Main Street (Berlin-Schöneberg)
|Street in Berlin|
|Old Schöneberg village church and Paul Gerhardt church in the historic Schöneberg village center|
|Created||August 27, 1881|
Potsdamer Strasse ,
Eisenacher Straße ,
Kärntener Straße ,
Koburger Straße ,
Innsbrucker Platz ,
Post Office Schöneberg ,
village church Schöneberg ,
Roxy Palace ,
Town Hall Friedenau
|User groups||Pedestrian traffic , bicycle traffic , car traffic , public transport|
|Street length||2430 meters|
The main street in Berlin's Tempelhof-Schöneberg district is the old village street of Schöneberg as well as part of an important (south-westward) arterial road in Berlin and the central traffic axis between the districts of Friedenau and Schöneberg .
Originally the main street was the central village street of the medieval village of Schöneberg, and since the middle of the 18th century it has also been that of the neighboring village of Neu-Schöneberg, a settlement of Bohemian immigrants. The Berlin-Potsdamer Chaussee , the first paved Chaussee (Landstrasse) in Prussia , opened in 1792, led u. a. over the main road from Berlin to Potsdam . Later this road became part of Reichsstraße 1 or - after the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 - Bundesstraße 1 . Today the 2.4 kilometer long street as an extension of Potsdamer Straße forms an important connection from the historical center of Berlin to the southwestern parts of Berlin in the district of Steglitz-Zehlendorf .
In the founding years , the connection between the then still independent communities was Friedenau and Schöneberg, Friedenauer Strasse . Part of it was renamed 'Hauptstrasse' in the late 1890s. The piece that remained between Innsbrucker Platz and Rheinstraße did not follow until 1907 or 1908. Like other streets in Berlin, the main street as a shopping street has undergone a significant restructuring of the retail sector in recent years, which often amounts to devaluation.
The main road follows the route from northeast to southwest:
The main street leads from Potsdamer Straße over Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz , continues through the original center of Schöneberg, crosses Dominicusstraße and reaches the Friedenau district at Innsbrucker Platz , from where it leads to Breslauer Platz . Between Grunewaldstrasse and Dominicusstrasse, it is part of Bundesstrasse 1 ; in the southern section of the federal highway 1 was relocated to this part of the city motorway after completion of the west bypass . The main street has a median along its entire length, which served as a route for the tramway running there until the 1960s . The main street is traversed by the Metrobus lines M48 and M85 throughout its entire course .
In West Berlin times it was planned to run an underground line U10 through the entire street. During the construction of the motorway ring in the 1970s, a 200-meter-long underground tunnel was built in the shell at Innsbrucker Platz. After taking over the West Berlin routes the train by the SNB at the beginning of 1984, the plans were postponed and finally abandoned finally 1,993th
Hauptstraße is part of a pilot project by the Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection for a gradual speed limit of 30 km / h on Berlin's main roads, which is to be implemented there in autumn 2018.
From Grunewaldstrasse to Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz
At the Kleistpark underground station on the U7 line , Hauptstraße begins at the intersection with Grunewaldstraße , where it extends Potsdamer Straße . This intersection is dominated by the administration building Potsdamer Strasse 188–192 , in which from 1945 to 2008 the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) had its head office.
Behind the Grunewaldstrasse, the main road runs clearly with a gradient that was created by the transition from the Berlin glacial valley to the Teltow plateau . This gradient can be followed for a few kilometers in the southern city center and the adjoining districts.
This area of the main street is characterized by people with foreign roots or foreign ancestors who (or their ancestors) have settled here since the 1960s. In addition to Turkish vegetable shops, there are supermarkets and other shops of various nationalities.
In Hauptstrasse 18 on Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz is the “women's home”, built in 1902 in the neo-renaissance style, which during the imperial era was inhabited exclusively by single wealthy women and “ senior daughters ”. These ladies were among the women who were allowed to enter the professional world (at that time mostly dominated by men) for the first time, for example teachers and doctors. The living comfort was very advanced for the time: central heating in the partially furnished rooms, dining and reading room as well as house staff.
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz was rebuilt in 2006 with the aim of connecting the large triangular central island to the eastern sidewalk and thus improving the mobility options for pedestrians and the quality of stay in this local center. Since then, right-turns coming from the south to Kolonnenstrasse are initially still guided with the main lane before they can only turn right at the end of the square into Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz and then continue into Kolonnenstrasse. On the large plaza there is a memorial plaque for the victims of the concentration camps with the title “Places of horror that we must never forget” and the names of the camps.
The old Schöneberg town hall was located on the eastern side of Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz . After the completion of the new Schöneberg Town Hall, which was known worldwide in the post-war period, on what was then Rudoph-Wilde-Platz (today's John-F.-Kennedy-Platz ) in 1914, the building was used for other purposes and destroyed in the Second World War.
At the square, the main road turns slightly in a south-westerly direction. To the east, Kolonnenstrasse branches off in the direction of the “ Red Island ” and continues as Dudenstrasse to the former Tempelhof Airport . To the north-north-east, Crellestraße (formerly: Bahnstraße ) branches off, which leads to the Großgörschenstraße S-Bahn station .
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz is the center of Schöneberg with a wide range of retail shopping opportunities, including in Kaiser-Wilhelm-Passage . In the former Hertie department store was one of the branches of the Bilka department store , a subsidiary of the Hertie group at the time , until the 1980s . Later this house was continued under the name Hertie . After the merger of Hertie Waren- und Kaufhaus GmbH with the Karstadt group, this house bore its name and initially retained it after the sale to Karstadt Kompakt GmbH & Co. KG. After the name was changed in March 2007 until it closed in August 2009, this department store was again called Hertie . Since November 2009, the ground floor of this building has been used again by a branch of the Reno shoe retail chain .
From Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz to Innsbrucker Platz
From here, the main street continues through a densely built-up area that is also used by retailers. Between Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz and Dominicusstraße , the main street crosses the historic center of Alt-Schöneberg, a medieval village founded as an anger village . You can still see traces of it: In this area, the median of the main street opens up in the shape of anger , the old small village church is still in an exposed position on the main street, as well as buildings that do not correspond to the Wilhelminian style tenement style typical of Berlin's inner city. To the north of the Dominicus- / Hauptstrasse intersection there is a remarkable concentration of churches, sacred buildings and community centers on both sides of the Hauptstrasse. In addition to the village church, there is the Catholic St. Norbert Church , the Protestant Paul Gerhardt Church and the parish of the Baptist parish in Schöneberg, as well as in Feurigstrasse the glorious Methodist church with a tower, which has been dismantled and converted into a residential church. This creates apartments in the church building. To the west of the main street, the Paul Gerhardt Church, St. Norbert, and other church buildings form a striking ensemble of buildings (on an area that bends in a ribbon-like manner to Dominicusstraße), designed according to designs by Hermann Fehling and colleagues. The village church is also included in the ensemble. To the north of the church ensemble is the cemetery of the Protestant parish from Hauptstraße all the way to Belziger Straße. The area of the Baptist Schöneberg on the east side of the main street has more of a campus character. The area extends to the parallel Feurigstrasse. In the middle of the area is the three-sided, free-standing, towerless, somewhat expressionistic church building. A multipurpose hall for the Baptist congregation is built on the back of Feurigstrasse. Numerous old buildings on the site are used by the Immanuel Diakonie , whose sponsors are the Baptists Schöneberg.
Significant buildings in this section are also buildings from the Wilhelminian era: The Schöneberg post office and some - some of them still well-preserved or restored - houses from the time when " tenement barracks " were built are located here. At the crossroads with Albertstraße you can look east to the old Schöneberg gasometer .
There are old town villas in particular on the western side. These buildings belonged to the so-called “ millions of farmers ” who sold their large estates to the city during the early days of the company and thus made a considerable fortune. On the east side was the former prelate Schöneberg , an event location of which only the listed halls in the rear part of the property have been preserved. The entire front of the building facing the main street was demolished in 2007 and a supermarket was built on. On the main street are among other things the Stadtbad Schöneberg , a police station and on a small hill the already mentioned village church Schöneberg , the oldest church in the district. To the west of the Stadtbad and the church is the Heinrich Lassen Park , named after the Berlin architect and local politician Heinrich Lassen , who lived from 1864 to 1953 .
At the intersection with Dominicusstraße (named after the former mayor Alexander Dominicus ), the route of Bundesstraße 1 branches off to the east from the main road. About 300 meters away is the Schöneberg S-Bahn station , an important transfer point between the Ringbahn and Wannseebahn . To the west you can see the Schöneberg town hall about 400 meters away .
Following the street further south there are numerous shops in the houses, up to and including houses with old buildings in different conditions. The retail sector in this area is currently in a state of structural upheaval. Many of the long-established specialist shops, such as B. Bookstores or radio dealers had to give up in the 2000s due to declining sales, migrating customers and excessive rent claims. Shops are empty for a long time or are only rented for a short time as bargain markets or the like. While the tradespeople have come together in the Rheinstrasse to the south and, in addition to joint advertising campaigns, organize the "Rheinstrasse Festival" twice a year, there have not yet been any comparable activities here to bind customers and neighbors to their shopping street.
From Innsbrucker Platz to Breslauer Platz
Behind the mouth of Martin Luther Street to reach the level of the subject on the center island Postmeilensäule the Innsbruck court . The column reminds of the historical importance of the street as a connection between old Berlin and Potsdam . In addition to some residential and commercial buildings still underground situated at the Innsbruck court is Lidl - Supermarket in a distribution level of the underground station of the planned U10 line to call.
At Innsbrucker Platz the main street changes to the Friedenau district . Here the Ringbahn crosses the main street and the city motorway passes under it under the square. The S-Bahn station Innsbrucker Platz has been an important traffic junction since 1994 after the circular line was restarted. The S-Bahn lines S41, S42 and S46 stop here on the Ringbahntrasse. In addition to the U55 line, one of the shortest underground lines in Berlin begins here - the U4 line , which consists of just four other stations and runs straight through Schöneberg to Nollendorfplatz . The square can be reached from the motorway via junction 17 - Innsbrucker Platz . In addition to the S-Bahn lines and the U-Bahn line, three bus lines operate at Innsbrucker Platz.
The smaller connections ( Innsbrucker Straße , Ebersstraße and Eisackstraße ) - which originally branched off from Innsbrucker Platz - end as dead ends in front of the square or in front of a newly created green area and can only be reached via other side streets. In the southern area of the square there is a green area with a playground.
Behind the bridge of the ring road is located behind the branch of Rubensstraße the in 1954, allegedly " atomic bomb safe built" building WK skyscraper and since 1995 listed village of Cecilie gardens . The complex can be reached from this side via Sponholzstrasse and Traegerstrasse and is one of the most successful residential complexes of the 1920s in Berlin among architecture experts.
The main street continues in a south-westerly direction to Breslauer Platz , mainly three to four-story residential buildings with spacious apartments from before 1910 being crossed. There are a few new buildings that were built in vacant lots due to the war , such as the high-rise buildings south of Innsbrucker Platz.
The building of the Roxy Palace , which opened in 1929 as a steel frame construction , is located in Hauptstrasse 78/79 . It was built as an office and commercial building (left part of the building) with an adjoining movie theater (right part with 1106 seats). The house is considered the main work of New Objectivity by the architect Martin Punitzer . The horizontally running windows of the building symbolize film strips. Here, on the night of April 4 to 5, 1986, there was an attack on the La Belle discotheque , which was located there at the time , which caused a sensation worldwide. Up until 2009 there was a carpet and wallpaper market in the former cinema room, which has been used as an organic market ever since.
Opposite, a six- to seven-storey Hertie department store designed by the architect Johann Emil Schaudt in the New Objectivity style was to be built around 1930 on the corner of Fregestraße as a “gateway” to the newly built residential complexes on Rubensstraße and Ceciliengärten . However, the construction never got beyond the planning phase.
- In the 1920s, the painter, graphic artist and fashion draftsman Rolf Niczky lived at Hauptstraße 34.
- The British musician David Bowie lived at 155 Hauptstrasse at the end of the 1970s and was inspired here, among other things, for his famous piece Heroes , which deals with love in the shadow of the East-West conflict . Rock singer Iggy Pop, who was friends with Bowie, lived in the apartment next door . The writer Jeffrey Eugenides later moved into the same house; the main street left its mark in his novel Middlesex .
- At the house at Hauptstrasse 97 there is a memorial plaque for August Bebel , the co-founder of the SPD who lived there at the time . At times he also lived at Hauptstrasse 84.
- The later Federal President Theodor Heuss lived from 1918 to 1930 on the corner of Hauptstraße in the house at Fregestraße 80. a. City councilor of Schöneberg (memorial plaque).
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Schöneberg
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Friedenau
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Schöneberg
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Schöneberg
- Main road. In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near Kaupert )
- dpa: From Monday Tempo 30 on Potsdamer Strasse . June 1, 2018 ( archive.org [accessed July 6, 2020]).
- Friedenau tells - stories from a Berlin suburb, 1914–1933 , Hermann Ebling, p. 275
- Akademie der Künste : Berlin around 1900: Exhibition of the Berlinische Galerie in connection with the Akademie der Künste for the Berliner Festwochen 1984 - Akademie der Künste, 9 September to 28 October 1984 , Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin, 1984, p. 494.