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Nokia Oyj

legal form Osakeyhtiö
(public company)
ISIN FI0009000681
founding 1865/1967
Seat Espoo , FinlandFinlandFinland 
Number of employees 98,322
sales 23.3 billion euros
Branch Network technology / telecommunications , data services
As of December 31, 2019

Nokia Oyj [ nɔkiɑ ] or Nokia Corporation is a global telecommunications company headquartered in Finland Espoo .

Nokia shares are listed on the Paris , Stockholm , Helsinki and New York stock exchanges and are included in the EURO STOXX 50 and OMX Helsinki 25 leading indices .

Nokia - originally a Finnish wood pulp manufacturer that turned into a conglomerate and from the 1970s to a telecommunications company - was considered a major mobile phone manufacturer worldwide from the early 1990s to the mid-2010s and was the market leader in this industry from 1998 to 2011. At the beginning of 2011, Nokia entered into a partnership with Microsoft for Windows -based mobile phones and on April 25, 2014 sold the entire mobile phone division for a total of over five billion euros to Microsoft, which limited the Nokia brand name to simple mobile phones from the end of 2014. In 2016, the Finnish electronics manufacturer HMD Global signed a license agreement with Nokia, bought the remaining Nokia naming rights from Microsoft Mobile and, since 2017, has exclusively been offering Nokia mobile phones worldwide, which are based on Android and produced by Foxconn .

Nokia itself has been concentrating on the telecommunications network and software sector with Nokia Networks since 2013 and on the technology sector with Nokia Technologies , which among other things launched a tablet and a VR camera in 2015 . Since the takeover of Alcatel-Lucent , which made Nokia the largest network supplier ahead of Ericsson , Huawei and ZTE , both companies have been operating under the Nokia name since January 14, 2016.

Business areas

After the sale of the mobile communications division to Microsoft and the takeover of Alcatel-Lucent, Nokia is divided into two business areas :!

  • Network business This consists of the six groups supported by Bell Labs.
    • Mobile networks
    • Fixed Networks
    • IP / Optical Networks
    • Nokia software
    • Global Services
    • Nokia Enterprise
  • Nokia Technologies
    • Radio Systems Lab
    • Media Technologies Lab
    • Sensor and Material Technologies Lab
  • Nokia Bell Labs

Company history

Nokia headquarters in Espoo

1865 to 1966: founding years and diversification

Nokia bicycle
Winter bicycle tires from Nokia

The company was founded in 1865 by the engineer Fredrik Idestam (1838–1916) in Tampere in southwest Finland and initially manufactured paper products that were exported to Russia and Great Britain. In 1868 Idestam opened a second plant in Nokia (city) not far to the west . The Nokia Aktiebolag was founded in 1871 together with Idestams college friend Leo Mechelin (1839-1914). The following years of the company's history were marked by company acquisitions, which transformed Nokia into a conglomerate. Mechelin was managing director from 1898 to 1914 and initiated the diversification of the company towards power generation . Since the beginning of the 20th century, the company has mainly produced everyday items such as rubber boots and wheel coats for wheelchairs. The name Nokia is still emblazoned on many bicycle tires today, but they are no longer produced by the company, but by Nokian Tires , a former subsidiary of Nokia - also located in the area.

1967 to 2010: Expansion and international rise

The Nokia Corporation (Nokia Oyj) was created in 1967 by the merger of Nokia Aktiebolag - the original paper mill - with the Suomen Gummitehdas (Finnish Rubber Works) and Suomen Kaapelitehdas (Finnish Cable Works). The three Finnish companies had been linked by mutual acquisitions since the 1910s and had been in one hand since 1922, after Suomen Gummitehdas had bought Nokia Ab in 1918 and Suomen Kaapelitehdas in 1922 . Nevertheless, due to the legal situation at the time, the companies remained separate. The foundation stone for the future technology company was laid with the merger in 1967, although the group's four divisions initially consisted of paper, electronics, rubber and cables. The tire manufacturer Nokian Tires , which Nokia spun off in 1988, went public in Helsinki in 1995 and sold to Bridgestone in 2003, developed from the former rubber works .

In 1975 Nokia entered into a radio joint venture with the Finnish electronics manufacturer Salora . This became Mobira Oy in 1979 . Nokia acquired the Salora stake in 1982 and renamed the business unit Nokia-Mobira Oy until it was renamed Nokia Mobile Phones in 1989 . The former partner Salora was also gradually taken over by Nokia until 1989. Nokia bought the Swedish TV manufacturer Luxor in 1984 and the French TV set manufacturer Oceanic in 1987 . In 1988, the audio-video electronics division of the former ITT subsidiary Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL) was taken over with approx. 8,000 employees and around 1.5 billion DM in sales under the brand names "ITT Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz". With its main location in Pforzheim , the division traded as Nokia-Graetz GmbH from February 2, 1988 and continued to sell color televisions, video recorders and amplifiers under the “ITT Nokia” brand for a few years until the Finnish parent company gave up its entertainment electronics business focus on cell phones.

In 1981 Scandinavia received its first NMT mobile network . From 1982 Nokia manufactured the first portable car telephones for this network with the Mobira Senator , which weighed almost 10 kilograms . The Nokia management initially viewed the mobile phone division as a gimmick. In 1987, Nokia produced the first truly portable mobile phone, the Mobira Cityman 900 . In the mid-1980s Nokia had around 30,000 employees in one hundred subsidiaries and generated sales of five billion D-Marks. After the GSM standard was introduced in 1987, Nokia presented the Nokia 1011 in 1992 , a mobile phone weighing almost 500 grams.

Between 1981 and 1987 Nokia introduced a range of microcomputers and laptops under the name MikroMikko . In 1988 Nokia bought the PC business from Ericsson Information Systems and from then on called this business unit Nokia Data , based in Stockholm. In 1991 Nokia sold the PC division to the British International Computers Limited (ICL). ICL was again bought by Fujitsu in 1990 , which in 1999 together with Siemens Fujitsu Siemens Computers was created.

From the late 1990s at the latest, Nokia enjoyed a worldwide reputation as a manufacturer of high-quality mobile phones. The six business areas in the late 1980s were telecommunications, consumer electronics, cables and machinery, data processing, cell phones and industry. The paper, rubber, floor coverings and ventilation systems divisions had already been parted with.

In 1998 Nokia co-founded Symbian Ltd. under the leadership of Psion to develop a new operating system for PDAs and smartphones as the successor to EPOC32 . They released the Nokia 9210 Communicator with Symbian OS in 2001 and created the Symbian Series 60 platform that same year , which they later introduced with their first camera phone , the Nokia 7650 . Both Nokia and Symbian eventually became the largest manufacturers of smartphone hardware and software. and in February 2004 Nokia became the largest shareholder in Symbian Ltd. Nokia acquired the entire company in June 2008 and created the Symbian Foundation as its successor.

In 1998, 41 million Nokia cell phones were sold worldwide, overtaking its competitor Motorola. Nokia sales grew 50%, profits soared 75%, and its share price climbed 220%, bringing Nokia's market cap to around $ 70 billion.

In 2005 Nokia developed a Linux -based Maemo operating system , which was first marketed in the same year with the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet.

By the mid-2000s, the company sold almost all other business areas and focused on the cell phone business.

On August 31, 2006 the takeover of the Berlin start-up company gate5 AG was announced. The takeover marks a clear correction in the corporate strategy, as the group has now positioned itself as a software producer in the area of ​​navigation solutions and other geospatial services. The new direction was underpinned with the purchase of the Navteq company in 2007.

On April 1, 2007, the network divisions of Nokia and Siemens were merged to form the joint venture Nokia Siemens Networks . This created the world's third largest telecommunications supplier behind Alcatel-Lucent and Ericsson- Marconi. In 2007 Nokia achieved a profit of 7.2 billion euros.

In December 2008, Nokia sold the security technology division to Check Point for an undisclosed amount. The area offered a range of firewall and VPN products with their own IPSO operating system .

In 2008 the controversial closure of the Bochum site in Germany took place. 2300 jobs were lost as a result. In the same year sales slumped in Germany.

2011 to 2013: decline and sale of the mobile phone division

After Nokia had been the world's largest mobile phone manufacturer from 1998 to 2011, the company was replaced by Samsung in the first quarter of 2012 with an estimated market share of 25.4%; Nokia still had 22.5% and Apple 9.5% market share. The market share has thus fallen by more than a third since 2008. The reason for this was that Nokia reacted too late to the upheaval in the mobile communications market that began with the introduction of the iPhone in 2007 and was unable to follow the subsequent rise of the smartphone from a niche to a mass product.

Nokia's profit amounted to 1.85 billion euros in the 2010 financial year after 891 million euros in the previous year. 2011 ended with an after-tax loss of EUR 1.073 billion.

The Canadian and former Microsoft top manager Stephen Elop replaced the Finn Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo at the top of the group on September 21, 2010 , who had held this position since October 1, 2005. His predecessor in office was Jorma Ollila from 1992 to 2006 .

In order to be able to assert itself in the smartphone market, Nokia decided on a strategic alliance: In February 2011, the new corporate management announced that Nokia would equip its smartphones with the Microsoft Windows Phone operating system in the future . Until then, Nokia had unsuccessfully relied on its own Symbian development . On October 26, 2011, Nokia presented the Lumia 800, the first smartphone with Windows Phone 7.5, at the Nokia World in- house exhibition in London . In the meantime, the group had lost further ground in the field of smartphones as a result of the restrained pace of innovation: while it still held a market share of 36.4 percent in 2009, according to information from the IT market research company Gartner, in 2010 only 28.4 percent of all mobile phones sold worldwide came from Nokia .

Despite falling market shares, especially for smartphones, Nokia was able to continuously increase its sales figures until the end of 2010 and was profitable in this business area. But since the first quarter of 2011, sales of Nokia phones with Symbian began to collapse, especially for smartphones.

In the first quarter of 2012 the group had to announce a loss of 929 million euros. As a consequence, Nokia announced that it would cut up to 10,000 jobs by 2013, for example in Burnaby , Canada , Salo , Finland and the German research location Ulm . Nokia planned to move much of its smartphone manufacturing from its existing manufacturing facilities in Europe and Mexico to Asia.

The 2012 financial year ended with a loss of EUR 2.303 billion, with a profit of EUR 202 million being reported in the fourth quarter of 2012 with sales of EUR 8.04 billion.

From October 2012, Nokia's CEO Stephen Elop officially pursued the goal of making Nokia the leading provider of geospatial services with the map service Here . In partnership with Microsoft, Nokia made its map services available on devices with the Windows Phone operating system. In addition, corresponding usage agreements were concluded with the online retailer and the discount coupon provider Groupon . Most recently, Nokia was able to win over the enterprise software group Oracle for its map services.

Based on the information as of February 19, 2013, the following distribution of shares existed:

company number of stocks in %
Dodge & Cox Inc. 0.241,074,318 06.4
Capital Research and Management Company 0.082,612,674 02.2
Free float 3,421,307,350 91.4

In 2013 Nokia had permanent production facilities for network and entertainment technology worldwide in Brazil ( Manaus ), China ( Dongguan and Beijing ), Hungary ( Komárom ), India ( Chennai ), Mexico ( Reynosa ), South Korea ( Masan ) and Vietnam ( Hanoi ) and Germany for the development of mobile phones and accessories as well as service in Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Poland, Mexico, Italy, South Korea and the USA. According to its own information, Nokia had an average of over 95,800 employees worldwide in the first quarter of 2013.

On July 1, 2013, Nokia announced that it would take over Nokia Siemens Networks for € 1.7 billion. After the takeover, Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) first became Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and finally, on April 29, 2014, Nokia Networks . Nokia Networks includes the Ultra Broadband Networks (Mobile & Fixed Network ) and IP Networks & Nokia Software divisions .

On September 3, 2013, Nokia announced its plan to sell the entire mobile phone division for the equivalent of 5.4 billion euros (3.79 billion euros plus 1.65 billion euros for patent licenses) to Microsoft and to focus primarily on the network business and its future Focus on map services. The company boss Stephen Elop resigned and soon after became head of the mobile phone division at Microsoft. The shareholders approved the takeover in November 2013.

2014 to 2018: networks and technology

On April 25, 2014, Microsoft took over Nokia's mobile phone division. In the course of the sale, Nokia moved its headquarters to the headquarters of the subsidiary Nokia Networks , also located in Espoo , while the previous headquarters were transferred to Microsoft Mobile .

On April 29, 2014, Rajeev Suri , previously head of the subsidiary Nokia Solutions and Networks , was appointed CEO of the rest of the group. He officially took up this post on May 1, 2014.

On July 17, 2014, Microsoft informed the public that approximately 12,500 of the 25,000 Nokia employees it had taken over would be laid off. The Finnish Finance Minister Antti Rinne then told the Kauppalehti newspaper that Finland had been deliberately deceived.

Talks between Nokia and the French Alcatel-Lucent were already held in 2013 regarding a merger of the two technology groups as part of Nokia's future focus on the network division. These talks were resumed in autumn 2014.

On October 24, 2014, it was officially confirmed that, due to the limited-term license to use the Nokia name, Microsoft is beginning to change the brand to give up the Windows Phone brand and replace the Nokia name with Microsoft .

In November 2014, Nokia Technologies announced the Nokia N1 Android tablet, manufactured by Foxconn under a license agreement , which was initially sold in China from January 2015 and also in Taiwan from mid-2015. According to the contract with Microsoft, Nokia was not allowed to bring smartphones to the market until the end of 2015 and no simple cell phones until 2024; this agreement did not apply to tablets.

2015 : At the beginning of 2015 , Microsoft announced the immediate closure of the previous Nokia factories in Beijing and Dongguan and the relocation of part of the plants to Vietnam, affecting 9,000 employees. Microsoft later announced the complete dissolution of the former Nokia mobile phone division and the layoff of the remaining 7,800 employees. In the future, cell phones should be manufactured by other manufacturers. For the group this meant a write-off in the billions.

Nokia announced on April 15, 2015 that it wanted to take over the network equipment supplier Alcatel-Lucent for around 15.6 billion euros in shares.

On April 30, 2015 it was announced that Nokia's sales in the first quarter of 2015 had increased year-on-year - also thanks to more favorable exchange rates - by 20 percent to 3.2 billion euros. The profit amounted to 177 million euros; a year ago there was a loss of 239 million euros.

In August 2015, the Here map service was sold to the German car groups Daimler, Audi and BMW. This business was acquired in 2007 from the American geospatial -Anbieter Navteq previously and from this acquired online - directions Map24 emerged. Nokia mobile phones with built-in GPS receivers offered free offline navigation via the Nokia Maps software . In August 2013, the map service covered 196 countries. According to their own statements, 1 billion mobile devices - such as smartphones or tablet PCs - as well as navigation systems use map data from Here and Navteq.

In May 2015 Nokia Technologies announced the entry into the Virtual Reality segment. Under the name Nokia Ozo , a 360 ° camera for professional filmmakers was presented in November 2015, the list price of which was reduced from initially 60,000 US dollars in August 2016 to 45,000 dollars.

2016 - 2018: On January 4, 2016, it was announced that Nokia had been offered approximately 80 percent of Alcatel Lucent shares. The corresponding shares were exchanged for new Nokia shares on January 6, 2016; at the same time Nokia was included in the CAC 40 , where it replaced Alcatel-Lucent. Since January 14, 2016, the two companies have appeared together under the name Nokia, and the name Alcatel-Lucent disappeared. Bell Laboratories , based in Murray Hill (New Jersey), are part of this takeover . These go back to Alexander Graham Bell and are the world's largest private research institute for communication technology. Lucent was founded in 1996 through the spin-off of Bell Labs from AT&T . Alcatel, in turn, merged with Lucent in 2006.

After the sale of the mobile phone division to Microsoft, Nokia added the product range of digital health products for the end customer business under the name Nokia Health . In order not to have to build up the new division from scratch, the company took over the French manufacturer Withings, founded in 2008, for 170 million euros . The Finnish company wanted to expand the Withings range , but discontinued the Aura sleep system immediately after the takeover. In addition to activity trackers and fitness watches , the Withings product range also includes body fat scales , thermometers and blood pressure monitors as well as a digital health platform. A change in the Withings app by Nokia caused a lot of annoyance among customers and in some cases the Withings devices did not function properly. In early 2018, Nokia removed pulse wave measurement from its scales. The new division was headed by Cédric Hutchings, the previous Withings CEO . In spring 2018, Nokia sold the loss-making digital health division, on whose goodwill Nokia had written off around 141 million euros in 2017 , for an estimated 30 million euros to Withings co-founder Eric Carreel, who will continue the company under its original company name.

In September 2018 it was announced that Nokia was selling its IP video streaming business to the Canadian software company Volaris Group. In return, Nokia receives a minority stake in Volaris.


Among other things, Nokia supplies the 5G network infrastructure for Salt Mobile .

Indirect re-entry into the cell phone market

At least as a licensed brand, Nokia returned to the mobile phone business in 2016. Nokia had plans to return to the mobile phone business with partners since 2015.

HMD Global logo

As a precautionary measure, Nokia transferred the exclusive rights to the Nokia name for smartphones, cell phones and tablets to the newly founded HMD Global , also based in Espoo, Finland , in May 2016 . Shortly thereafter, Microsoft announced that it would withdraw from the cell phone business entirely. The Nokia trademark rights were finally returned to Nokia from Microsoft at the end of 2016. HMD Global was founded by former Nokia executives and pays license fees to Nokia Technologies for the use of the brand name. Nokia itself is not financially involved in HMD Global, but received a seat on its supervisory board. HMD Global chose Foxconn as the contract manufacturer for the production, sale and distribution of the new Nokia devices , which Microsoft bought the so-called feature phone business with simple mobile phones including the manufacturing facility in Hanoi and other naming rights for a total of 350 million dollars in 2016. New Nokia phones from HMD Global - in addition to smartphones, retro versions of popular Nokia models from earlier years - have been available since the beginning of 2017.

At the beginning of February 2017, Nokia announced that it would buy the Finnish OSS specialist Comptel, founded in 1986, for 347 million euros.

Nokia by region

Nokia in Germany

Former Nokia production facility in Bochum
A d-box 1 (digital satellite receiver) from Nokia
A Nokia clock radio

In Germany, Nokia took over the Schaub Lorenz brand as Nokia-Graetz GmbH in March 1988 with the audio-video division of Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (SEL) and its 8,000 employees , which in 1955 was replaced by the SEL predecessor C. Lorenz AG from Berlin and G. Schaub Apparatebau from Pforzheim , which she took over in 1940 . The takeover also included the Graetz factory in Bochum (TV production), a woodworks in Geroldsgrün and the picture tube factory in Esslingen am Neckar . The factory in Bochum became the Nokia factory in Bochum , where Nokia Unterhaltungselektronik (Deutschland) GmbH initially continued to build televisions and satellite receivers and from 1989 onwards produced cell phones. On April 1st, 1988 Nokia Data Deutschland GmbH was founded. At the beginning of the 1990s, Nokia acquired parts of what was then Philips Communication Industry GmbH in Germany. a. Fiber optic cables were manufactured.

All business areas have been operating under Nokia GmbH since 1999 . In 2007, a total of 33 million cell phones were sold in Germany, corresponding to a share of the world market (1.13 billion units) of three percent. About 40 percent of these devices were manufactured by Nokia.

Of around 4,500 jobs in Germany, including 3,000 at the Bochum site, one in ten jobs was to be cut in 2001. At the same time, temporary workers were hired.

On January 15, 2008 Nokia announced the closure of the Nokia plant in Bochum in order to relocate production abroad, mainly to the Nokia plant in Cluj in Romania, but also to Hungary and Finland. The Prime Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia, Jürgen Rüttgers , used the term “subsidy grasshopper” as a criticism in a comment. The Nokia plant in Bochum was closed on June 30, 2008 after tough negotiations and great media interest.

In the first seven months of 2008, sales in Germany slumped by over 18 percent, and the market share fell from 44 percent in the previous year to just 36 percent. During the same period, the market share in Western Europe fell by just two percent, and worldwide it rose to 40 percent. These numbers are rated in various business media as a consequence of the damage to the company's image resulting from the plant closure in Bochum.

On June 14, 2012, Nokia announced the closure of the research and development site in Ulm with over 700 employees by the end of 2012, but this was not completed by 2019.

On November 19, 2013, the shareholders' meeting decided to move the headquarters from Bochum to Ratingen . With the takeover of the mobile phone division, Nokia GmbH also became a subsidiary of Microsoft .

Nokia Solutions and Networks is headquartered in Germany in Munich. Of the approx. 4800 jobs in Germany (as of 2016), Nokia plans to cut approx. 1400 by 2018.

Nokia in France

On June 22, 2020 Nokia announced the cut of 1,233 jobs. Operations in the greater Paris area and Brittany are particularly affected in the areas of R&D and central administration. The reason given is a cost reduction program that began in 2018.

Nokia in Romania

From 2008 to 2012, Nokia produced at the Nokia Cluj plant .

In November 2011 , the Romanian state seized the Nokia Cluj plant as security for tax debts of US $ 10 million. The seizure was intended to prevent Nokia from selling the property before the debt was settled. In December 2011 Nokia paid the tax debt.

Nokia cell phones

UMTS mobile phone 6280 from Nokia
The Nokia 7110 was the first WAP- enabled mobile phone in 1999
Nokia 3310

Mobile phones

Nokia mobile phones have been built by or on behalf of three manufacturers over the years:

  • by Nokia itself (1987/1992 to 2014)
  • from Microsoft (2014 to 2016)
  • from HMD Global and Foxconn (since 2017)

Nokia Nokia presented a mobile phone for the first time in 1987 under the name Mobira Cityman 900 . Nokia's first GSM mobile phone was launched in 1992 as the Nokia 1011 (named after its November 10th release date).

Until the end of 2011, Nokia used a numbering scheme as the model name for the following cell phones, which was not consistently followed, but was used for orientation and comparison. The number was usually made up of four digits:

  • The first digit categorized the telephone, the following digits could in many cases be used as an indicator for certain functions or product variations.
  • The second digit often differentiated the design of the model, but also the functionality. In the past, the generation was basically differentiated by the second digit, e.g. B. 6110 - 6210 - 6310, 3110 - 3210 - 3310 - 3410.
  • The third digit used to distinguish the possible network: 6110 D-Netz (900 MHz), 6130 E-Netz (1800 MHz), 6150 dual band. This distinction no longer existed later, as all cell phones were at least dual-band capable. Later, the third digit on some devices showed the generation, for example the 6210 was no longer a pure D-Netz model. The 6220 was followed by the further developed 6230 and the 6230i. However, the 6220 was not a further development of the 6210.
  • The fourth digit - mostly "0" - usually denotes the features of the model. In contrast to the 6680, the 6681 lacks UMTS and a second camera, while the 6021 has no camera, unlike the 6020, but has Bluetooth .

Some models had an i added as the fifth digit . This indicated an improvement on the previous model, e.g. B. 6310 - 6310i, 6610 - 6610i, 6230 - 6230i and as the newest representative the N93i. The aim of this measure was to adapt a particularly successful model to the state of the art and to continue to use it in the program.

The model number is usually pronounced in two parts, e.g. B. 6210 as "sixty-two-ten" or 9300 as "ninety-three-zero-zero", whereby device digits ending with "00" (e.g. the 9300) are often pronounced "ninety-three-hundred". Models with a “0” in third place are pronounced “sixty-two-one” or “sixty-two-zero-one” as in the example of the 6201.

  • 9xxx (Communicator Series): Communicator series . Large, foldable smartphones with full keyboard
  • 8xxx (Premium / Design Series): Exclusive and noble design, top price segment
  • 7xxx (Fashion / Experimental Series): So-called "Fashion Phones". Unusual shapes and designs. New functions are usually implemented first in this series, for example in the Nokia 7110 (first WAP- enabled mobile phone).
  • 6xxx (Classic Business Series): Model series for mainly business use. Simple, functional design and muted colors. ( Nokia 6150 , Nokia 6210, Nokia 6230 / Nokia 6230i, Nokia 6310, Nokia 6610, Nokia 6680, ...)
  • 5xxx (Active Series): Formerly entry-level devices, then outdoor models (Nokia 5110 / Nokia 5140), now telephones with a focus on a specialty (e.g. Nokia 5500 Sport or Nokia 5800 XpressMusic)
  • 3xxx (Youth Expression Series): Formerly prepaid devices, currently mid-range models ( Nokia 3210 , Nokia 3310 / Nokia 3330, Nokia 3410, Nokia 3510)
  • 2xxx (Basic Expression Series): Simple models, some with a camera
  • 1xxx (Ultrabasic Series): Simple models without a large range of functions and with a long battery life
  • N-Gage: Includes the models of the N-Gage mobile game console

Since 2010 the four-digit naming convention has been considered obsolete. Instead, Nokia relied on a new strategy made up of the four core categories Eseries, Nseries, Cseries and Xseries with an ascending sequence of numbers and an additional suffix. The functional classification in the portfolio was based on the importance of the number.

From 2006 to 2011:

  • Nseries (Explore): Series for multimedia and high-end smartphones
  • Eseries (Achieve): Series for business smartphones
  • Xseries (Live): Series for telephones with special musical characteristics
  • Cseries : Series for telephones with a focus on connectivity

Nokia / Microsoft With the Nokia 500 smartphone, which was introduced in August 2011, a three-digit model numbering began. In autumn 2011, Nokia presented the Nokia Lumia series with three-digit model numbers (or four-digit for phablet models), which was taken over by Microsoft in 2014, continued in the same year as Microsoft Lumia (without the Nokia brand name ) and finally discontinued in early 2016. Between the end of 2014 and the end of 2016, Microsoft only launched so-called feature phones with three-digit model numbering under the brand name Nokia (Nokia 1xx, 2xx).

HMD Global launched smartphones with one-digit numbers and single-digit phones with three or four-digit names on the market from 2017.

From 2011 to 2014

  • Nokia 500, Nokia 700 (as successor to Cseries and predecessor to Lumia)
Nokia 808 PureView, the last Nokia smartphone with the Symbian operating system


Since 2013:

  • Nokia Series 30+ models (Nokia: 108, 220, 225; Microsoft: 130, 215, 105, 222, 230, 216)

HMD Global

Nokia 6.1 (2018)
Nokia 9 PureView (2019)

Since 2017:

  • Simple phones (Series 30+): Nokia 150 (Dec 2016), Nokia 130 (2017), Nokia 105 (2017)
  • Retro classics: Nokia 3310 (2G, 3G, 2017; 4G, 2018), Nokia 8110 4G (KaiOS, 2018)
  • Entry-level models: Nokia 1 (2018), Nokia 2 (2017), Nokia 2.1 (2018), Nokia 3 (2017), Nokia 3.1 (2018), Nokia 3.1 Plus (2018), Nokia 3.2 (2019), Nokia 4.2 (2019)
  • Mid-range models: Nokia 5 (2017), Nokia 5.1 (2018), Nokia 5.1 Plus (2018), Nokia 6 (2017), Nokia 6.1 (2018), Nokia 6.1 Plus (2018; also as Nokia X6), Nokia 7 (2017) , Nokia 7.1 (2018), Nokia 7 plus (2018), Nokia 7.1 Plus (2018)
  • Premium models : Nokia 8 (2017), Nokia 8 Sirocco (2018), Nokia 8.1 (2018; corresponds to Nokia 7.1 Plus), Nokia 8.1 Plus (2019; also Nokia X71), Nokia 9 PureView (2019)

Hardware and software

The original Nokia cell phones were charged by a proprietary charger that used two types of connectors (3.5mm and 2mm). In general, any Nokia phone could be charged with almost any Nokia charger that used the same connector. Later models use the micro-USB port or a USB Type-C port as a charging socket.

In contrast to other manufacturers, with Nokia it was mostly possible to replace not only the battery , but also the display , housing parts and the keyboard .

Former operating systems

Current operating systems

  • Series 30+: proprietary Nokia OS
  • Android: Since February 2014
  • Feature OS: Operating system for simple cell phones (used in Nokia 3310 3G)
  • Smart Feature OS powered by KaiOS: Operating system for simple cell phones (used in Nokia 8110 4G)

The REX (Real-Time Executive) developed by Qualcomm was used as the operating system in certain mobile phones for the CDMA network . The phones manufactured by Nokia exclusively for the network operator Verizon Wireless were equipped with the Verizon Wireless UI as a user interface.

In February 2011 Nokia announced that it would equip future smartphones with the Windows Phone operating system from Microsoft. In return, Nokia receives approx. $ 1 billion to develop and promote Microsoft. The presentation of the first Nokia models with Windows Phone 7.5 at Nokia World 2011 on October 26, 2011 was largely received positively.

End of February 2012, Nokia introduced the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona with the model Nokia 808 PureView smartphone with a 41 megapixel camera and Carl Zeiss lens in front, which was based on the operating system Symbian Belle Feature Pack with the first In October 2012, Nokia released Feature Pack 2 for the Symbian Belle operating system. The Nokia 808 PureView was the last Nokia smartphone with the Symbian operating system .

In addition to mobile phones, Nokia also offered other products at times, such as: From the end of 2009, for example, the Nokia Booklet 3G announced two years earlier , a netbook with Windows 7 as the operating system.


In 2009 Nokia put pressure on the Finnish government to pass a law that would allow companies to monitor employee electronic communications. This form of employee monitoring has been criticized by the Finnish police, among others, who viewed this measure as a form of transferring “official powers”. Nokia threatened that if the law was rejected, it would leave Finland. The law, called "Lex Nokia" by the media, was passed on March 4, 2009.

The joint venture Nokia Siemens Networks was also criticized for the delivery of surveillance systems to Iran , as these were used to curtail freedom of expression , to suppress protests after the Iranian presidential elections in 2009 and to persecute political opposition groups. Many other countries that are not democracies are also customers of this group.

The author Frank Piasecki Poulsen went in search of coltan mines in the Congo and researched how the important minerals for cell phone production are mined there under inhumane conditions. In his documentary “Bloody Cell Phones”, he confronts Nokia with the accusation of putting its own profitability before social responsibility for publishing the supply chain , as recommended by human rights organizations. The film's criticism relates to the entire industry, in which the author describes Nokia as "rather [as] a pioneer" in matters of sustainability. An electronics manufacturer ranking by Greenpeace, in which Nokia took third place, supported this statement.

After a lot of criticism in Germany when the plant in Bochum was closed in 2008 and production was relocated to Romania, Nokia decided just three years after completion to also close the plant in Romania in order to move production to Asia for further cost savings to relocate. This led to fierce criticism from the Romanian regional administration, as the construction on a remote arable area was only supported by subsidies worth millions from the Romanian state (e.g. connection to the electricity, water and road networks). The Romanian state then announced that it would check whether the million payments could be reclaimed.


  • The signal tone for short messages “Special” is the Morse code for SMS . Similarly, the ascending tone is the Morse code for “Connecting People” , Nokia's slogan.
  • The ringtone " Nokia Tune " is based on a guitar work called "Gran Vals" by the Spanish musician Francisco Tárrega from the 19th century. This is why this ringtone was originally called "Gran Vals" on Nokia mobile phones , and it was only in 1998 that it was renamed "Nokia Tune". Nokia still claims it is a sound mark . Nokia used this ringtone as an audio logo in all of its cell phones and in most of its TV commercials .
\ relative {\ clef treble \ key a \ major \ time 3/4 e''8 d8 f sharp, 4 g sharp4 c sharp8 b8 d, 4 e4 b'8 a8 c sharp, 4 e a2.  }
Nokia ringtone . Excerpt from “Gran Vals” by Francisco Tárrega

Web links

Commons : Nokia  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Nokia  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Nokia in 2019. (PDF) AR2019. Nokia, accessed June 22, 2020 .
  2. ^ Board of Directors. Nokia, accessed June 22, 2020 .
  3. a b Microsoft buys Nokia's smartphone business.
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