Gas turbine

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lycoming T53 turboprop engine (propeller output on the left via reduction gear)

A gas turbine in the broader sense is an internal combustion engine , i.e. a machine in which a fuel is burned in order to generate (mechanical) power. The main components of a gas turbine are the actual turbine , more precisely a gas expansion turbine , an upstream compressor and a combustion chamber in between .

From a physical point of view, the gas turbine is a thermal fluid flow machine (turbo machine ) and thus a subordinate of the thermal fluid energy machine . The operating principle is based on the clockwise thermodynamic cycle according to James Prescott Joule ( Joule process ; see section "Functionality" ).

Including the aircraft engines, a total of well over 100,000 large gas turbines are in use worldwide.


The first inventions of the gas turbine date back to 1791, when the Englishman John Barber patented the first such machine . In practice, however, his gas turbine failed, primarily because at that time no sufficiently heat-resistant materials were available.

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, engineers took up the idea of ​​the gas turbine again, orienting themselves on the parallel development of the steam turbine . After unsuccessful attempts by Franz Stolze and successful, but hardly publicized, attempts by Aegidius Elling , Hans Holzwarth developed a gas turbine with a combustion chamber closed off by valves , from which pressurized exhaust gases from the previously burned fuels were directed to the actual turbine. Such a " constant space turbine " managed without a compressor, but only achieved a low efficiency of a maximum of 13 percent. From 1935 the first constant-volume turbines were available for stationary operation in gas-fired power plants; The development of this type of turbine goes back to the historic patent from 1791 - Adolf Meyer from the Swiss company BBC made it ready for the market. The chemical industry used these first turbines, which had an output of 14 MW. In 1939, the BBC delivered a gas turbine to the British Department of Aviation , which it used for testing purposes. In 1940 a power plant in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, started using the first gas turbine. The machine had an output of 4 MW and delivered positive operating results, so that a similar turbine was installed in a locomotive ( SBB Am 4/6 1101 ). However, because of the high losses in energy conversion, this type of traction was abandoned. After the Second World War, the gas turbine was primarily used in aircraft and is currently the most important engine there. In the case of stationary systems, it is kept as a power plant reserve because of its quick start capability; In recent years it has gained increasing importance due to its use in combined cycle power plants (combined cycle power plants).

As part of the project, Energieversorgung Oberhausen operated a test facility with a fossil-fueled helium gas turbine in the Sterkrade thermal power station from 1973 onwards. However, the project failed due to technical problems, as did a similar South African nuclear project ( high-temperature reactor with helium gas turbine) that was discontinued in 2010. The similar Japanese project GTHTR300 is still being pursued.


Turboprop engine : A propeller, B  gearbox , C compressor, D combustion chamber, E turbine, F exhaust nozzle. The gas turbine consists of parts C, D and E.

The gas turbine basically consists of an inlet, a compressor , a combustion chamber , a turbine , a nozzle for jet engines or a diffuser , a shaft from the turbine to the compressor and, if applicable, an output shaft for shaft engines. The term “turbine” is not used very clearly, because strictly speaking only one component of the gas turbine is actually a turbine, but on the other hand the entire unit is also colloquially referred to as a “gas turbine”.


The air inlet is used to adjust the flow dynamics between the application environment and the compressor . In stationary use or at low speeds, the inlet is only used to guide clean air without turbulence or flow separation. In the air inlet is the inlet cone and, in the case of turbofan engines, the fan ("blower").

Particularly at high air inlet speeds, the inlet has the function of a diffuser , which slows down the air mass flowing in there (in relation to the gas turbine) and pre-compresses it. This is particularly necessary for aircraft at supersonic speed , since the flow has to be slowed down to (relative) subsonic speed before entering the compressor stages.

Hub spiral

The rotating inlet cone on the hubs of aircraft turbines and elsewhere is usually painted with a short spiral line so that people in the vicinity can safely see whether the engine is (still) rotating and the associated hazards - being sucked in or collision, exhaust gas jet - to be able to estimate the roll of the aircraft. With fast rotation the line is not visible, with slow rotation the spiral seems to contract into the middle. A repellent effect on flying birds is doubted. Some airlines use an eccentric point or line as a rotation indicator.

Compressor / Compressor

CAD representation of a turbofan engine in the area of ​​the compressor. Guide vanes not shown
17-stage axial compressor of a General Electric J79 . The guide vanes cannot be seen, but their adjustment mechanism (only first 8 stages)

The air inlet is followed by the turbo compressor , which can consist of axial or radial compressors. Axial compressors usually consist of several impellers with compressor blades in an axial arrangement, these usually being subdivided into low-pressure and high-pressure compressor stages. The flowing air mass receives pressure energy from the compressor by means of supplied kinetic energy in the diffuser-shaped (i.e. widening) interspaces of the compressor blades. According to Bernoulli's law, the static pressure increases in a channel with increasing cross-sectional area while the flow velocity decreases. The guide vanes or stator vanes located there direct the helical air flow back into the axial direction after each impeller. The lost kinetic energy is fed back into the next rotor stage. A complete compressor stage of an axial compressor consists of a rotor stage, in which both pressure and temperature as well as the speed increase, and a stator stage, in which the pressure increases to the detriment of the speed. The rotor stages are arranged one behind the other on a common drum ("shaft"; today: usually two or three drums with different speeds), the stator stages (guide vanes) are built into the inside of the compressor housing. Often the guide vanes are adjustable in order to adapt the angle to the direction of flow.

Old compressors often achieved only moderate compression (ratio of the pressure at the end of the compressor to the ambient pressure; in the example 12.5: 1) even with many successive compressor stages (in the example General Electric J79 17 stages), while modern gas turbines with fewer stages achieved significantly higher levels Achieve compression (e.g. 43.9: 1 with 13 levels in the Engine Alliance GP7200 ). This enables improved profiles of the compressor blades, which offer very good flow properties even at points in the flow channel where the air flow relative to the blade reaches supersonic speed (resulting from the peripheral speed of the blades and the inflow speed). However, the pure flow velocity must not exceed the local speed of sound , as otherwise the effect of the diffuser-shaped channels would be reversed. It should be remembered that the local speed of sound also increases due to the rising temperature in the compressor (see above, up to 600 ° C).

Combustion chamber

CAD illustration: Combustion chamber of a turbofan engine

The compression of the air causes a temperature increase of about 400 ° C. Part of the air heated in this way then flows as so-called primary air into the combustion chamber, where it is mixed with fuel (mostly kerosene in airplanes today ) and ignited - when the gas turbine is started by spark plugs , later the combustion takes place automatically and continuously. Due to the exothermic reaction of the oxygen - hydrocarbon mixture, the temperature rises to up to 2200 ° C with the corresponding expansion of the gas. Without cooling, even the high-quality materials (often superalloys based on nickel - chromium - molybdenum ) could not withstand the temperatures, because the combustion chamber works in the supercritical range. Therefore, direct contact between the flame and the combustion chamber wall is largely prevented. This is done by the so-called "secondary air", which does not enter the combustion area directly, but is directed around the combustion chamber and only then enters it through holes in the sheet metal joints of the flaky combustion chamber. It lies as a (cooling / separating) film between the combustion gases and the combustion chamber wall. This film or curtain cooling lowers the wall temperature of the combustion chamber by around 200 ° C, which significantly reduces its critical thermal load. Around 70 to 80 percent of the air mass from the compressor is used as secondary air; only the remainder goes directly into the combustion chamber as primary air. In order to prevent the flame in the combustion chamber from tearing off and thus preventing the engine from failing (so-called “stall”), a special air duct is required in the combustion chamber. The injection valves for the fuel are located in a zone protected from the air flowing through; Furthermore, the air flow rate is reduced in the immediate vicinity (approx. 25–30 m / s). Behind the combustion chamber, the air flows mix again in order to achieve the highest possible burnout and thus a high degree of efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In addition to the thermal, the mechanical strength of the combustion chambers is important because they also have to absorb some of the reaction forces (= thrust).

Tube combustion chamber

Tube combustion chambers of a GE J79

This type of combustion chamber is particularly suitable for engines with radial compressors. Tube combustion chambers were part of British (aircraft) engines ( Rolls-Royce Welland ) , especially at the beginning of development . In the direction of the combustion chambers, individual diffusers of the centrifugal compressor split the air flow. Each combustion chamber has its own primary and secondary air system. The combustion chambers are connected to one another via the ignition bars. In general, about eight to twelve of these canister burners are arranged radially on the engine. Very small turbines, for example for APUs , only have a single tubular combustion chamber. The advantages - simple development, simple fuel distribution and good maintenance options - are offset by the disadvantage of the high construction weight of such an arrangement. The flow conditions are also disadvantageous compared to other types of combustion chamber. Tube combustion chambers are still used today in wave turbines, e.g. B. for turboprop engines.

Tubular ring combustion chambers

This type of combustion chamber combines the tubular and the annular combustion chamber and is particularly suitable for very large and powerful gas turbines because it can be made mechanically very stable. The main difference to the individual combustion chamber is the common combustion chamber outlet. The design hardly occurs in jet turbines.

Annular combustion chambers

The annular combustion chamber is the gas dynamic optimum for jet turbine engines. It is quite light and short, as the air flow from the compressor to the turbine does not have to be diverted. The combustion chamber has several fuel injectors that deliver the fuel to an annular combustion chamber. However, maintenance is quite difficult. The development is also very complex, since the gas flows within such a combustion chamber have to be calculated three-dimensionally. The annular combustion chamber is today (2008) the most common type in aircraft jet engines. An annular combustion chamber is also used in certain power plant gas turbines.


CAD drawing: Turbine of a turbofan engine : the high-pressure turbine drives the compressor, the low-pressure turbine drives the fan via a coaxial shaft (twin-shaft engine). Guide vanes not shown

The gases emerging from the combustion chamber to the rear then hit a turbine . Their main task is to drive the compressor via a shaft. Most single-flow aircraft engines ( turbojet ) use most of the kinetic energy for recoil. The turbine is designed in such a way that it only takes as much energy from the exhaust gas as is needed to operate the compressor. The high-pressure turbine may be followed by further turbines that either drive further compressor stages or dissipate a fan or shaft power, for example to an electrical generator. Each turbine can be multi-stage.

Turbine blade of a Rolls-Royce / Turbo-Union RB199 . The openings for the film cooling in the area of ​​the nose edge are clearly visible.
Three-stage turbine of a GE J79 (Turbojet), guide vanes (except in front of the inlet) not mounted

The turbine blades are normally cooled in a complex process (internal and / or film cooling) and are now made of resistant superalloys . In addition, these substances are solidified in a preferred direction, so they are given a defined direction ( texture ) in their crystal lattice and thus allow the optimal material properties to become effective along the highest loads. The first stage of the high pressure turbine increasingly consists of single crystal blades. The part of the blades in the gas flow is protected against high temperatures and erosion with ceramic coatings . Because of the high load at speeds in excess of 10,000 min -1 breakage due to mechanical or thermal damage is still not always be ruled out. That is why the outer skin of turbines is designed to be highly resilient. The high temperatures in the turbine prevent the use of Kevlar , which is used in the front area of ​​the fan blades to prevent detached engine parts from damaging supporting structures or injuring people.

Even with turbojet engines - which only generate thrust themselves without a bypass flow or propeller - this is mainly generated in the compressor and when the hot exhaust gases are expanded after the turbine. The turbine only drives the compressor and delivers negative thrust. The outlet nozzle also delivers negative thrust - it only serves as a pressure control device to maintain the efficiency of the engine.

In modern turbofan engines (turbo fan) with a high by-pass ratio , the thrust is produced mainly by the air flow which is conducted past the combustion chamber, turbine and exhaust nozzle (sheath flow). The turbine only serves as a power converter: the thermal and kinetic power of the hot and fast air flow that comes out of the combustion chamber is converted into mechanical power. As described above, this is fed to the compressor on the one hand and to the fan on the other hand via one or more shafts (in the case of a turboprop engine, the propeller). Modern engines generate the thrust less with the hot exhaust gas jet, but rather with the fan.

Thrust nozzle

A convergent nozzle (often adjustable) through which the gas flows out at high speed can be fitted behind the turbine in engines . It's not a thruster, as is often believed. It is a resistance in the course of the jet - instead of a propulsive force, it transmits a restraining force to the aircraft; Its main task is to regulate the pressure in the preceding engine components. The pressure gradient present at the turbine outlet (turbine outlet pressure - ambient pressure) should be converted as completely as possible into speed when the gas flows out. The aim here is to achieve the highest possible impulse, whereby the pressure of the gas flowing out at the thrust nozzle end should have reached the ambient pressure as far as possible so that the gas jet does not “burst”. The energy for this expansion comes from the hot combustion gas.

Engines with an afterburner do not expand completely, but instead feed the oxygen-containing gas flow downstream of the engine with fuel that burns again and thus heat energy, which leads to a further acceleration of the gas flow. In this way, a rapid thrust requirement can be met, such as is required in aerial combat maneuvers . Engines with afterburner must have a nozzle whose geometry can be changed (“nozzle”). This has especially during the changeover from normal operation to afterburning operation quickly and accurately controlled, since otherwise a so-called thermal constipation may occur that a flameout (engl. Flameout ) results.

Construction methods

Gas turbines are available as single-, double- and triple-shaft machines. In the single-shaft design, all compressor stages and all turbine stages sit on the same shaft (mechanical coupling). This means that the entire machine runs at one speed. The output can be on the compressor or turbine-side shaft end. In the case of gas turbines, which are primarily intended to output shaft power, the output (for the electric generator) is mostly located at the end of the shaft on the compressor side, as a better diffuser can be installed, the exhaust gas does not have to flow around the generator and in combined cycle processes (gas and steam turbine in combination ) the heat losses on the way to the steam boiler are not too great.

With the twin-shaft arrangement, there is often a separation into a machine part, which primarily serves to generate a fast-flowing high-pressure hot gas - the actual gas turbine. It is then usually called a "(hot) gas generator". The second machine part consists of a turbine that is driven by the hot gas and extracts as much energy as possible. This “power turbine” converts the energy into shaft power, which it delivers to a machine or an electric generator, for example. Due to its own shaft, the power turbine has a speed that is independent of the gas generator. The output is usually on the turbine side. Instead of an electric generator, the power turbine is also used to drive pumps or compressors, for example on gas or oil pipelines; in aviation, the free turbine drives the turboprop engines the propeller, the turbofan engine the fan on.

The so-called aeroderivatives are a type of stationary gas turbine in which a modified aircraft gas turbine is used as a gas generator.


The thermodynamic comparison process is the Joule process , which ideally consists of two isentropes and two isobars ; it is also called the equal pressure process.

On the blading of one or more compressor stages air is compressed in the combustion chamber with a gaseous or liquid fuel are mixed, ignited and continuously burned . This creates a hot gas (mixture of combustion gas and air), which is expanded in the downstream turbine and thrust nozzle, whereby thermal energy ( rotational energy ) is converted into kinetic energy ( rotational energy ) to drive one or more compressor stages (and possibly propeller and fan) - the turbine draws power from the hot gas, which is fed to the front via a shaft and there drives the compressor. Only around 20 to 30% of the total air mass compressed to around 20 bar and 400 ° C is supplied to the combustion chamber as "primary air", the remaining air is used as "secondary air" to cool the combustion chamber walls. Around 40 percent of the chemical energy in the fuel is converted into useful energy; the rest is lost to the environment as thermal energy.

The compressor (also called compressor ) sucks in air from the environment, compresses it (1 → 2) and finally feeds it to the combustion chamber. There it is burned together with the injected fuel under almost constant pressure (2 → 3). Combustion gases with a temperature of up to 1500 ° C are produced during combustion. These hot combustion gases flow into the turbine at high speed. The fluid is expanded in the turbine and the enthalpy contained in the fluid is converted into mechanical energy (3 → 4). A part of the mechanical energy (up to two thirds) is used to drive the compressor, the remaining part is available as usable mechanical energy w T available. The efficiency of a gas turbine is higher, the higher the turbine inlet temperature of the fuel gases and the pressure ratio of the turbine. The maximum permissible material temperature of the cooled turbine blades limits the turbine inlet temperature.

In contrast to piston engines, gas turbines are characterized by a basically unbalance-free run. They deliver continuous torque and only have rotating parts without sliding friction. The torque curve over the speed is flatter than with piston engines. As a thrust generator, they are distinguished from ramjet engines in that they can generate thrust even when the aircraft is at a standstill.

Types (according to useful energy)

Examples of the various embodiments of a gas turbine: (1) Turbojet , (2) turboprop , (3) turboshaft engine (in this case with the electric generator), (4) turbofan engine (turbofan), high bypass ratio , (5) turbofan engine (with afterburner ), low Bypass
ratio Here, blue denotes = compressor; red = turbine; gray = exhaust nozzle

According to the desired useful energy, a distinction is made between two types of gas turbines:

Shaft turbine

In the case of a shaft turbine (also called a shaft power drive or turbo engine), it is not the thrust that is decisive, but the power output by an output shaft. In most cases, the output shaft is driven by a low-pressure turbine and a reduction gear arranged behind the combustion chamber and high-pressure turbine, but it can also be driven directly by the gas turbine shaft. Due to their more compact design, these engines are mainly equipped with multi-flow radial compressors or a combination of axial and radial compressors. The possible uses of shaft power engines are very diverse (see below for common examples). With aircraft engines, the released gas jet sometimes creates a little extra thrust.

Jet turbine

A jet turbine is mainly intended to provide the kinetic energy of the combustion gas in the form of thrust. In addition to the drive of ancillary units, the energy of the hot gas jet is mainly used (" turbojet "); no rotational energy is tapped from the shaft. In turbofan engines ( "Turbofan") a flow of air to the combustion chamber, the turbine and is controlled by the "fan" (fan) exhaust nozzle by blown backwards. In modern jet engines, this " bypass flow " generates the majority of the thrust. The fan is driven either by its own low-pressure turbine (twin-shaft engine) or by the gas turbine shaft via a gear unit ("geared turbofan" engine), which reduces the speed and increases the torque.

A special form of application are the so-called aero-derivatives , in which a gas turbine originally developed as a jet engine is used as a power machine .


As fuel different gas, LPG and liquid fuels are: in addition to natural gas and synthesis gas and landfill gas , biogas , kerosene , fuel oil , diesel fuel , gas oil and rarely also heavy oil .

Gas turbine series that can also be operated with the problematic fuel crude oil (e.g. for pipeline booster pumps) are being used less and less and are being replaced by diesel engines , for example , which achieve significantly better efficiencies here.

In addition, there are repeated attempts to use coal dust directly or after previous gasification. In mining regions, gas turbines are operated with mine gas (methane).

There are also experimental turbines that are powered by solid fuel. To do this, the combustion chamber is filled with fuel and ignited. The turbine then runs until all the fuel is used up and needs to be refilled. It has not yet come to commercial use.

Areas of application


Due to their low power -to-weight ratio (mass / power ratio) compared to other internal combustion engines , gas turbines are very well suited for applications in the aviation sector, as the overall weight of the aircraft is reduced and flight performance is increased and fuel is saved.

When propelling helicopters and turboprop aircraft, the shaft power of the gas turbine (shaft turbine) is used and transferred to the rotor or propeller via a gearbox .

Jet engines (turbojets or mostly turbo fans) are used for the recoil propulsion of airplanes ( jets ) . The output shaft, which transmits the power to external components, is missing. After the compressor, combustion chamber and turbine, there is only one nozzle through which the hot exhaust gas jet emerges at high speed. The turbine part of a jet engine only generates as much mechanical energy as is required to drive the compressor, the fan and the ancillary units. In civil engines, the advance is caused by the large mass throughput in the secondary flow and by the hot gases in the main flow emerging from the turbine at high speed. In military engines, the thrust is mainly caused by the main flow.

Auxiliary drives in (traffic) aircraft for electrics, hydraulics, etc. (so-called APU = Auxiliary Power Unit) are shaft power drives.

The weight-saving design is usually an essential design criterion. Furthermore, the efficiency, i.e. the utilization of the fuel, plays a role, as well as low noise emissions and good maintainability.

Military technology

Gas turbines are used as drive units for various military vehicles , including the American main battle tank M1 Abrams and the Russian main battle tank T-80 (GTD series, where the designation is followed by the power in PS , e.g. GTD-1250), which, however, are equally applicable for their extremely high fuel consumption are notorious: with a compact design, gas turbines can offer a high power density, but do not achieve the efficiency of piston engines in terms of specific fuel consumption, especially under partial load .

Small gas turbines, on the other hand, have proven themselves as powerful power generators ( auxiliary power units ), which can supply the combat technology while stationary and also supply compressed air ( bleed air ) without starting the generator connected to the large traction motor . Examples are the launch ramps and missile control station of the Russian SA-4-Ganef system (launch ramps 20 kW each, control station 35 kW) in air defense units . The advantage here is the high power density and the rapid start-up at any outside temperature. The high specific fuel consumption of the turbines, usually only a few kilowatts, is accepted.

In addition to helicopters , gas turbines are also used to drive military ships such as speedboats or hovercraft .

Mechanical drive

Gas turbines are also used in pump and compressor stations in oil and natural gas pipelines.

Power generation

Gas turbines are used stationary in gas turbine power plants or gas and steam combined cycle power plants, where they generate electrical energy as a turbine set coupled with a turbo generator as the working machine . The most powerful gas turbines with up to 571 MW were developed for this application. Because of the lower power-to-weight requirements , these turbines can be made from 95% steel .

In rail transport gas turbines were singled out in the turbine set with turbogenerator technology where as diesel-electric drive , the traction motors in the bogies supplied: In the early 1940s was in Switzerland by Brown Boveri built locomotive at 4/6 with a 2200-horsepower turbine ( 1.6 MW). Typical representatives of this locomotive type were the French turbo train or the US gas turbine locomotives of the Union Pacific Railroad . The Canadian supplier Bombardier presented the JetTrain in 2002 , but with the increasing importance of specific fuel consumption in competition with increasingly efficient diesel engines, it did not find any customers.


Turbine exhaust pipes in Howmet TX

The gas turbine played no role in driving automobiles. In the 1950s, some trials of this concept were carried out on test vehicles and racing cars, with Rover being particularly prominent.

  • In 1950 the Rover JET 1 took its first test drives.
  • 1954 Fiat tested the Turbina .
  • In 1955, Austin demonstrated a 122 hp gas turbine engine in a conventional passenger car.
  • In 1963, Chrysler conducted a consumer test with the Chrysler Turbine Car .
  • 1965 drove Graham Hill and Jackie Stewart with a driven by a gas turbine Rover BRM at the 24-hour race at Le Mans on the 10th place overall.
  • 1967 was the Indianapolis 500 the Granatelli STP -Paxton Turbocar , "Silent Sam" called, just before the end of the race clearly in the lead, failed as a transmission mount. As was customary at the time for the oval, the car was asymmetrically constructed, had all-wheel drive and the turbine was installed on the left of driver Parnelli Jones .
  • In 1968 the Howmet TX won points in the World Sports Car Championship.
  • In 1968 Joe Leonard's STP- Lotus 56 achieved pole position in Indianapolis and led the race. In the three all-wheel drive wedge-shaped 56, the turbine sat behind the driver. The car was used sporadically as the 56B in the 1971 Formula 1 season .
  • 2010 Jaguar C-X75 presented at the 2010 Paris Motor Show. The car is a study and has a range of 900 km and a maximum speed of 330 km / h.


Since the production of gas turbines requires high investments (both materially and in research and development), there are only a few manufacturers of large gas turbines in the world: Siemens Sector Energy in Europe, General Electric (GE) in the USA and Mitsubishi in Japan and until 2015 also Alstom Power Systems (formerly ABB Kraftwerke). All other manufacturers are ultimately bound by licenses to one of the four named groups.

The companies Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation , General Electric, Rolls-Royce plc (RR), Pratt & Whitney (P & W), Hitachi , MAN are in the field of medium-sized gas turbines for industrial use (both for power generation and as mechanical drive machines) Diesel & Turbo , the Caterpillar subsidiary Solar Turbines and Kawasaki should be mentioned.

In the area of ​​large aircraft propulsion systems, the two US groups General Electric and Pratt & Whitney and the British Rolls-Royce plc dominate. In the area of ​​smaller drives there are manufacturers such as Honeywell International ; the Allison Engine Company is since 1995 part of Rolls-Royce North America . Due to the very high development costs for new engines, there are many aero engine programs in which several manufacturers work together on the development and manufacture of a new product. An example is the American-French joint venture CFM International , in which General Electric and Snecma are involved.

So-called micro gas turbines have been around since around 1990 . In addition to the low output in the range between 30 and 500 kW, the turbines are characterized by simple technology. The lower turbine inlet temperature allows uncooled blades. To increase the efficiency, micro gas turbines use recuperators, which preheat the compressed air with the heat of the exhaust gas before it enters the combustion chamber. This enables efficiencies of around 30 percent. The largest manufacturer is the US company Capstone. Other manufacturers are Dürr AG , Turbec, Elliot and Ingersoll-Rand .

An overview of the gas turbine types available on the German market with technical data can be found on the website of the working group for economical and environmentally friendly energy consumption .

Web links

Commons : Gas turbine  album with pictures, videos and audio files


  • C. Lechner, J. Seume (Ed.): Stationary gas turbines. Springer, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-540-42831-3 .
  • W. Bitterlich, S. Ausmeier, U. Lohmann: Gas turbines and gas turbine systems. Presentation and calculation. Teubner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-519-00384-8 .
  • Richard Wegner: A practically useful gas turbine. Attempt to solve the gas turbine problem with a fully constructed example. Volckmann, Rostock 1907.
  • Hans-Joachim Braun, Walter Kaiser: Energy industry, automation, information. Propylaeen, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-549-05636-2 , pp. 75-77. (Propylaea History of Technology, Volume 5)
  • Kamps, Thomas: Model jet engines - components, DIY, practice. Verlag für Technik und Handwerk, Baden-Baden 1996, ISBN 3-88180-071-9 .
  • Klaus L. Schulte: Small gas turbines and their applications. KLS Publishing, Cologne 2011, 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-942095-42-6 .
  • Kyrill von Gersdorff, Helmut Schubert, Stefan Erbert: The German aviation: aircraft engines and jet engines. Bernard and Graefe, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-7637-6128-9 .
  • Gas turbines in motor vehicles. In: Motor Vehicle Technology 3/1956, pp. 88–93.
  • Fritz Dietzel: Gas turbines in a nutshell. Vogel-Verlag, 1985, ISBN 978-3-8023-0065-3 .
  • Nebojsa Gasparovic: Gas Turbines. Düsseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 1974.
  • Otto Martin: steam and gas turbines. DeGruyter-Verlag, 1971, ISBN 978-3-11-114067-4 .
  • Julius Kruschik, Erwin Hüttner: The gas turbine: Your theory, construction and application for stationary systems, ship, locomotive, motor vehicle and aircraft propulsion. Springer-Verlag, 2014, ISBN 978-3-7091-8065-5 .
  • Walter Bitterlich, Sabine Ausmeier: Gas turbines and gas turbine systems: Representation and calculation. Vieweg-Teubner Verlag, 2002, ISBN 978-3-322-86481-9 .
  • Eva Wiemann, Martin Morawetz (ed.): Gas turbine manual (VDI book). Springer-Verlag 1997, reprint 2012, ISBN 978-3-642-64145-9 .
  • Rolf Kehlhofer, Norbert Kunze, J. Lehmann, K.-H. Schüller: gas turbine power plants, combined cycle power plants, thermal power plants and industrial power plants. Technical publisher Dr. Ingo Resch / Verlag TÜV Rheinland, 1994, ISBN 978-3-87806-072-7 .

as well as literature on turbo machines (-> steam turbine ), issues of the specialist journal BWK fuel - heat - power of the VDI; BBC publications

Individual evidence

  1. a b 7 million euros for gas turbine research, Collaborative Research Center of the TU Berlin from May 23, 2012, accessed on September 17, 2014
  2. Art. Helium turbine . In: Otto Ahlhaus, Gerhard Boldt, Klaus Klein (eds.): Pocket dictionary environmental protection . Schwann, Düsseldorf, 10th edition 1986, ISBN 3-590-14362-2 , p. 101.
  3. Hee Cheon No: A review of helium gas turbine technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors . Ed .: Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. January 26, 2007 ( full text on [PDF]). Full text ( memento from April 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  4. ( Memento from January 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Fleet remains on the ground, Boeing 787 in Japan, from January 16, 2013
  5. Spirals in Jet Engines - Civil Aviation Forum What is the purpose of the white spirals painted onto the center of most wing mounted jet engines? Reply 1 from DLKAPA Oct 24 2006: "Safety, so the ground crew can easily tell if the engine is running."
  6. a b Willy JG Bräunling: aircraft engines. 4th ed., 2015, p. 156 and p. 330 : Thrust nozzle and turbine, seen as internal forces, generate a negative force in the engine against the direction of thrust and thus cause a force against the direction of flight (the main direction of thrust). The compressor generates the main thrust portion, seen as an internal engine power.
  7. Gas turbine operation with heavy fuel oil (PDF).
  8. General Electric 9HA-class gas turbines
  9. ^ Austin Motor Vehicle Turbine. In: Motor Vehicle Technology 12/1959, pp. 494–495.
  10. ASUE: Gas turbine characteristics and references (as of April 2006) ( Memento from 23 August 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)