Berlin-Friedenau

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Friedenau
district of Berlin
Berlin Friedenau Schöneberg Tempelhof Mariendorf Marienfelde Lichtenrade BrandenburgFriedenau on the map of Tempelhof-Schöneberg
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Coordinates 52 ° 28 '20 "  N , 13 ° 19' 40"  E Coordinates: 52 ° 28 '20 "  N , 13 ° 19' 40"  E
height 40  m above sea level NN
surface 1.68 km²
Residents 28,263 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density 16,823 inhabitants / km²
Incorporation Oct. 1, 1920
Postcodes 10827, 12157, 12159, 12161, 14197
District number 0702
Administrative district Tempelhof-Schöneberg

Friedenau ( ˌfriːdə'naʊ̯ ) is a Berlin district in the Tempelhof-Schöneberg district . It is relatively centrally located ( it is around three kilometers to City West ) and is characterized, among other things, by the main street and the subsequent Rheinstraße as a shopping mile. At the same time, the many small and sometimes narrow residential streets with their front gardens and numerous street trees as well as the old houses with a comparatively high density of monuments have a quiet character. A special feature of the district lies in the planning at the time due to the partially symmetrical division of the streets. The district is one of the smallest in terms of area and, with 17,129 inhabitants per km², the most densely populated of the 96 districts in Berlin .

location

geography

Berlin-Friedenau Karte.png

Friedenau lies on the Teltow ridge south of the Berlin-Warsaw glacial valley with a mean height of around 40  m above sea level. NHN on an area of ​​168  hectares . The north-south extension is around 1.4 kilometers, in a west-east direction at the level of Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz it is around 1.2 kilometers, along the northern border around 1.6 kilometers.

The border of the district runs north parallel to the ring road - route , to the west along the Laubacher road to Wilmersdorf and along the in the southwest Bornstraße to Steglitz . The eastern border of Friedenau to the Schöneberg district runs along Hauptstrasse and Fregestrasse .

With its location between the border with Wilmersdorf and Schöneberg in the north and Steglitzer Schloßstraße and the catchment area of Dahlem in the south, Friedenau represents a link between these - all in all bourgeois - districts.

Occasionally, Friedenau is also assigned areas further to the east, although officially they are not located on Friedenau terrain , but in the area of ​​the Schöneberg district. These include the Friedenau S-Bahn station , the Ceciliengärten and the area around Rubensstrasse to Grazer Damm (the so-called “Malerviertel” or “Dürerkiez” ) and the Auguste Viktoria Hospital . The residential complexes built there in the first third of the 20th century were called "Neu-Friedenau", although they are located in the Schöneberg district.

Cityscape

The “ Carstenn figure ” drawn in red in the historic street map of Friedenau
The church "Zum guten Hirten" on Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz is the urban center of the Friedenauer "Carstenn figure"

The urban development feature of the district is the “ Carstenn figure ” named after the planner , a regular urban planning arrangement of streets and squares. The original settlement structure can still be seen clearly: From the central Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz, which was designed as an anger , streets radiate apart in all directions, a horseshoe-shaped ring (Stubenrauchstrasse and Handjerystrasse) with four other squares ( Perelsplatz , formerly Berliner Platz and later Maybachplatz , Renée-Sintenis-Platz , formerly Wilmersdorfer Platz , Schillerplatz , until 1905 Schmargendorfer Platz , as well as the former Hamburger Platz , part of the cemetery on Stubenrauchstrasse ) surrounds the central square and is in the north through the Axis of Mainauer , Senta and Evastraße running in west-east direction closed. The central north-south axis is the Bundesallee , and the Rhine and Hauptstraße run diagonally in the southeast and the southwest Corso to the north- west .

Some Friedenau streets were renamed after rivers in Alsace-Lorraine , which should give expression to the basic idea behind the naming of Friedenau in memory of the " Peace of Frankfurt " concluded in the year it was founded.

Most of the buildings in Friedenau date from the beginning of the 20th century. As a result, the district has an almost uniform building stock. 185 objects are listed and give Friedenau a special flair. During the Second World War, Friedenau was not spared the Allied air raids , which tore gaps in the cityscape in various places. However, these are now almost completely filled with new buildings and there are only a few building gaps to be found. The new buildings are partly foreign objects in the otherwise very homogeneous cityscape, because little consideration was given to aspects of monument preservation during the reconstruction after the war.

Streets and squares in Friedenau

For detailed information, see: List of streets and squares in Berlin-Friedenau

history

Old village and drawing board plan, 1877

Unlike many other Berlin districts, Friedenau does not go back to a historic village center, but was re-established in the Wilhelmine era . A few months after the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the influx of over 50,000 people resulted in such a severe housing shortage in the old core area of ​​Berlin that construction activity soon spread to the wider area of ​​the capital. The Landerwerb- und Bauverein auf Actien , founded on July 9, 1871 , founded the villa suburb and between 1871 and 1875 acquired a total of 550  acres of land from the Deutsch-Wilmersdorf manor with the intention of creating inexpensive and functional housing. The name Friedenau , which indicates the end of the Franco-Prussian War, comes from Auguste Hähnel, wife of the builder Hermann Hähnel . The area was parceled out according to a fixed settlement plan. The town's first building was built on the former Ringstrasse (since 1962 Dickhardtstrasse ). In 1874 the development plan was officially recognized by the then responsible district of Teltow and on November 9, 1874, Friedenau was raised to the status of an independent rural community in this district. In 1875 Friedenau had 1,104 inhabitants in 258 households. In 1912 there were already around 43,000 people who had settled here.

Planning and implementation

Originally, Friedenau was designed by the Hamburg merchant and large landowner Johann Anton Wilhelm von Carstenn as an English-style villa suburb. He acquired the area in 1865, and the planners used the situation to design a country house colony on the drawing board, which can be clearly seen from the symmetrically designed road network.

A typical Friedenau house from the Wilhelminian era on the Kaisereiche

The geographical proximity to the main line and the parallel Wannseebahn and the inclusion of the then Berlin-Potsdamer Chaussee ( Reichsstrasse 1 ), which connected the Berlin City Palace with Potsdam , were selected for the establishment of the rural community of Friedenau. The Kaiserallee (since 1950: Bundesallee ) made it possible to establish another important traffic connection to the then emerging " New West " around Kurfürstendamm .

The development plan by Johannes Otzen from the time after the Land Acquisition and Building Association was founded around 1871/1872 stipulated that the landowners had to commit themselves not to build apartment houses, but only city ​​villas . Some of the country houses and villas from the founding period are still preserved in Niedstrasse , Albestrasse and Handjerystrasse . These are modest, mostly single-storey houses with cellars and lofts and very small gardens. At the time, the builders argued about whether the houses should be plastered or built as a brick shell. The popularly spoke of the "Rohbauern", the brick construction preferred, in contrast to the "cleaning farmers", which - especially in the area west of the Kaisereiche were plastered their homes -.

Race on the cycling track in the Sportpark Friedenau, 1903

Due to the shortage of housing in Berlin, new building regulations were issued by the Prussian government in 1887 . Many villas were demolished and instead apartment buildings with up to five floors were built. Another building code followed in 1892, restricting the height of the buildings in the old part of Friedenau to four floors including the ground floor. In the northern part of Friedenau, the building contractor Georg Haberland had a major influence on the planning of the areas that were still vacant at the time. As a far-sighted terrain developer , he planned the Südwestkorso and the Wagner Quarter , which the Sportpark Friedenau with its cycle track had to give way in the 1900s.

The young rural community was held together by a lively club life. The members of the Friedenauer Liedertafel, the House and Landowners Association, the Friedenauer Schützengilde, the Friedenauer Teachers Association, the Association of Independent Master Tailors and the Glatte Bahn bowling association met regularly. In 1886 a men's gymnastics club was founded, which was still known as the Friedenauer TSC 1886 e. V. exists. Cycling, which was very popular at the time, was practiced on the cement track of the Friedenau sports park, which was built for the Friedenau cycling club founded in 1891 . The winners of the races received the Peaceau Golden Wheel in the form of a medal. One of the first silent films was shot in 1904 with the title Auf der Radrennbahn in Friedenau , which spoke for the popularity of the racetrack.

The 20th century

The former Maybachplatz (since 1961 Perelsplatz ) with the Friedenauer Gymnasium , 1908
Collection in the streets of Friedenau on the occasion of the "
Marguerite Day" organized by the Patriotic Women's Association on May 6, 1911
Post office 410 on Renée-Sintenis-Platz , formerly: Imperial Post Office 1st class

After the turn of the century, the community's population increased. Almost all of the Friedenau properties were built on by 1914. Well-equipped apartment buildings with front gardens, lifts and relatively large apartments were built for the time. The tenements with several backyards known from other parts of Berlin cannot be found in Friedenau.

The so-called " Berlin Room ", a corner walk-through room with a relatively narrow window that connects the rooms in the front building with the rooms in the side wings, is typical of the spacious apartments from this period . Further features of these apartments are the maids' room, a separate maid staircase from the courtyard to the kitchen and a room call system. With this bell system, the maid could be called into any room; a signal flap box was installed in the front hallway.

The rural community of Friedenau acquired a plot of land near the south-west cemetery in Stahnsdorf in 1909 . The neighboring Wilmersdorf had announced that it would no longer take over burials for Friedenau in the future. The cemetery of the community of Friedenau laid out by Hans Altmann was supposed to replace the overcrowded cemetery on Stubenrauchstrasse . The first burial took place in August 1913.

During this time, Friedenau experienced an upswing, and numerous public buildings were built, such as the Friedenau Town Hall with fire station on Breslauer Platz, built between 1913 and 1916, and the imposing building of the former Imperial Post Office 1st Class (Post Office 410) by the architect Ludwig Meyer on the former Wilmersdorfer Platz (since 1967 Renée-Sintenis-Platz), which opened in 1918. On October 1, 1920, the rural community of Friedenau was incorporated into the newly created Greater Berlin with the then still independent city of Schöneberg .

At the turn of 1927/1928  the vocal ensemble Comedian Harmonists was founded at Stubenrauchstrasse 47 . The six-member vocal group became internationally known and had to split up in 1935 for political reasons.

On the first floor of the residential building at Stierstrasse 21, the Jewish Religious Association Friedenau, Steglitz und Umgebung e.V. , consisting of more than 3000 business people, small and medium-sized civil servants, doctors and lawyers, had a V. his prayer room. In the Germany-wide pogrom night from November 9th to 10th, 1938, this place of worship - like most synagogues in Germany - was destroyed. 36 people are known from Stierstraße alone who were murdered in the Theresienstadt , Auschwitz , Łódź and Riga camps .

During the National Socialist era , Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels lived at Fregestraße  76, where he prepared, among other things, his Sports Palace speech on February 18, 1943, in which he called on the German people to " total war ".

Edith Wolff founded the youth resistance group Chug Chaluzi in 1943 with Jewish friends who had gone into hiding in an apartment at today's Bundesallee 79 (in the same house in which Kurt Tucholsky had lived until 1924) . Part of the Rote Kapelle resistance group was hidden under the roofs of the houses at Wilhelmshöher Strasse 17, 18/19 and 20. Erika Countess von Brockdorff made her apartment available to the resistance group around Hans Coppi as a radio control center. The radio station was hidden in a suitcase upstairs. On May 13, 1943, the young mother and resistance fighter was executed with 13 other people in Berlin. The sculptor and art scholar Cay-Hugo von Brockdorff also lived in the apartment . The resistance couple Greta and Adam Kuckhoff lived at Wilhelmshöher Straße 18/19 . A plaque on the house and the naming of a place on the south-west parade after Adam Kuckhoff remind of the resistance fighter. This building ensemble (Wilhelmshöher Straße 17-20) had a special feature at the time: the buildings were designed as single- kitchen houses. This term refers to the concept of a community facility presented in 1900 by the social democrat Lily Braun in the socialist debate on housing reform and women's emancipation . With this facility - also known as the “central kitchen house” - she created a fundamental idea for reforming the domestic economy .

The lawyer Friedrich Justus Perels , who worked as a member of the Confessing Church in the resistance against National Socialism , was shot on April 23, 1945 in Berlin-Tiergarten in a Gestapo action. Perels was in the autumn of 1944 in connection with the Hitler - July 20 Plot in 1944 arrested. From 1922 to 1929 he was a student at the Friedenauer Gymnasium . The square in front of the school has had his name since 1961.

After the Second World War , from April 29 to June 30, 1945, Friedenau was under Soviet occupation . In the period from May 5 (confirmation by the Soviet administration on May 7) to July 28, 1945 (ordered by the US administration on July 13), Friedenau was an independent 21st  Berlin district with Willy Pölchen ( KPD ) as district mayor. After the division of the Berlin districts by the Allied victorious powers , Friedenau belonged to the American sector as part of the Schöneberg district . Until the end of 1945 the district was still called Schöneberg-Friedenau. Clearance of rubble and reconstruction began, with Friedenau showing relatively little war damage compared to the areas in the city center.

During the Berlin Airlift , which was set up as a result of the Berlin blockade in 1948/1949, a “ raisin bomber ” crashed on July 25, 1948 at Handjerystraße 2 and severely damaged the building. The roof of the Friedenau high school opposite was also affected. A plaque on the house at Handjerystraße 2 commemorates the two US pilots who were killed at the time.

The tranquility that Friedenau enjoyed until the 1960s ended in part with the redesign of the Bundesallee in connection with the construction of the subway towards Steglitz. Friedenau was divided into two halves along the Bundesallee: the motorway-like expansion of this north-south connection (road tunnels on Berliner Straße and Bundesplatz , tunnel ramps and additional lanes) steadily increased, while at the same time a certain separation of the neighboring residential areas was created .

In the Roxy Palace , a building at Hauptstrasse 78/79, a bomb attack was carried out on the La Belle discotheque on the night of April 4 to 5, 1986 , in which two US soldiers and a Turkish woman were killed and numerous others were injured complained were. Based on controversial evidence, the government of Libya was identified as the commissioner of the attack . The attack caused a worldwide sensation and led to retaliation by the United States against Libya and air strikes by the US against targets in Tripoli and Benghazi ( Operation El Dorado Canyon ).

Friedenau today

The mixture of simple country houses and multi-storey apartment buildings continues to shape the cityscape of Friedenau. In 1986, Friedenau was declared a so-called "conservation area". These include the typical front gardens, which are often still enclosed by the original wrought-iron bars. The justification for the regulation states, among other things:

"The exciting juxtaposition of the various construction methods at the end of the 19th century is just as much a criterion to be protected as the character of the country houses that primarily characterizes the townscape."

- Justification of the Friedenau Conservation Ordinance

In addition to the Preservation Ordinance, the Berlin Monument Protection Act of April 24, 1995 applies to Friedenau.

Since the district reform of 2001, Friedenau has been one of six districts of the now seventh Berlin administrative district of Tempelhof-Schöneberg . The official district number within the Berlin administration is 0702 .

After the closure of Tempelhof Airport in October 2008, the background noise in the approach path of the airport (axis in east-west direction at the level of the Friedenau town hall ) - caused by take-offs and landings of the planes operating there - no longer existed .

On the site of the former Wilmersdorf freight station in the north of Friedenau, 1500 apartments are to be built on an area of ​​60,000 m² on the new Friedenauer Höhe by 2023 . The area includes the area on the Ringbahntrasse between Handjerystrasse and Hauptstrasse.

Culture

The house at Niedstrasse  13, where Günter Grass lived and worked between 1963 and 1996

Literary

Friedenau's “literary mile” is the almost 500-meter-long Niedstrasse between Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz and Breslauer Platz. It owes its name to the numerous writers and artists who lived here: They were among others

The Commune I around Fritz Teufel , Dieter Kunzelmann and Rainer Langhans came into being on January 1, 1967 when the apartment of the writer Uwe Johnson at Niedstrasse 14 was occupied.

The meeting point of the literary scene of the 1960s and 1970s was the legendary Bundeseck at Bundesallee 75, only a few steps away from K. P. Herbach's bookstore cellar in Görresstraße  8. Young authors such as Hans Christoph Buch , Johannes Schenk , Friedrich Christian Delius , Jürgen Theobaldy , Gert Loschütz , Yaak Karsunke and others appreciated the discussion- and “rough (s) ch-impregnated” atmosphere of the pub and founded there - half serious, half ironic - the “ARSCH”, the “Working Group of Revolutionary Writers”, by the then already established Günter Grass polemically referred to as the "Basisgruppe Friedenau".

The literary interest of the people of Friedenau is also reflected in the local bookshops and second-hand bookshops : The Nicolaische Buchhandlung has established itself as a renowned institution steeped in tradition since 1929 at Rheinstrasse 65. A short time later, in 1931 , the grandson of the Russian bookseller Moritz Wolff founded Wolff's library at Bundesallee 133, which was later managed by Moritz Wolff's great-granddaughter Katharina Wagenbach-Wolff . From 1963, the Friedenauer Presse publishing house was located there . The founder Andreas Wolff built the Suhrkamp Verlag together with Peter Suhrkamp in 1948 . The bookshop Der Zauberberg has been located in the premises of Wolff's library since 2009 . Shortly after the Second World War, the Thaer bookstore was founded at Bundesallee 77 as the third Friedenauer Spiegel of literary creation .

Cinemas and theaters

For detailed information, see: List of cinemas in Berlin-Friedenau

The building of the former Roxy Palace in the main street
Small theater on the south-west parade

Of the many theaters that existed in Friedenau up in the 1970s, are only the 1913 founded Cosima in the Sieglinde Road  10 at Varziner place and in 1911 as a silent movie cinema Corso (from 1919 it was called Hummingbird ), founded Cinema Bundesallee in Bundesallee 111 with 119 seats remained (with the introduction of the sound film it was called Friedenauer Lichtspiele and from 1953 Cinema ). Diagonally opposite at Bundesallee 102 was the Thalia daytime cinema between 1912 and the 1950s (interim names were: Thalia Lichtspiele , Friedenauer Lichtspiele , Rheineck Lichtspiele and Kammer Lichtspiele ).

Also in today's Bundesallee, the Pfalzburg Lichtspiele with 155 seats was opened at the corner of Bachestrasse in 1912 .

The Baby-Lichtspiele were located in Stubenrauchstrasse 21 and in Rheinstrasse there was the Rheinschloß Lichtspiele in No. 60 and the Kronen Lichtspiele in No. 65 . The Hohenzollern Lichtspiele opened in 1912 at Handjerystraße 64 (with access from Rheinstraße 21) as the largest cinema at the time with 600 seats.

In the late 1970s, the La Belle discotheque , which was bombed in 1986 , moved into the former Roxy-Palast cinema in Hauptstrasse 78/79 with 1106 seats in 1929 .

From the former Kino Korso on Südwestkorso 64 at the corner of Taunusstraße , the Small Theater with its 99 seats has established itself as a cultural attraction for cabaret . Among other things, the musical revue Das Küssen makes almost no noise was performed here with great success for many years .

economy

When the company was founded, a total of 27 haulage companies and forwarding agents set up shop along the border with Steglitz in Bornstrasse and the neighboring side streets. These included large companies such as the official rolling stock company for Wilmersdorf-Friedenau , the Friedenau luggage drive Kopania & Co. and the widow Pählchen's trucking business . The economic environment at that time was represented by the Berlin-Wilmersdorf freight station located between the S-Bahn stations Innsbrucker Platz and Bundesplatz , which was abandoned in the 1970s.

Traditional company

The connection to rail traffic at the end of the 19th century resulted in small and medium-sized industrial companies, especially in the area of Rheinstrasse and today's Bundesallee . The focus of the industrialization of Friedenau was on optics and precision mechanics . Various traditional companies were founded, some of which have kept their traditional headquarters in Friedenau (the companies are listed chronologically according to their foundation):

From 1872 onwards, the Xaver Kirchhoff company manufactured flagpoles and lightning rods (including 1894 for the Reichstag building ) on the site of what is now the Friedenau town hall . The company is still based in Tempelhof .

The optical workshop Paul Guardian gained from 1872 in the Albestraße 21 and 19 Niedstrasse with specialization in microscopes a worldwide reputation.

The Schraubstollenfabrik the brothers Dähne supplied in 1873 by the ring road 51 (now Dickhardtstraße ) from the Prussian army with horseshoes for the fogging of military horses.

The watchmaker and jeweler Hans Lorenz founded his traditional business at Rheinstrasse 59 in 1874, which is still in operation there, now in the fifth generation. A patented and award-winning precision watch from the 1920s survived the bombing of the Second World War in the air raid shelter of the jeweler . Because of the accuracy of this clock, a direct line was laid between Rheinstrasse and the RIAS transmitter located on Kufsteiner Strasse in Schöneberg in order to control the time announcement for the broadcasts, especially the start of the news. The Berlin Clock Museum has now been integrated into the jewelry store, which also houses the original of the “Berlin Peace Clock ”, which was first started on November 9, 1989 on the occasion of the 115th anniversary of the founding of the rural community. In the festivities of the inauguration of the clock, the news of the fall of the wall burst and all eyes were on the inscription on the peace clock : "Time blows up all walls". The publicly accessible private collection of the clock museum offers an overview of the history of time measurement.

The type printing , bookbinding and embossing Kistenmacher, Schulz & Co. specialized in 1884 in today's Wilhelm-Hauff-Straße  2 in the production of the Friedenau silk cards , which had a worldwide reputation and were delivered in all common languages.

The optical institute CP Goerz had been in Rheinstrasse 45/46 since 1886. Goerz was known for his exemplary voluntary social services to his workers and employees. Cameras, lenses and telescopes were manufactured there. The brick buildings of the spacious industrial area with the towering factory chimney were built in several construction phases between 1897 and 1916 by the architects Paul Egeling , Waldemar Wendt, Emil Schmidt, Albert Paeseler and P. Mitnacht in the style of the modeled Renaissance and Gothic .

Logo from Zeiss-Ikon

In 1926, the C. P. Goerz Optical Institute became part of Zeiss Ikon AG, which manufactured precision optical devices on Rheinstrasse. The business park can be viewed from Holsteinische Strasse at the rear , as there is no overall impression of the facility from Rheinstrasse. From 1908 to 1918 the Goerz Photochemical Works were located at Holsteinische Strasse 42 . In the second large courtyard (Rheinstrasse entrance) there is a large pulley from a freight elevator as an industrial monument. A large, sheet steel clad and roofed stage on a building in the rear part of the commercial area served the Goerz works. Various businesses and offices are located on the property.

From 1887, the mechanic Paul Stückrath supplied his customers with precision scales from Albestrasse 11 , including automatic coin scales for German banks and earthquake measurement devices for seismologists .

The parent company of Askania Werke in Bundesallee

Carl Bamberg's workshops for precision mechanics and optics were founded in 1888 at Kaiserallee 39 (since 1950 as Bundesallee 86-88) and continued after Bamberg's death in 1892 by his wife Emma. The company built heat technology devices and merged in 1921 with the Centralwerkstatt Dessau in what is now Bundesallee, a subsidiary of the Deutsche Continental Gasgesellschaft under the name Askania Werke Aktiengesellschaft . The well-preserved house in which the Bamberg laboratory was housed is located at Stubenrauchstrasse 72. The property at Bundesallee 86-88, originally developed by the Askania-Werke, is today - like the Goerz'schen Höfe in Rheinstrasse - a large industrial estate. The buildings are designed as reinforced concrete structures with solid masonry on the outside and a row of reinforced concrete columns in the middle of the building. The street front from 1918 is adorned with an elaborately designed brick facade with expressionist elements, which was renovated a few years ago according to the specifications of the monument protection. The word Askania Höfe was placedabove the main entrance. Various businesses have been based on the property in the past few decades, such as a gas appliance production facility during the Second World War. There are currently several commercial enterprises, a dental laboratory , a civil engineering office and a large software company operatingat this address. For a long time there was a well-known specialist shop for outdoor accessories on the ground floor,and now there is an organic supermarket there .

The art foundry Hermann Noack has existed since 1899 and has now been run by the fourth generation at Fehlerstrasse  8 / Varziner Strasse  18. In 2010 the company moved to Charlottenburg . Works by Käthe Kollwitz , Henry Moore , Georg Kolbe , Renée Sintenis and Ernst Barlach were created here . The workshop, now in its fourth generation, is the source of the Silver and Golden Bears ( Berlinale prizes ) and their great role model, the bronze statue at the former Dreilinden border control point on the median of the A 115 and the gilding of the Victoria with a laurel wreath - known colloquially as the "Goldelse" on the Berlin Victory Column . In 1958, the two-wheeled chariot with four draft horses on top of the Brandenburg Gate , the Quadriga , was restored in the workshop and, after being dismantled, brought back to its original location in East Berlin .

The brothers Siegmund and David Loewe founded Radiofrequenz GmbH in 1923 , which later became Loewe-Opta AG . By founding Loewe-Audion GmbH at Niedstrasse 5, they laid the foundation for the production of electron tubes for television technology.

Other economic activities

In the Friedenauer Lokal-Anzeiger , which appeared several times a week from 1894 , there were regular reports on, among other things, Friedenau inventors. At the same time, the sheet of the Leo Schulz printing company from Rheinstrasse 15 served as a news exchange for advertising and family advertisements.

Askania AG logo

After the Second World War, economic development in Friedenau slowed and various companies gave up their location there. But there were also new foundations: The company Askania , which was dissolved in 1960, was re-established in 2006 in Roennebergstrasse  3a (not far from the former headquarters in Bundesallee) as Askania AG as the only watch manufacturer in Berlin. There, high-quality mechanical wrist and pocket watches are manufactured based on classic models.

The British star architect Norman Foster , who among other things was responsible for the renovation of the Reichstag in the form of a walk-in glass dome between 1994 and 1999 , had his architecture office in Rheinstrasse until 2009.

Friedenau owned several department stores, of which - following the trend of the times - the last one was closed in 2005 ( Hertie department store on the corner of Bundesallee / Bornstraße, until the 1960s Held department store) . The Schloss-Straßen-Center (SSC) has been located there as a new shopping center since 2007 . The Lauterbach department store was located at Hauptstrasse 78/79 in the former Roxy Palace , a building from 1929 that is considered the main work of New Objectivity by the architect Martin Punitzer . The Kepa department store was located at Rheinstrasse 30 . The Leo Bry department store opened in 1906 on today's Breslauer Platz on the corner of Lauterstrasse and Niedstrasse . This is where the Ebbinghaus clothing store later had its headquarters until it moved to the then newly constructed building on Walther-Schreiber-Platz in 1962 . Ebbinghaus gave up the building in 2006 and continued the business with an outlet store in the former Roxy Palace near the former headquarters on Breslauer Platz until it was finally closed in 2011.

Since 1881 there has been a weekly market three times a week on Breslauer Platz, one of the oldest markets in Berlin.

population

structure

Friedenau has 28,263 inhabitants (as of December 30, 2019) and thus a population density of 16,808 inhabitants / km². The unemployment rate in Friedenau, at 6.8%, is significantly lower than the Berlin average, which is 10.8% (July 2020) . At 12.5%, the proportion of foreigners is slightly below the Berlin average (13.4%). The district has a relatively good mix of all age groups, with a focus on 27 to 45 year olds, with the number of inhabitants in Friedenaus made up of the following age groups:

Age groups Population
on December 31, 2012
under 6 years 1,474 00(5.5%)
6 to under 18 years 2,789 0(10.5%)
18 to under 27 years 2,317 00(8.7%)
27 to under 45 years 6,590 0(24.6%)
45 to under 55 years 4,929 0(18.4%)
55 to under 65 years 4,024 0(15.0%)
65 years and more 4,631 0(17.3%)
all in all 26,754 (100.0%)

Personalities

Theodor Heuss and his wife Elly Heuss-Knapp , 1950

Friedenau has always attracted artists, writers, scientists and politicians. In addition to the personalities already mentioned , the composer and conductor Max Bruch , for example, lived in Albestraße  3. A plaque commemorates him on the house. The writer Max Frisch lived and worked in Sarrazinstrasse  8. The writer Georg Hermann lived in Bundesallee 68 and 108 as well as in Stubenrauchstrasse 5 , to whom the small Georg Hermann garden with a stele still reminds us. Hermann was almost a neighbor of Else Weil , a doctor and first wife of Kurt Tucholsky , who lived at Bundesallee 79 , and Friedrich Luft , who was born in Friedenau and lives at Bundesallee 74 , who was Berlin's most famous theater critic as the “voice of criticism”. Luft attended the Friedenau high school at that time . Not far from there lived the publicist and women's rights activist Helene Stöcker at Sentastraße 5 .

The later Federal President Theodor Heuss lived with his wife Elly Heuss-Knapp at Fregestraße 80. There a plaque commemorates him, who was a city councilor in Schöneberg from 1918 to 1930. The writer Kurt Hiller lived at Hähnelstrasse 9, the chemist and writer Otto Dammer at Stubenrauchstrasse 67 and the artist Hannah Höch at Büsingstrasse  16. Saarstrasse  14 was the address of the politician Karl Kautsky . From 1912 to 1916 the draftsman and illustrator Walter Trier worked at Elsastraße  2, the draftsman and cartoon artist Bernd Pohlenz lived on Rotdornstraße in the early 1990s and the poet Rainer Maria Rilke at Rheingaustraße  8.

The writers Günter Grass , Uwe Johnson and Erich Kästner also lived in Friedenau. The artist Herbert Pridöhl was born in Friedenau and grew up here.

Tombs

On the cemetery Schöneberg III many people are buried, among them the composer Ferruccio Busoni , the actress Marlene Dietrich , the photographer Helmut Newton , the poet Paul Zech and the architect Wilhelm Haeger .

traffic

Due to the relatively central location of the district, there are good transport connections, both to the inner-city areas and to the southwestern outskirts and suburbs of Berlin.

Rail transport

Platform of the S-Bahn station Innsbrucker Platz with a view to the east

The S-Bahn trains of the Wannseebahn have been stopping near Friedenau at the Friedenau station - in Schöneberg - since 1874 , and the Ringbahn trains at the northern border at Bundesplatz station . Before 1938 this station was called Wilmersdorf-Friedenau , from 1938 to 1993 Berlin-Wilmersdorf . It is located on the border with the Wilmersdorf district .

In Friedenau itself there is only the S-Bahn station Innsbrucker Platz (lines S41, S42 and S46) of the Ringbahn, which was built in 1933 next to the end point of the underground line B I (today's line U4 ), which opened in 1910 a transition was established at the time.

The underground stations on the U9 line, Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz and Walther-Schreiber-Platz , which went into operation in 1971 , are also located in the Friedenau area. The Bundesplatz underground station is located immediately north of the Friedenau boundary in the Wilmersdorf district.

On the main street under the Innsbrucker Platz autobahn tunnel there is a station shell for the U10 subway line planned at the time, which was planned in the “ 200 km plan ” for 1977 .

Private transport

The south-west parade with its separate lanes for cyclists

The following main traffic axes are important in Friedenau:

The Bundesallee, an important north-south connection in Berlin, runs as an extension of Joachimsthaler Strasse from Wilmersdorf and reaches the Friedenau district at Bundesplatz, up to Walther-Schreiber-Platz and divides Friedenau as an axis of symmetry into an east and a west half. At Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz , the main flow of traffic on Bundesallee has been routed southeast over Schmiljanstrasse and Saarstrasse towards the west bypass at Friedenauer Brücke (junction 3 - Saarstrasse) and further over Thorwaldsenstrasse into the southern areas of Berlin.

The main street runs diagonally through southeast Friedenau from Innsbrucker Platz to Breslauer Platz , which is called Rheinstraße from there to Walther-Schreiber-Platz . This street is the business center of the district with numerous shops and a well-developed infrastructure . Originally the former Reichsstrasse 1 ran there , which later became Bundesstrasse 1 . In the 1970s, the B 1 was swiveled to the west bypass, which ran parallel about 400 meters away , in order to relieve the districts of Friedenau and Steglitz from through traffic.

The south-west parade in the north-west of Friedenau is the quieter counterpart to the busy Hauptstrasse and Rheinstrasse and begins at Bundesallee at the level of Varziner Strasse. At the Laubacher Straße / Wiesbadener Straße intersection  - two other busy streets in the district - he changes from Friedenau to Wilmersdorf in the direction of Dahlem . In the mid-1980s, the first bicycle lanes in Berlin were laid out as a model test on the south-west parade in the course of Veloroute K. These are still there and have proven themselves.

Public institutions

Stechlinsee primary school
Ruppin Elementary School

Due to the relatively rapid development and the population growth of the rural community at that time, the need to create public buildings arose. The architect Hans Altmann , who has been a councilor for community development since 1906, planned a large number of public buildings, including the town hall and the former Friedenauer grammar school (as Friedrich Bergius Oberschule ), the Reform Realgymnasium (as Rheingau grammar school ) and the Königin-Luise- Mädchenlyzeum (as Paul-Natorp-Oberschule ) and the III. Community school (as Ruppin elementary school and Bobertal high school). These “ strongholds of education”, which are decorated with figures, some of which are fluffy, met the bourgeois ideas of the people of Friedenau at the time . Other schools were the I. Community School (now as Fläming Elementary School ) and the Friedenauer Elementary School (now as Stechlinsee Elementary School). The Friedenau Community School attracted attention beyond Berlin and Germany through the anti-Semitic attacks by classmates against a Jewish student in 2017.

The former predominantly Protestant residents of Friedenau founded two communities. The following religious communities have their headquarters in the district.

Catholic residents will find their place of worship in the St. Marienkirche, which is already in the Wilmersdorf district, on Bergheimer Platz on Laubacher Strasse, and the Islamic community has a small mosque at Hedwigstrasse  15. The Salvation Army has its local headquarters at Fregestrasse 12.

The Caribbean island state of Jamaica has its embassy at Schmargendorfer Straße  32.

Friedenau in songs and texts

In the early years of the rural community, in particular, Friedenau encouraged songwriters and writers to write little works in which the place was sung about or quoted. For example, the “Friedenau National Anthem” was created around 1880, the author and composer of which is unknown and which was popular at the time, but is hardly known anymore.

Come with me to Friedenau, there the sky is blue,
there the billy goat dances gallop with his wife,
there laughs so friendly at the dear cow of the ox.
Come with me to Friedenau, there the sky is blue.

In 1924 Carl Breer wrote a small Friedenauer ode under the title Children, were'n das Zeiten !:

On Sunday we went to Friedenau,
the sky was always blue,
very slowly with the motorbike steam train you got there in a good two hours. Then you wrote postcards in a coffee garden.0000000000



[...]
My Friedenau, how nice it was
when you were still single and - alleen ',
since you got married to Schöneberg,
you are already somewhat - dismantled!
(Abstract)

An advertising anthem from the 1890s read:

Field avenues and the scent of flowers in
front of the cosmopolitan city of Tor,
beautiful houses, fresh air, you
will find everything there.

So you want to live comfortably, cheap, good and smart, let the wise advice give you: move to Friedenau! 0000000000000000


See also

literature

  • Peter Hahn, Jürgen Stich: Friedenau - history & stories . Oase Verlag, 2015. ISBN 978-3-88922-107-0 .
  • Peter Hahn: Berlin cemeteries in Stahnsdorf. Oase Verlag, 2010. ISBN 3889220657 .
  • Harry Balkow-Gölitzer : Celebrities in Berlin-Friedenau and their stories. be.bra, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-8148-0171-1 .
  • Gudrun Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist's place and idyllic residential area. The history of a Berlin district. Frieling, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8280-2350-9 (with register and enclosed monument map).
  • Christel and Heinz Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history. District Office Schöneberg, Berlin 1996.
  • Alfred Bürkner: Friedenau - streets, houses, people. Stapp-Verlag, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-87776-065-1 .
  • Hermann Ebling: Friedenau - From the life of a rural community, 1871-1924. Zinsmeister and Grass, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-9801309-0-8 .
  • Hermann Ebling, Evelyn Weissberg: Friedenau tells: Stories from a Berlin suburb - 1871 to 1914. Edition Friedenauer Brücke, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-9811242-1-7 .
  • Stefan Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg ( Berlin Reminiscences, Volume 78). Haude & Spener, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-7759-0419-0 .
  • Werner Heilmann: Friedenau 1871–1920: From the history and life of a rural community . Berlin 1964.
  • Gertrud Köditz, Denis Will: Friedenau and his front gardens ( Berliner Hefte, Volume 1). Berlin 1985.
  • Peter Lemburg, Gabriele Schulz, Dietrich Worbs: Monuments in Berlin, Schöneberg district, Friedenau district. Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany. Willmuth Arenhövel, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-922912-52-4 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Mende (Ed.): All Berlin streets and squares, from the foundation to the present (Lexicon. 4 volumes). Edition Luisenstadt, Verlag Neues Leben, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-355-01491-5 .
  • Susanne zur Nieden, Helga Schönknecht, Eberhard Schönknecht: Living on after the war - Schöneberg / Friedenau 1945–46. Schöneberg on the way to Berlin . Berlin 1992.
  • Helmuth Pohren-Hartmann, Hermann Ebling, Evelyn Weissberg: The artist cemetery in Friedenau. Edition Friedenauer Brücke, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-9811242-0-0 .
  • Günter Wollschlaeger: Chronicle of Friedenau . Berlin 1986.

Web links

Commons : Berlin-Friedenau  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Region Friedenau on berlin.de
  2. Website of the Auguste Viktoria Hospital supposedly located in Friedenau
  3. Herta Müller, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. Friends with the neighbors in Friedenau. In: Berliner Morgenpost , October 9, 2009 (article about Herta Müller and Menzelstrasse, which is not officially part of Friedenau).
  4. Claudia Fuchs: Most insist on being Friedenauer. In: Berliner Zeitung , April 20, 2012 ( online ), on the 125th anniversary of Frieden from 1996
  5. ^ S. Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg. P. 48.
  6. Willy Spatz: Der Teltow, history of the localities of the district of Teltow. Berlin 1912.
  7. ^ Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf from A to Z in the berlin.de lexicon
  8. 125 years of Friedenau - getting on in years ... In: Der Tagesspiegel , July 7, 1996, p. 9.
  9. ^ A b G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. P. 113.
  10. ^ A b S. Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg. P. 47.
  11. H. Ebling: Friedenau - From the life of a rural community, 1871-1924. P. 49.
  12. H. Ebling: Friedenau - From the life of a rural community, 1871-1924. P. 80.
  13. ^ G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. P. 22.
  14. Peter Hahn: Hans Altmann - As an architect, he shaped the image of Friedenau. ( Memento from May 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) In: Märkische Allgemeine Zeitung .
  15. ^ The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history, Ch. U. H. Blumensath, p. 86.
  16. ^ G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. P. 35.
  17. Ch. U. H. Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history. P. 34.
  18. Ch. U. H. Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history. P. 82.
  19. ^ A b G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. P. 43.
  20. ^ S. Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg. P. 55.
  21. Scope of the Preservation Ordinance for Friedenau . ( Memento from July 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). On: berlin.de
  22. Justification of the Friedenau Preservation Ordinance ( memento of July 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), at www.berlin.de
  23. Preservation Ordinance Tempelhof-Schöneberg ( Memento of March 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), at www.berlin.de
  24. Berlin Monument Protection Act of April 24, 1995 ( PDF ( Memento of May 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive )).
  25. "Friedenauer Höhe": construction start for 1500 apartments. In: Berliner Morgenpost , March 26, 2019
  26. ^ G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. P. 57.
  27. Ch. U. H. Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history. P. 60.
  28. ^ S. Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg. P. 52.
  29. Kino Cosima at www.berlin.de/kino
  30. Kino Cinema Bundesallee at www.berlin.de/kino
  31. Axel de Roche in the district newspaper (Schöneberg – Friedenau – Steglitz) , No. 88, February 2012, p. 4
  32. Homepage of the small theater
  33. Ch. U. H. Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history. P. 81.
  34. ^ G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. Pp. 69-85.
  35. ^ G. Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist place and residential idyll. The history of a Berlin district. P. 72.
  36. Ch. U. H. Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history. P. 100 ff.
  37. ^ S. Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg. P. 58.
  38. radio sets . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1924, part 2, p. 475.
  39. Star architect Norman Foster closes his Berlin office. In: Berliner Morgenpost , February 9, 2009.
  40. H. Ebling: Friedenau - From the life of a rural community, 1871-1924. Pp. 58-60.
  41. Unemployment rates in July 2020 - countries and districts. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on August 11, 2020 .
  42. Social Structure Atlas 2007 . (PDF; 473 kB).
  43. ^ Foreigners' share in Friedenaus . ( Memento of March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 182 kB).
  44. Residents at the place of their main residence in Berlin on December 31, 2012 according to districts and age groups . Office for Statistics Berlin Brandenburg ( Memento from December 22, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  45. The voice of criticism on Deutschlandradio
  46. Helene Stöcker: Memoirs , ed. by Reinhold Lütgemeier-Davin and Kerstin Wolff. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, p. 158.
  47. Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung , March 11, 1990
  48. The Nobel Quarter. In: www.tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved August 9, 2016 .
  49. ^ Sylvia Vogt, Laura Hofmann: Jewish boy leaves school after an anti-Semitic incident. In: Der Tagesspiegel , April 1, 2017, accessed on January 7, 2019.
  50. H. Ebling: Friedenau - From the life of a rural community, 1871-1924. P. 93.
  51. H. Ebling: Friedenau - From the life of a rural community, 1871-1924. P. 119.
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on February 24, 2009 in this version .