The word "indication" is used in many fields . What they all have in common is that the indication as a perceptible sign is less important in itself, but the conclusion to another fact is of great importance. It is a symptomatic feature by which something can be read or recognized. The main areas of expertise are law , as well as hunting , regional studies , medicine , philosophy or vegetation studies .
In circumstantial science, traces are understood as causal results and significant signs. In the abduction, a single result (discovered index) and a general rule are used to infer the particular case (genesis of the index). It makes it possible to derive superficially invisible phenomena from the visible evidence and from traces past as well as prognoses for future events.
In criminology , the trace is an indication and an object or a clue that is used as evidence or evidence of an act , perpetration and / or participation in a preliminary investigation . Evidence is at least evidence that points to the crime, the perpetrator, individual acts , the motive , the object of the crime or other facts relevant to the evidence. Thus, from fingerprints (indication) on the murder weapon closed on its use by the offender.
An indication is a fact from the presence of which it is possible to infer another fact. Specifically, indications are indirectly significant facts from which logical conclusions can be drawn about a main fact - the immediate evidence - according to empirical rules. Circumstances are thus auxiliary facts of the evidence. A criminal trial in which there is neither a confession from the accused nor witnesses to the crime is colloquially referred to as a circumstantial trial . If an overall assessment of all available evidence is sufficient to prove the perpetrator, the guilt of the accused can also be proven in this way. Even if none of the respective circumstantial facts on their own are sufficient to prove the culprit of the accused, there is the possibility that they could convey the relevant conviction to the court in their entirety .
The evidence in civil proceedings draws its logical power from life experience . It is only useful if, alone or with other circumstantial evidence, it compels us to conclude that the main fact in dispute is true and excludes other possibilities. Useful circumstantial evidence can only be used in a court judgment if it is indisputable, obvious or proven. The contested, useful evidence needs to be proven and is the subject of evidence, but not evidence .
In civil proceedings there is circumstantial evidence . Circumstantial evidence is evidence in which a fact that is only indirectly significant is inferred from another fact that is directly relevant to the judicial decision. The circumstantial evidence is both the intellectual inference from the evidence to the main fact in dispute and the evidence of the evidence in dispute. The burden of proof for the circumstantial facts is borne by the person who also has to prove the main fact.
An increased proportion of workers in a spatial statistical unit can be assessed as an indication of a socially inferior living area and a small or missing proportion of workers as an indication of living areas of the middle or upper class.
Changes in speaking behavior are important signs of cognitive-mental processes (e.g. increased slip of the tongue as an indication of increased cognitive stress ) or emotional states (increase in speaking speed as an indication of emotional excitement). Increased breaks or longer break time may be an indication that someone is straight out of the impromptu talks.
Aristotle saw the evidence as a ground of knowledge that consists of a perceptible fact from which, with some probability, the truth of a proposition can be inferred. He distinguished from the probable indication ( ancient Greek σημεῖον , semeion, "sign, signal") the absolutely certain sign ( ancient Greek τεκμήριον , tekmérion).
When hunting , the type of track is taken as an indication that a certain animal species has been in the area. In meteorology , the type of cloud formation is a sure indicator of an imminent change in weather . Rain clouds indicate the onset of rain for a short time , whereas fair weather clouds indicate a time when there is no precipitation. In general, clouds at higher altitudes are an indication of drought, high atmospheric pressure and signal good weather. The climatology calls her evidence "air signals". Anyone looking for evidence of climate change must precisely examine the weather patterns over the past decades and centuries. One of the indicators of climate change is global warming , which is due to a worldwide rise in temperature .
- Dudenredaktion, Duden - German Universal Dictionary: The comprehensive dictionary of meanings . 2015, p. 916 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Gerhard Hard : Encounter on a track . In: ders .: Hard-Ware. 1990, p. 25 f.
- Gerhard Hard: Encounter on a track . In: ders .: Hard-Ware. 1990, p. 76 f.
- Peter Kurz, Michael Machatschek, Alleebäume: When trees should grow into the wood, into the leaves and into the fruit . 2008, p. 125 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Alpmann Brockhaus: Fachlexikon Recht . 2005, p. 718.
- Gerhard Köbler : Etymological legal dictionary . 1995, p. 198.
- Marcus Schiltenwolf, Markus Schwarz (ed.): Lexicon - assessment in medicine . 2013, p. 118 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- BVerfG NJW 1993, 2165
- BGH, judgment of November 25, 1982, Az. 4 StR 564/82 = NStZ 83, 133 , 134
- Kurt Schellhammer: civil trial . 2016, p. 243 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- BGH NJW 1989, 3161
- Marcus Schiltenwolf, Markus Schwarz (ed.): Lexicon - assessment in medicine . 2013, p. 116.
- Henriette Meynen: Research on German regional studies . Volumes 210-211, 1978, p. 246.
- Dieter Masak: The Architecture Review: approach, concepts and practices . 2010, p. 255.
- Lars Felgner: Nonverbal Communication in Medical Interpreting . 2017, p. 59.
- Aristotle, Rhetorik I , 2.1357b, 1–14
- Beat Glogger: Hot time: Climate changes and natural disasters in Switzerland . 1998, p. 7 ( limited preview in Google book search).