The NHK ( Jap. 日本放送協会 , literally Japanese broadcasting company . English Japan Broadcasting Corporation ), in Japanese with the Latin letters NHK (enu eichi kei) abbreviated, is the only public law organized broadcasting company in Japan . It operates several nationwide television and radio programs and an extensive overseas service called NHK World (Radio Japan / NHK World TV) . NHK charges broadcasting fees. Its headquarters are in Shibuya , Tokyo Prefecture . The legal basis for NHK is the Broadcasting Act ( 放送 法 , Hōsō-hō ) of 1950. It is organized as a semi-state company ( Japanese 特殊 法人 , tokushu hōjin , literally: special corporation). The chairman (kaichō) has been Ryōichi Ueda since January 2017 .
The Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai was created on New Year's 1926 from the merger of the Tokyo radio station ( Tōkyō Hōsōkyoku , 東京 放送 局 , founded 1924), whose first president was Gotō Shimpei , with those in Nagoya and Osaka. The first radio broadcast in Japan came in 1925.
In 1948, the NHK began public television test broadcasts, which were broadcast regularly from 1950. On February 1, 1953, the NHK was the first broadcaster to start regular television broadcasting operations, with the necessary equipment being designed by the NHK itself. At the start date there were 866 reception contracts, with about half of these viewers being radio amateurs with self-made television receivers. Initially there were only transmitters in Tokyo , Nagoya and Osaka that were connected to each other via microwave radio . In 1956 this already included major cities across the country.
In contrast to the German-speaking area, where competition from the private sector did not arise until decades later, the first Japanese private broadcaster Nippon TV went on air on August 28, 1953.
On January 10, 1959, the second NHK broadcaster NHK Kyōiku Television ( NHK 教育 テ レ ビ ジ ョ ン , NHK Kyōiku Terebishon , English NHK Educational TV ) followed.
The station produces two nationwide full terrestrial television programs: Sōgō terebi ( 総 合 テ レ ビ , about "general television", English NHK General TV , short: NHK G) on channel 1 (Tokyo) and Kyōiku Terebi ( 教育 テ レ ビ , "educational television", short: E テ レ , ī tere , English NHK Educational TV , short: NHK E) on channel 3 (Tokyo). General TV is the main channel of NHK, which mainly broadcasts news and entertainment programs. The main program of NHK is supplemented by regional news and reports at certain broadcast times. These are fed in from NHK studios in the regions or prefectures of Japan . 80 percent of the program of the station Educational TV consists of educational programs. These are aimed primarily at a younger audience.
NHK broadcasts two more full programs via the BS satellite : BS1 and BS Premium ( BS プ レ ミ ア ム ). The former BS2 and BS-hi channels were merged to BS Premium in April 2011 . BS1's focus is on news broadcasts and live sports events. The BS Premium channel primarily broadcasts culture and entertainment programs.
A self-produced news program is broadcast every hour. There is also the "time for the news from abroad", composed of news programs from BBC , ZDF , RTR , France 2 , TVE , Al Jazeera , KBS , CCTV , ABC (USA) and CNN , which are each broadcast in two languages.
While the satellite programs BS1 and BS Premium are often fed into cable networks, NHK General TV and NHK Educational TV are exclusively terrestrial - with the exception of the prefectures of Iwate , Miyagi and Fukushima , where they have only been available digitally via ISDB-T since July 2011 - and received via cable television. It should be noted here that the feed of digital satellite television into the cable network often takes place with a reduction in the data rate.
NHK produces three radio programs: NHK Radio 1 , NHK Radio 2 (both on medium wave) and NHK-FM (on ultra-short wave; in many parts of the country receivers with the country-specific frequency range are required).
NHK World-Japan TV
NHK World TV is the multilingual international broadcaster of NHK, which can be received free of charge worldwide via the PanAmSat 8,9,10 satellites . This station mainly broadcasts news and documentaries. In addition, NHK also offers the pay-TV channel NHK World Premium on the above-mentioned satellites , which can be subscribed to worldwide outside of Europe and the USA. In Europe, the news channel NHK World TV can be received unencrypted via the Astra 1M satellite since the end of September 2008 ; In Germany, NHK World TV is also broadcast unencrypted in the cable network of Unitymedia , NetCologne and wilhelm.tel .
In addition, there is JSTV for the European market and TV Japan for the US market . The program consists of the programs of the two NHK and private broadcasters such as Fuji TV . The NHK news programs are broadcast live on JSTV and unencrypted like individual other international programs of the NHK, the evening NHK main news programs News 7 , Newswatch 9 and some weekly programs are broadcast with English synchronization on a second audio channel.
A live stream is also available on the NHK website.
NHK World Radio Japan
The NHK international service offers an informative program in Japanese and English in its General Service (known speaker: Hirokazu Sakamaki). Other foreign language programs , in nearly 20 different languages, are aimed primarily at listeners in Asia and Europe . Radio Japan also broadcast in German from 1937 to 2007. Most recently, 30 minutes of programs were broadcast in German twice a day. The offers in German, Swedish, Italian and Malay ended on September 30, 2007. A well-known German speaker was Friedrich Greil .
Shortwave transmission systems are currently used in Yamata, Koga as well as transmission systems from Radio Africa No. 1 in Gabon , Canada , French Guiana , as well as transmission systems from Merlin-Communications , the operator of the BBC transmission systems, in Great Britain , Singapore and the Ascension Islands. From 2008 onwards, broadcasts were also carried out for a few months via the now closed transmission system in Wertachtal . Since the broadcasts from Lithuania were discontinued, the Nauen station has been used for Europe and the Middle East. The program can also be heard via a live stream and as audio on demand .
International radio is increasingly taking a back seat to international television . NHK primarily targets an English-speaking audience abroad. In Germany, the television program has been fed into the Unitymedia cable networks since November 2017 . Since the beginning of the 2018 summer schedule, there are only three daily programs in English instead of the previous five.
NHK has 54 regional broadcasting studios and 14 branches across the country. There is a studio in each of Japan's 47 prefectures . There are also six other studios in Hokkaidō Prefecture and another in Fukuoka . The broadcaster divides Japan into eight regions, in each of which a regional studio is responsible as a base ( 地域 拠 点 局 , chiiki kyotenkyoku ). The regional windows on NHK television, e.g. B. in the news broadcasts, are twofold: First the "base studio" sends messages for the entire greater region, then the local studio sends the prefectural news. The eight studios and associated regions are: Sapporo for Hokkaido, Sendai for Tohoku , the NHK broadcasting center in Shibuya for Kanto - Kōshin'etsu , Nagoya for Tōkai - Hokuriku , Osaka to Kansai , Hiroshima for Chūgoku , Matsuyama for Shikoku and Fukuoka on Kyushu with Okinawa . Instead of prefectural broadcasts, a joint broadcast ( 広 域 放送 , kōiki hōsō ) is broadcast for several prefectures in the three largest metropolitan areas Kantō, Chūkyō and Kinki .
NHK is financed almost exclusively by license fees ( 受 信 料 , jushinryō ) for Japanese viewers. The legal basis for this source of income is Article 64 of the Broadcasting Act. This obliges every Japanese household that can receive NHK programs via installed devices to pay fees. Currently, the annual fee is 14,160 yen (€ 113) for households without satellite and 24,650 yen (€ 197) for households with satellite, but in Okinawa Prefecture it is 12,440 (€ 99) and 22,930 yen (€ 183), respectively. For standing orders , there is a discount of 560 yen (€ 4). In October 2012, for the first time since 1968, the fees were reduced by 750 or 870 yen, which was mainly due to the new digital distribution options.
The total income from license fees is between 650 and 700 billion yen annually (approx. 6.7 to 7.2 billion euros). Income from other sources, such as the provision of programs or financial income, accounts for less than five percent of total income annually. In fiscal 2012, of the total revenue of 649 billion yen, only 22 billion yen came from sources other than license fees. That corresponds to around 3.4 percent.
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- NHK World Radio Japan, English Service (2017)
- Kai Ludwig: NHK for Germany in English. In: Radio News. RBB Radio Eins, May 23, 2018, accessed May 25, 2018 .
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