ↑ Statistics of the Belgian Grand Prix 1947 on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ↑ Statistics of the 1947 Bari Grand Prix on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ^ Statistics of the Italian Grand Prix 1947 on the website www.silhouette.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ↑ Statistics of the 1948 Swiss Grand Prix (also known as the European Grand Prix) on the website www.silhouet.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ^ Statistics of the French Grand Prix 1948 on the website www.silhouet.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ↑ a b c Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 , 2nd edition, St. Sulpice, 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 109.
- ↑ Statistics of the 1948 Italian Grand Prix on the website www.silhouet.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ↑ Statistics of the Autodromo Grand Prix 1948 on the website www.silhouet.com (accessed on February 21, 2019).
- ↑ a b Mike Lawrence: Grand Prix Cars 1945-1965 , Motor Racing Publications 1998, ISBN 1899870393 , p. 22.
- ^ Raymond Mays, Peter Roberts: BRM , Cassell & Company, London, 1962, pp. 1 f.
- ↑ Heinz Prüller: Bang and Fall . In: auto motor und sport. Issue 6/1987, p. 266
- ↑ a b c d e Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 , 2nd edition, St. Sulpice, 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 110.
- ↑ a b c d e David Hodges: Racing cars from A – Z after 1945 , Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-613-01477-7 , p. 13.
- ↑ a b Mike Lawrence: Grand Prix Cars 1945-1965 , Motor Racing Publications 1998, ISBN 1899870393 , p. 21.
- ↑ In addition Schrader, Amtmann: Italian sports cars . P. 33.
- ↑ Adriano Cimarosti: The century of racing , motor book publisher Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-613-01848-9 , S. 132nd
- ↑ a b c Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 , 2nd edition, St. Sulpice, 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 178.
- ↑ a b Mike Lawrence: March, The Rise and Fall of a Motor Racing Legend , MRP, Orpington 2001, ISBN 1-899870-54-7 , p. 48.
- ^ David Hodges: Racing Cars from A – Z after 1945 , Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-613-01477-7 , p. 182.
- ↑ Adriano Cimarosti: The century of racing , motor book publisher Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-613-01848-9 , S. 269th
- ↑ Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 , 2nd edition, St. Sulpice, 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 175.
- ↑ Adriano Cimarosti: The century of racing , motor book publisher Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-613-01848-9 , S. 293rd
- ^ Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 , 2nd edition, St. Sulpice, 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 177.
- ↑ a b David Hodges: Racing Cars from A – Z after 1945 , Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-613-01477-7 , p. 41.
- ↑ a b Doug Nye: The great book of Formula 1 racing cars . The three-liter formula from 1966. Rudolf Müller publishing company, Cologne 1986, ISBN 3-481-29851-X , p. 163.
- ^ Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 , 2nd edition, St. Sulpice, 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 111.
- ↑ a b c Doug Nye: The big book of Formula 1 racing cars. The three-liter formula from 1966. Rudolf Müller Publishing Company, Cologne 1986, ISBN 3-481-29851-X , p. 164.
- ↑ Overview of the individual chassis of the 182 series on the website www.oldracingcars.com (accessed on February 28, 2019).
- ↑ Adriano Cimarosti: The century of racing . Cars, tracks and pilots. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-613-01848-9 . P. 327.
- ^ David Hodges: Racing Cars from A – Z after 1945 . Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-613-01477-7 , p. 14.
- ↑ a b Bamsey: The 1000 bhp Grand Prix Cars. 1988, p. 38.
- ↑ Auto Motor und Sport Issue 9/1990, pp. 260, 262.
- ↑ Cimarosti: The Century of Racing . Cars, tracks and pilots. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-613-01848-9 . P. 337.
- ↑ With a boost pressure of 3.0 bar, the engine output was 670 hp. See Hodges: Rennwagen von A – Z after 1945. 1994, p. 14.
- ↑ Bamsey: The 1000 Bhp Grand Prix Cars. 1988, p. 40.
- ^ Pierre Ménard: La Grande Encyclopédie de la Formule 1 . 2nd Edition. Chronosports, St. Sulpice 2000, ISBN 2-940125-45-7 , p. 114.
- ↑ Motorsport Aktuell, issue 14/1985, p. 18.
- ^ Motor, issue 2/2000.
- ↑ Motorsport Aktuell, issue 22/1985, p. 7.
- ^ David Hodges: AZ of Grand Prix Cars. 2001, p. 185: “Osella's first turbo car with this designation was in fact an adapted Alfa Romeo 183T”.
- ↑ Bamsey: 1000 bhp Grand Prix Cars. 1988, p. 47.
- ^ Motorsport aktuell, issue 29, 1988, p. 21.
- ↑ Quoted from Motorsport aktuell. Issue 29, 1988, p. 10.
- ↑ NN: Marchionne not ruling out Sauber takeover by Alfa Romeo. www.f1today.net, April 18, 2016, accessed April 18, 2016 .
- ↑ The Sauber F1 Team enters a multi-year partnership agreement with Alfa Romeo. November 29, 2017, accessed November 29, 2017 .
- ^ Mathias Brunner: Clean in front of Alfa Romeo: Repeated trouble with partners. speedweek.com, February 4, 2019, accessed February 7, 2019 .
- ↑ FIA registration list for the 2019 Formula 1 World Championship (accessed on February 7, 2019).
- ↑ Michael Schmidt: Label fraud with Alfa Romeo . Motorsport Aktuell, issue 9/2019, p. 9.
- ↑ Auto Motor und Sport Issue 9/1990, pp. 260, 262.
- ↑ Brabham temporarily stopped his Formula 1 involvement with the end of the 1987 season. Team owner Bernie Ecclestone sold Brabham to Fiat in 1988.
- ↑ The standard.