Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (born December 1, 1884 in Rottluff (now a district of Chemnitz ), † August 10, 1976 in Berlin ; actually Karl Schmidt ) was a German painter , graphic artist and sculptor . He is considered a classic of modernism and one of the most important representatives of Expressionism .
life and work
Schmidt's father was the mill owner Friedrich Schmidt. Karl Schmidt was born in the residential building of the mill in Rottluff near Chemnitz ( Saxony ) and has been called Schmidt-Rottluff since 1905. From 1905 to 1906 he studied architecture at the Technical University of Dresden .
Artist group Brücke
On June 7, 1905, the artist group Brücke was founded in Dresden by the architecture students Schmidt-Rottluff, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Fritz Bleyl and Erich Heckel . In November, the Brücke's first exhibition followed in an art dealership in Leipzig. In 1907 the Hamburg art historian Rosa Schapire asked for admission as a passive member. Schmidt-Rottluff, whom she held in high esteem, painted portraits of her in 1911, 1915 and 1919. The painter Max Pechstein , who was the only one of the group to be fully trained, joined the group, but was excluded when it turned out that he was also a member of the Berlin Secession . In 1913 the bridge dissolved.
Other artist groups
In 1910 Schmidt-Rottluff took part in the exhibitions of the New Secession in Berlin, in 1912 in the second exhibition of the Blue Rider in Munich and in the Sonderbund exhibition in Cologne. In 1914, one year after the "Brücke" was dissolved, he became a member of the Free Secession in Berlin and had his first solo exhibition there. During the First World War he was a reinforcement soldier in Lithuania and Russia from 1915 to 1918.
After the First World War
After the end of the war, he married Emy Frisch in 1919 . Along with Rosa Schapire and Wilhelm Niemeyer , he designed the expressionist publication The red earth and 1920/21, the magazine for art promulgation .
At first, Schmidt-Rottluff's work was clearly influenced by Impressionism . North German and Scandinavian landscapes often appear as motifs. In 1911 the painter moved from Dresden to Berlin. Geometric forms thus took up more space in his work, from 1923 round, curved forms. In 1931 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff was appointed as a member of the Prussian Academy of the Arts , from which he was, however, forced to resign two years later by Max von Schillings . In 1932 he moved to Rumbke am Lebasee in Western Pomerania .
Prohibition and destruction of images
As a member of the Deutscher Künstlerbund since 1927 (from 1928 on the inner board, then also a member of the jury) Karl Schmidt Rottluff took part in the last DKB annual exhibition in 1936 at the Hamburger Kunstverein . Two oil paintings were shown: Snowy Stream and Evening by the Stream (1932; 91 × 124 cm). In 1937 Schmidt-Rottluff's works (608 works) were confiscated as “ Degenerate Art ” in German museums , and some of them were then shown in the “Degenerate Art” exhibition. When the painting was burned on March 20, 1939 in the courtyard of the main fire station in Berlin , several of his works were destroyed. In 1941 he was expelled from the professional association and was banned from painting.
In September 1942 Schmidt-Rottluff was a guest of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke at Kreisau Castle in Kreisau in Lower Silesia. There he painted - despite the painting ban imposed on him in 1941 - numerous landscapes, in particular the view over the park and the arable land to the mountain Zobten . Only a few of these watercolors that were given to friends have been preserved; the others were destroyed in 1945. From 1943 to 1946 Schmidt-Rottluff retired to Chemnitz. The Berlin apartment and studio were destroyed by bombing and he moved to Chemnitz-Rottluff.
After the Second World War
In 1947 he was appointed professor at the University of Fine Arts in Berlin-Charlottenburg . Schmidt-Rottluff was the second chairman of the board of the re-established German Artists Association in 1950 . Between 1951 and 1976 he took part in its annual exhibitions five times. In 1955, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff was a participant in documenta 1 in Kassel .
In the GDR, the works of Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, like those of the other Expressionists, got caught up in the formalism debate determined by the ideology of socialist realism from the end of the 1940s . His pictures were rarely bought and there were only very few exhibitions in the GDR in the decades up to 1982.
Emy and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff died a few months apart in West Berlin in 1975 and 1976.
Stays on the North / Baltic Sea
In the course of his life, Schmidt-Rottluff was drawn to the North and Baltic Seas again and again in summer. The pictures of the Baltic Sea landscape were created in bright colors and generous abstraction of the motifs. The stays were:
- 1906: Baltic island of Alsen
- 1907–1912: Summer stays in Dangast on the North Sea
- 1913: Nidden on the Curonian Spit (Lithuanian Nida )
- 1914, 1919: Hohwacht on the Bay of Lübeck
- 1919–1931: regularly in Jershöft in Western Pomerania ( Jarosławiec in Polish )
- 1932–1943: "inner emigration" in summer and autumn in Rumbke am Lebasee ( Łebsko in Polish )
- 1951–1973: Summer months in Sierksdorf an der Lübeck Bay in the house of the painter Günter Machemehl . The motifs were the steep coast and the beach of Sierksdorf. Furthermore, sculptures were created.
On his eightieth birthday in 1964, he made the proposal to build a bridge museum in Berlin. This has been put into practice. The museum in Berlin-Zehlendorf opened on September 15, 1967. Erich Heckel and he had given the house several works. Over 300 works by Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, including paintings, watercolors , drawings, postcards, woodcuts , etchings , lithographs , commercial graphics and sculptures, are kept in the Brücke Museum.
The collection of the Chemnitz art collections comprises a total of 490 works by the artist. This includes paintings, sculptures, works on paper and exhibits from the applied arts.
The importance of Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and the artist group was shown for the first time in 1957 with a groundbreaking exhibition “Painters of the Bridge in Dangast from 1907 to 1912” by the Oldenburger Kunstverein in the North Sea resort of Dangast . The exhibition was curated by the art historian Gerhard Wietek , who wrote numerous works on Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and other expressionists. In 2013, around 450 letters and postcards from Schmidt-Rottluff were sent to the Landesmuseum Oldenburg from his estate .
- In 1929 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff received the Villa Romana Prize from the DKB.
- In 1946 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff became an honorary citizen of the city of Chemnitz .
- In 1955 he was awarded the Cornelius Prize of the city of Düsseldorf.
- In 1956 he was accepted into the order Pour le Mérite .
- In 1970 he was made an honorary citizen of Berlin .
- In 1974 he was awarded the first Lovis Corinth Prize .
- In 1974, on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart appointed him an honorary member at the suggestion of its then rector Wolfgang Kermer .
- In 1974 he was elected an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters .
After him are the Schmidt-Rottluff-Allee (which was the motif of the painting Seehofallee in Sierksdorf ), the Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff-Weg in Berlin-Zehlendorf (between Berliner Strasse and Schützallee), the Schmidt-Rottluff-Weg in Hamburg- St. Pauli, Schmidt-Rottluff Straße on the eastern edge of the North Sea resort of Dangast and the Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff-Gymnasium in Chemnitz.
On May 6, 2015, the City Council of Chemnitz decided to rename the inner-city Kaßbergauffahrt bridge to Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff-Brücke. The occasion was the 110th anniversary of the artist group " Brücke ", which Schmidt-Rottluff co-founded .
As part of the series “ German Painting of the 20th Century ”, a 300-Pfennig special postage stamp was issued in 1995 by the Deutsche Bundespost with the motif Gutshof in Dangast .
See also: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Scholarship .
Schmidt-Rottluff's works also include a few portraits, for example of the art historian Rosa Schapire, with whom he was close friends, and of Lyonel Feininger , another representative of Expressionism.
- 1909: Beach chairs , Brücke Museum , Berlin
- 1909: Sunset , watercolor, Museum Kunstpalast , exhibition Summer Sun, 2016
- 1910: Deichbruch / Breach in the Dyke / Rupture d'une digue , Brücke-Museum, Berlin
- 1911: Portrait of Rosa Schapire , Brücke-Museum, Berlin
- 1911: Portrait of Dr. Paul Rauert , private collection
- 1912: Villa with tower , Kunsthalle Mannheim
- 1912: Petriturm in Hamburg , private property
- 1912: Houses by Night , Museum of Modern Art , New York
- 1912: Two women , Tate Gallery , London
- 1915: Woman with a Bag , Tate Gallery, London
- 1919: Portrait of Rosa Schapire , Tate Gallery, London
- 1920: Design for an imperial eagle , German Historical Museum , Berlin
- 1922: Marsh landscape with a red pinwheel , watercolor on paper, for decades in the Sprengel Museum Hannover , Hannover
- 1923: On the street corner , watercolor (68.5 × 61.5 cm), Sprengel Museum Hannover
- 1931: Pomeranian moorland. Saarland Museum , Saarbrücken
- 1947: Wanderdüne am Haff , oil on canvas (93 × 114 cm), Brücke-Museum Berlin
- 1956: Seehofallee in Sierksdorf , oil on canvas, Chemnitz art collections
- 1961: Red House in Sierksdorf , oil on canvas, private property
- 1961: Baltic Sea Bay , oil on canvas, private property
- 1962: Still life with bananas. Watercolor and ink.
- 1964: The Sierksdorf Bay. Oil on chalk. International Maritime Museum
- Magdalena M. Moeller / Hans-Werner Schmidt: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. The painter. Hatje Cantz Verlag, Berlin / Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 978-3-7757-0388-8
- Gerhard Wietek : Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Plastic and arts and crafts, catalog raisonné. Hirmer, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-7774-9270-1
- Roland Doschka (Ed.): German Expressionism - Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Masterpieces from the Chemnitz art collections. Prestel, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7913-3386-0
- Roland Doschka: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Prestel-Verlag, Munich 2005.
- Magdalena M. Moeller: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Shapes & Color. Hirmer, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7774-3455-1
- Christiane Remm: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 225-227 ( version ). In:
- Gerhard Wietek: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Drawings on postcards. Wienand, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-86832-010-7
- Magdalena M. Moeller: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. A monograph. Hirmer, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7774-3021-8
- 1946 (in summer) City Art Collection in Chemnitz, Schlossberg Museum: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: watercolors from the years 1943–1946 , with catalog
- 1974 Galerie Roswitha Haftmann Modern Art, Zurich, anniversary exhibition for the 90th birthday.
- November 6, 2010 to January 23, 2011. Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: Landscapes and Still Life , Saarland Museum , Saarbrücken.
- January 23 to May 15, 2011. Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: Unknown sheets from a private collection (watercolors from the late work), Ernst-Barlach-Haus , Hamburg.
- February 11 to July 17, 2011: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Baltic Sea pictures . (35 paintings and 60 watercolors around the Baltic Sea from the Danish island of Alsen, Nidden on the Curonian Spit, Hohwacht on the Bay of Lübeck, Jershöft in Pomerania, the Pomeranian Rumbke on Lake Lebasee and Sierksdorf on the Bay of Lübeck).
- 13 December 2015 to 10 April 2016: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: 490 plants in the Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz , Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz , Chemnitz
- January 27, 2018 to May 21, 2018: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: expressive, magical, strange , Bucerius Kunst Forum , Hamburg.
- Literature by and about Karl Schmidt-Rottluff in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Karl Schmidt-Rottluff in the German Digital Library
- Search for Karl Schmidt-Rottluff in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Andreas Gabelmann: Karl Schmidt-Rottluff (Bridge Museum)
- further works by Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff
- Materials by and about Karl Schmidt-Rottluff in the documenta archive
- Schmidt-Rottluff in Kallmünz
- Red Tower in the Park, 1910 in the Städel Museum
- Three Women by the Sea, 1919 & Norwegian Landscape (Skrygedal), 1911 ( Memento from April 18, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) in the Buchheim Museum
- Untitled ( Memento from November 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) ( Frieder Burda Collection )
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: Portrait of Rosa Schapire (1911) in the Brücke Museum, Berlin (Fig. 3)
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: Portrait of Rosa Schapire (1919) in the Tate Gallery, London
- s. Hildegard Brenner: End of a bourgeois art institution. The political formation of the Prussian Academy of the Arts from 1933 , Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1972. ISBN 3-421-01587-2 (p. 124).
- Annette Stiekele: The glow of colors . In: Hamburger Abendblatt , January 24, 2011, p. 20.
- 1936 forbidden pictures , exhibition catalog for the 34th annual exhibition of the DKB in Bonn, Deutscher Künstlerbund, Berlin 1986. (p. 82/83).
- Ernst Klee : The culture lexicon for the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5 , p. 532.
- Tourist information of the Baltic resort of Sierksdorf (ed.): Karl Schmidt-Rotluff, 1884–1976. In collaboration with Claus Bärwald, leaflet from 2011.
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Landscapes around Kreisau (PDF; 251 kB) Special exhibition in the Silesian Museum Görlitz 2008.
- kuenstlerbund.de: Board members of the German Association of Artists since 1951 ( Memento from December 17, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on January 14, 2016).
- Julia Friedrich, Andreas Prinzing: “That's how you started, without a lot of words”: Exhibition and collection policy in the first years after the Second World War. Walter de Gruyter 2013. p. 218.
- Maike Steinkamp: The unwanted legacy: The reception of "degenerate" art in art criticism, exhibitions and museums of the Soviet occupation zone and the early GDR. Walter de Gruyter, 2008. p. 289.
- Schmidt-Rottluff grave site at knerger.de .
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Baltic Sea pictures. An exhibition by the Brücke Museum Berlin , ed. v. Magdalena M. Moeller, Munich 2010. ISBN 978-3-7774-2821-5 .
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff: 490 works in the Chemnitz art collections , kunstsammlungen-chemnitz.de, accessed on December 13, 2015.
- Dirk Dasenbrock In: Oldenburgische Volkszeitung , March 8, 2013, p. 15.
- Order Pour le Mérite for Karl Schmidt-Rottluff .
- Honorary Members: Karl Schmidz-Rottluff. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed March 22, 2019 .
- City of Chemnitz: Karl-Schmidt-Rottluff-Brücke receives name tags. June 15, 2017, accessed September 30, 2019 .
- Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Sommersonne (sunset), 1909, watercolor on natural white cardboard, 66 x 49.7 cm, Museum Kunstpalast .
- oV : Sprengel Museum returns watercolor. In: [[Neue Presse (Hnnnover) |]] of March 11, 2017, p. 23.
- Fig. In large format by Norbert Berghof (Red.): Picture portfolio Art in pursuit: Degenerate Art (exhibition) 1937 in Munich. 18 examples. Neckar, Villingen 1998.
- Internationales Maritime Museum, Hamburg, deck 8.
- Ludmila Vachtova . Roswitha Haftmann . P. 94.
- Brücke Museum shows impressions from the Baltic Sea. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , February 14, 2011, p. 15.
- Special exhibition 2011 in the Brücke Museum Berlin. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Schmidt, Karl (real name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German painter, graphic artist and sculptor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 1, 1884|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rottluff near Chemnitz|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 10, 1976|
|Place of death||Berlin|