|Place in Berlin|
Innsbrucker Platz, looking north, 2006
Innsbrucker Strasse ,
|Buildings||Innsbrucker Platz train station|
|User groups||Pedestrians , cyclists , road traffic , public transport|
The Innsbruck court is located in Berlin's Tempelhof-Schöneberg and is at the frontier of the districts of Schöneberg and Friedenau . This central traffic junction is located at the intersection of the main street (former Reichsstraße 1 ) with the ring line of the Berlin S-Bahn . In 1978 the motorway tunnel of the Berlin city ring ( Bundesautobahn 100 ) went into operation under Innsbrucker Platz , which is connected to the main road with a junction on both sides. Coming from the west, Wexstrasse ends here , and Martin-Luther-Strasse and Rubensstrasse run slightly offset to Innsbrucker Platz. In addition, Innsbrucker Strasse and Ebersstrasse end as dead ends just before the square. Coming from the south, Eisackstrasse ends in front of the expanded square.
The Ringbahn has been running south of the square since 1877. However, the Innsbrucker Platz S-Bahn station was not created until 1933. The station of the Schöneberg U-Bahn, today's U4 line, has been located under Innsbrucker Strasse since 1910 . Numerous bus routes provide transfer options.
The interchanges of the city motorway have been leading to the square since 1979 . In the east there is junction 17 (east) of the city ring and from the west junction 17 (west) leads from the southern Wexstraße to the square. Behind the square with junction 16, the northern part of Wexstrasse has an access to the city motorway. The main lanes of the city ring are completely under the square in the tunnel.
Creation of the square
Innsbrucker Platz is located between the old villages of Schöneberg and Steglitz . In the course of today's main street, a path ran between Berlin and Potsdam , which in 1792 under Friedrich Wilhelm II. Was expanded into the first fortified road in Prussia and later became part of Reichsstraße 1 .
The Berlin Ringbahn was fully commissioned in 1877 and touched the area of today's square on the southern edge. Initially there was no train station here due to the largely agricultural use of the area. The railway stations Schöneberg (today: Julius-Leber-Brücke ), Ebersstraße (replaced by the new Schöneberg transfer station in 1933 ) and Wilmersdorf (today: Bundesplatz ) were located closer to the local locations . With the commissioning of the Ringbahn in 1877, only a smaller railway bridge was built over the main road. Around 1900 the railway bridge was rebuilt with wider passages for the main street and the later extended Eisackstraße. The bridge girders were given Art Nouveau railings and were supported by Hartung columns . The bridge abutments were faced with white glazed brick slips and decorated with decorative turrets. On the bridge abutment between the passages to Eisackstrasse and Hauptstrasse there was a large stone district coat of arms, which was reused in 1979 on the newly designed station entrance.
The Berlin tram reached the square in 1888. The Nollendorfplatz - Steglitz line of the Berlin Steam Tram Consortium ran across the square from December 23, 1888. From 1898 the western Berlin suburban railway operated the line, which was electrified a short time later. At about the same time, the lines of the Great Berlin Tram and, from 1907, the Southern Berlin Suburban Railway touched the square.
With the opening of the Schöneberg subway in 1910, additional streets were built in this area, which was planned as a “Tyrolean quarter”. Together with the subway construction, Innsbrucker Strasse and then Wexstrasse were laid out. At that time, the underground station was still called Hauptstrasse and was built at the southern end of Innsbrucker Strasse, directly below the road surface. The tunnel was passed under the main road to create a connection to the workshop on Eisackstraße.
Up until the beginning of the First World War , individual, magnificent four-story residential buildings with shops on the ground floor were built here.
Structural development in the 1920s and 1930s
In the 1920s, access to the subway was relocated to the center of the newly created roundabout, on which there was also a tram stop.
On September 14, 1927, the square was named after the city of Innsbruck as the starting point of Innsbrucker Strasse, which has been dedicated since 1907.
From 1930 onwards, several new S-Bahn stations were built in Schöneberg, including the Innsbrucker Platz S-Bahn station on the Ringbahn, which opened in 1933. As a result, the underground station was also renamed Innsbrucker Platz (main street) .
Development after the Second World War
At the end of the Second World War, the Ringbahn was to be held as a last major line of defense by the German troops . In the course of the fighting , many buildings on Innsbrucker Platz were ultimately badly damaged or destroyed. Some buildings, such as the former four-storey house at the S-Bahn station, were poorly repaired with three floors and used for a few years.
After the underground station was badly damaged in the war, the access to the station was completely rebuilt from 1953 to 1955. The entrance to the central island was closed, instead a new entrance was created north of the square in Innsbrucker Strasse in a pavilion with glass all around in the typical style of the 1950s.
From March 1961, with the discontinuation of tram line 88 (replacement by bus line A 75), the end of the tram began at Innsbrucker Platz. This was followed in May 1962 by tram line 73 (replacement in the southern section by bus line A53) and finally in May 1963 tram lines 66 and 74 (replacement by bus lines A 83 and A 84). After the construction of the Wall in August 1961 and the resulting boycott of the S-Bahn in the western part of Berlin , bus traffic on the main and Rheinstrasse running parallel to the Wannseebahn and thus also via Innsbrucker Platz was significantly intensified. Now the double-decker buses of the BVG dominated the cityscape.
Conversion of Innsbrucker Platz to the junction of the city motorway
Between 1971 and 1979 the square was completely redesigned as part of the “car- friendly city ” concept as part of the extension of the city motorway . In this context, Bundesstrasse 1 , which for many years crossed Innsbrucker Platz on the main road, was transferred to the parallel west bypass.
During this construction phase, car traffic was diverted from the city motorway, which was in operation between the radio tower triangle and a provisional ramp at Kufsteiner Strasse, partly via secondary roads in the direction of Sachsendamm . This diversion route led in an easterly direction with two lanes via Erfurter Strasse , Heylstrasse , Innsbrucker Strasse, Fritz-Elsas-Strasse to Dominicusstrasse . In the opposite direction, the diversion route also ran with two lanes from Dominicusstrasse via Fritz-Elsas-Strasse, Erfurter Strasse, extended Heylstrasse (in the area of a former allotment garden colony) and Wexstrasse to the provisional driveway. To this end, these city streets were converted to accommodate the additional diversion traffic. One-way streets were set up in Erfurter Strasse and sections of Fritz-Elsas-Strasse . The motorway section up to Erfurter Straße was opened on December 17, 1969. In order to increase its efficiency, Dominicusstraße received four lanes in each direction with a width of only 2.50 meters as part of a special permit, as it also had to accommodate traffic from the western city center in the direction of Tempelhof . In the course of the main road, a convertible steel high road was built over Dominicusstraße from 1967 to 1968.
Due to the size of the tunnel structure to be built and the selected open construction method , the main road also had to be swiveled for several years. To do this, it swiveled to the east at the confluence of Rubensstraße in order to swivel back onto the axis of Eisackstraße. In those years Innsbrucker Platz was strongly influenced by this large construction site; the diversion route mentioned was also heavily burdened by traffic.
The present-day A 100 city motorway, which was planned as a city ring , was passed under the square with a tunnel. A large pedestrian distribution floor was arranged between the road surface and the motorway tunnel. The tunnel of the existing underground line 4 had to be cut, so that it is no longer possible to continue building the line to the south. The parking facility south of Innsbrucker Platz could no longer be used. Instead, a station shell was built for the planned U10 underground line on the main road under the motorway tunnel. In addition, the glazed access pavilion built in the 1950s was demolished and the old underground station was connected to the new pedestrian distribution floor. The pedestrian distribution floor was only partially used for a few years, which is why initially only two entrances were realized on the western side of the main street. A discount market later moved into the remaining space; At the same time, the entrances on the east side of the main street and a passenger elevator were built.
Since the opening of the motorway tunnel and the motorway junction in 1978, car traffic has dominated the square with strong turning traffic flows. Despite the use of large areas, the planners have not succeeded in arranging continuous cycle paths or cycle lanes along the main road in order to protect cyclists from the vehicles turning off.
In the course of the completion of the square at the end of the 1970s, the pedestrian areas of the square were paved with small stone paving made of red granite, which is unusual for Berlin . A replica of a large Prussian milestone was set up north of the intersection on the median of the main road . The stone coat of arms of the Berlin district of Schöneberg , originally attached to the old bridge abutment, was attached to the new access structure to the S-Bahn station.
During the Cold War , traveling on the S-Bahn operated by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in western Berlin was frowned upon. When there was a major strike by Western S-Bahn employees in the summer of 1980, several S-Bahn lines were subsequently shut down, including the western part of the ring line with the Innsbrucker Platz S-Bahn station.
Only after the political change was the first section of the renovated Südring finally reopened on December 17, 1993, including the Innsbrucker Platz S-Bahn station.
In the northern area there is a Prussian milestone on the median of the main street with the indication “1 mile to Berlin” (this corresponds to 7.53 kilometers to Dönhoffplatz ).
- Gudrun Blankenburg: Friedenau - artist's place and idyllic residential area. The history of a Berlin district . Frieling, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-8280-2350-9 (with register and enclosed monument map).
- Christel and Heinz Blumensath: The other Friedenau - walks through 125 years of art, literature and building history . District Office Schöneberg, Berlin 1996.
- Alfred Bürkner: Friedenau - streets, houses, people . Stapp-Verlag, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-87776-065-1 .
- Stefan Eggert: Walks in Schöneberg. (= Berlin reminiscences. Volume 78). Haude & Spener, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-7759-0419-0 .
- Peter Hahn, Jürgen Stich: Friedenau - history & stories . Oase Verlag 2016, ISBN 978-3-88922-107-0 .
- Arne Hengsbach: The Berlin steam tram. A contribution to the history of transport in the 19th century . In: Böttchers Kleine Eisenbahnschriften . Issue 39.Werner Böttcher Verlag, Dortmund 1966, p. 1-19 .
- An act of general interest - by liberals: A hundred years ago, Germany's first municipal subway went into operation in Schöneberg near Berlin (with a picture of the entrance pavilion of the Innsbrucker Platz subway station from 1954). At: www.signalarchiv.de , accessed on December 31, 2019.