According to the EN ISO 10075 standard, psychological stress is "the totality of all detectable influences that come from the outside and have a psychological effect on people." According to the VDU work regulations (see also EN ISO 9241 ), many workplaces are now required to do so of the employer to determine and assess psycho-mental stress. In contrast to psychological stress, psychological stress is "the immediate (not the long-term) effect of psychological stress in the individual, depending on his or her current and ongoing conditions, including individual coping strategies".
According to EN ISO 10075, one can also speak of mental stress . The subject of the norm is therefore not some kind of individual psychological deficit of a person, but the burden on mind and soul . Psycho-mental stress is the appropriate term for this. Psychosocial distress is another term that is used in the discussion of psychological distress.
Mental stress has an effect on people based on a situation. You are using his resources. The term stress describes a characteristic of situations and not characteristics of people. In contrast to the term stress, the term stress describes "the unspecific reaction of the organism to any form of stress". A psychological burden that causes stress is called a stressor .
Depending on the type of stress and the individual psychological requirements, stress - and stress as a reaction to stress - can have both harmful and stimulating effects. Stimulating stress can contribute to personal development and health in the long term. Work is usually a psychological burden on people. What is important here is the difference between legitimate exposure and incorrect exposure . Harmful stress is the result of improper exercise and can lead to fatigue and psychosomatic illnesses.
Burnout or boreout, depression, anxiety disorders, addictions, ADD / ADHD or phobias are considered clinical pictures that are on an equal footing with physical disorders and are now among the so-called widespread diseases .
Almost every third German between the ages of 18 and 65 suffers from a mental disorder at least once a year. Anxiety disorders occupy a top position with 14.5%, followed by disorders caused by psychotropic substances (e.g. alcohol, drugs), affective disorders (e.g. depression, mania, bipolar disorders) and somatoform disorders (e.g. B. physically unjustifiable pain).
On average, women are more likely to suffer from mental health problems. An exception is the abuse of psychotropic substances, which is more of a male domain. The focus here is on alcohol.
Stressful situations can be fulfilling or rejected as undesirable. It can be situations of external control and subordination. Psycho-mental stress can be associated with both success and failure. The hardest to cope with are psycho-mental stresses that are the result of irreversible losses. Acute stress reactions through to trauma and post-traumatic stress disorders are possible consequences in such cases.
Stressful situations are not limited to working life. Diverse psychosocial stress factors occur in family and private life, also influenced by the individual social situation. School- related psychological and physical stress also occur among schoolchildren .
Psycho-mental stress in the workplace
Meaning of psychomental stress
"Mental illness characterize the disease process," the Federation of reported Betriebskrankenkassen (BKK) in its Health Report 2008. According to the report "show employee surveys that mental faulty demands associated not only with mental health disorders, but also with generally poorer health conditions."
Attention to psychological stress is "one-sidedly directed to a certain section of social reality - working life", complained the Federation of German Employers' Associations (BDA) in a "position paper" in May 2005 . In contradiction to this, however, there are only a few companies in Germany that actually take psycho-mental stresses in the workplace into account in the risk assessments required by the Occupational Safety and Health Act and have concluded corresponding company agreements with employee representatives. Even in 2008 it was stated: “The risk assessment for psychological stress that has been required in the Occupational Safety and Health Act since 1996 is only practiced in a very small number of companies. Violations against it are hardly punished. ”A survey of employees“ reveals a frightening picture of the work situation in the company, especially through the combination of risk factors. There seem to be major deficits in the practical implementation of occupational safety and health . In particular, work overload , based on work intensification , overtime and overtime may be based, is a common phenomenon. "
Scope and frequency
As a sub-area of workloads , psycho-mental stresses have been developing into a serious topic in the world of work for years and have therefore also found their way into the legal regulation of modern occupational safety as “a form of social movement against the consequences of the utilization of labor at the expense of life and health Health of their owners ”. In men alone, the proportion of psycho-mental stress in working life increased by 82 percent between 1994 and 2003, according to a study presented in May 2005 by the AOK Scientific Institute (WIdO) . The annual reports to the Bundestag on the occurrence of occupational diseases also show that the proportion of psychological stress is increasing among all health stresses in the workplace. According to reports from the Federal Government and the Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), the number of days absent due to mental illness in 2001 accounted for 6.6% of all days due to illness and accidents in that year. In 2002 the share was 7.0%, in 2003 9.7%, in 2004 and 2005 it was 10.5%. A share of 10.6% was achieved in 2006.
According to a study published by Techniker Krankenkasse in March 2009, the number of mentally-related incapacity for work in Bavaria has increased by 15% since 2000, while the number of sick leave decreased by 7% in the same period. Possible causes of the increase were increasing pressure to perform and emotional exhaustion due to persistent concerns about the economic situation and the job.
The BKK Health Report 2010 lists mental illness in fourth place as the reason for absent days and names psychosocial stress at work as one of the most important work-related stresses. Not a lack of motivation, the amount of work, the need to be available or the simultaneous execution of several work tasks are the main triggers of psychological problems in the workplace; rather, three factors should be emphasized that correlate most strongly with the occurrence of psychological problems:
- when tasks are rarely manageable,
- when they are rarely perceived as useful or
- if there is no appreciation from the supervisor or customer.
In 2007, work-related stress and anxiety in the EU were more common among adults aged 25 to 44 than older or younger people, women more often than men, and employees in large organizations more often than in smaller ones.
In France , according to a study published in November 2017 that was carried out on over 32,000 employees in 39 companies from mid-2013 to mid-2017 and is not representative, 24% of employees are in a state of "hyperstress" (excessive stress). The biggest stressor is work.
Connection with social developments
The Federal Ministry of Labor puts the need to also prevent psychological disorders through occupational health care in connection with changes in working life : “The changes in the world of work bring new stresses and strains to employees. Musculoskeletal and mental illnesses are on the rise. At the same time, the demographic development requires a significant extension of the working life. "
According to Leo Nefiodow, the macroeconomic development of the economy and society lacks “above all psychosocial health. The greatest barrier to growth at the end of the fifth Kondratiev is the high cost of social entropy ”. As early as 1930, a paper by the “Deutsche Krankenkasse” said: “In ten or fifteen years you will only see that the numbers of accidents and physical occupational diseases caused by gases, dust particles, fumes and the effects of moisture are caused by nervous and mental diseases and Ailments will be replaced and their dimensions will perhaps surpass those known so far. ”“ Depressive moods ”as a result of persistent stress in the workplace already ranks fourth in the global burden of illness.
In their book Die Auszehrende Organization: Performance and Health in a Demanding Working Environment , the authors Dietrich von der Oelsnitz, Frank Schirmer and Kerstin Wüstner speak of "emaciation" of employees and differentiate between a "classic" and a "modern" inhumanization of work . The “classic” inhumanization results from Taylor's work rationalization and brings about a systematic physical overstrain (including wear-and-tear diseases) with mental underload (monotony, alienation) and social isolation , which is therefore considered inhuman. On the other hand, modern inhumanization demands the employees in the psychological area through "rushing to work, intensifying work, delimitation" (the authors cite the DGB Index 2012 Good Work ) with demands in the psychosocial area that are often excessive. They offer an explanatory model for this that is based on "unethical leadership", which can be explained on the basis of several factors: on the one hand due to "bad leaders" with phenomena such as narcissism , psychopathy and Machiavellianism , on the other hand due to "poorly led" by uncritical thinking and passivity towards the Leadership coupled with a hope for reward, and thirdly due to "bad situations" such as the destruction of the intrinsic motivation of the leaders through unimaginably high remuneration as well as a transfer of "normal" leadership into "celebrity CEOs", which results in management positions for egomaniacal personalities have become more interesting.
Areas of psycho-mental stress
According to EN ISO 10075, negative consequences of improper mental stress are to be avoided in the following areas:
- Tasks and activities,
- Work equipment,
- Working environment,
- Work organization,
- temporal organization of work.
EN ISO 9241 is not limited to the technical aspects of screen work and other human-machine interfaces, but the standard also
- maintaining social contacts,
- avoiding unreasonable time pressure,
- promoting well-being
thematized. The last point shows that the norm goes beyond simply avoiding improper loading.
Appendix C.4 of the BS OHSAS 18002: 2008 standard lists examples of inappropriate psychological stress ("psychological threats"):
- Work overload
- Lack of communication or guidance from management
- Workplace environment
- physical violence
- Bullying or intimidation
Causes of psychological stress from the perspective of IG-Metall :
- Excessive demands (e.g. due to excessive workload or insufficient qualification for the respective work requirements),
- Underload (only part of the human performance is required, e.g. in monotonous assembly or flow work),
- Unergonomic working hours (due to long duration, unfavorable location and distribution or lack of predictability),
- social conflicts (with superiors and / or colleagues),
- Difficulties in carrying out the work (e.g. due to poor lighting, noise).
From the point of view of organizational psychology, incorrect mental stress has the following causes:
- Time pressure,
- Competition between different tasks and the associated "task switching" or " multitasking ",
- Complexity of tasks with a lot of information from many sources,
- other stressors such as heat, noise, drugs, lack of sleep and other physical impairments that distract from work tasks.
In its resolution of the 115th German Medical Association 2012, the German Medical Association stated that chronic excessive demands and chronic stress at work can also lead to psychological or psychosomatic illnesses and lists in particular:
- Sick working conditions and job structures include a .: Increased workload, time , competition and performance pressure, high demands with little influence on the work process, lack of recognition by superiors, lack of gratuity, excessive demands due to permanent changes ("flexibility"), continuous monitoring and control, inadequate remuneration, precarious work situation Temporary work, mini-jobs and "top-ups", fixed-term employment contracts, fear of job loss, uncertain life planning in the absence of a livelihood, double burden of work, family and care, delimitation of work due to constant availability via mobile phone and e-mail, night work and shift work, insufficient opportunities for recreation with too little time for family and social contacts, bullying, being forced to be self-employed without a living income and self-exploitation.
Risk assessment and participation
According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, psycho-mental stress must be taken into account in the risk assessment . The risk assessments do not describe individual psychological sensitivities and in particular not psychopathological sensitivities of employees, but rather psycho-mental stress caused by work processes and working environments. If employees are asked for a risk assessment, then they answer as an expert on their task and their work environment and not to describe their personal psycho-mental state.
The aim of the risk assessment is to permanently design working conditions in a humane manner:
- the work design must take into account the physical and psychological conditions of the person,
- the work must be feasible, must not be harmful and should promote the employee's development,
- In the long run, the work must contain a balanced amount of stress,
- Work tasks should offer control options, be diverse and include cooperation and development opportunities.
The prerequisite for the preparation of a risk assessment is not the existence of a specific risk, because a risk that is to be avoided according to the Occupational Safety and Health Act occurs when the possibility of damage or impairment to health without specific requirements regarding its extent or its probability of occurrence occurs consists.
Resolutions of the Federal Labor Court of June 8, 2004 confirmed that works councils have an obligation to exercise their full right of co-determination in the design and implementation of risk assessments . Since there is a very wide scope for discretion in the implementation of occupational health and safety, especially in the area of psycho-mental stress, the works councils' options for co-determination are particularly extensive in this area.
The promotion of occupational safety in the area of psychomental stress is a special task and obligation of employers, works councils and the occupational safety authorities. For reasons of cost, health insurance companies and professional associations are interested in taking greater account of psychomentally inappropriate stresses in occupational safety , while employee representatives and authorities have the same interest due to their tasks.
As a cost factor, psycho-mental stress only presents itself to the employer if it can be assigned sufficiently clearly to corresponding periods of absence or if liability arises. However, absenteeism can also be reduced by measures that do not serve to reduce incorrect workloads. Responsibility and liability can be minimized by influencing the observation of psychomental stress.
Many changes in the area of corporate management have in common the shift of complexity to the employee, which can be represented as an enrichment of tasks . Such measures elude their nature according to an unequivocal observation, but lead to clearly observable increases in efficiency. Thus, in the area of workload, which was previously difficult to regulate under collective agreements, the demands on employees could be increased more difficultly than in areas in which the workload was easier to measure. For employers, therefore, an increasingly conscious thematisation of psycho-mental stress means that the shifting of costs to employees in the form of psycho-mental stress, brought about by changed management principles, can now be perceived more clearly and thus become the subject of responsibility, liability and negotiations.
An example of management concepts that change the psycho-mental stress on employees in a complex and difficult-to-measure way are matrix organizations in which an employee has to serve several project managers as "internal customers" and has to organize their stress "independently", with the change between different processes ("task switching") is just one of many challenges. Another example of changes in psycho-mental stress are the constructs of the employee as an “entrepreneur in the company” ( intrapreneur ) or as a “business partner”, which lead to a redistribution of responsibility to lower hierarchies (occasionally accompanied by a flattening of the hierarchies presented as democratization ), without necessarily being accompanied by a corresponding redistribution of resources and decision-making powers. “Early capitalism was based on the exploitation of labor, today's capitalism is based on the exploitation of responsibility. … The old irreconcilability is removed from the company and redeclared as a private problem for the new employee-entrepreneur. "
BDA position paper
The obstacles that employee representatives and authorities face in the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act become clear in the position paper of the Confederation of German Employers' Associations. The main points of attack are summarized in the conclusion of the paper. The "complexity" and the "many facets" make risk assessments more difficult, which in the view of the employers' association are only necessary if there are specific risks. However, the law enforces the observation and documentation of the risk per se, i.e., if necessary, the employer's responsibility to establish that there is no risk from psycho-mental stress. This determination can then be verified by the employee and employee representatives.
Furthermore, the employers' association explains that employers are not responsible for the individual psychological condition and psychological stress outside of working life. However, these private burdens are not the subject of occupational health and safety anyway, which in turn could bring the transformation of professional burdens into private problems more into focus.
The increase in psychological stress is doubted because the advances in the area of other hazards lead to more attention to psychological stress. The question of whether the “massive increase in incapacity for work in the 'Mental and behavioral disorders' category in a relatively short time” was just an “artifact” was answered by the DAK after an expert survey : “The majority of experts come to the conclusion that it is actually there are more cases. But they also consider it important that general practitioners discover or correctly diagnose mental illnesses more frequently. "
Further points of attack are listed in the position paper of the employers' association at various points: The competence for occupational safety would primarily lie in the hands of the employer, the competence of authorities, health insurance companies and trade unions is sometimes called into question. Psychological stress has positive and in "individual cases" negative effects. The practicability of procedures for recording psychomental stress and the ISO standard 10075 are questioned. The high degree of co-determination demanded by works councils is particularly questioned .
Measures can be taken against psycho-mental stress that are intended to bring about improvements both at the individual level and at the organizational level. In occupational safety, however, individual protective measures are “subordinate to other measures”. First of all, the employer has to assess the psychologically effective risks associated with their work for the employees and then decide which occupational safety measures are required. In companies with works councils or staff councils, this is subject to co-determination by the employee representatives.
Implementation of laws and regulations
At the company level, the consistent implementation of the laws and regulations of occupational safety in the area of psycho-mental stress is the most effective measure to ward off psycho-mental stress, because materials and tools based on these regulations and the associated standards are used to implement the Occupational Safety and Health Act in the area of psycho-mental stress abundantly available. In many cases, the apparent complexity of the topic arises only from a lack of knowledge of the instruments of modern occupational safety. The existing instruments for the perception of psychomental stress are hardly used, which leads to a self-reinforcing misunderstanding of the importance of incorrect stress in this area. A lack of knowledge often induces even works councils to neglect the topic, even though the tools available alone show that there are clear action aids with which a very structured approach is possible. The first and decisive step is the risk assessment described above. Personnel departments, together with works councils who are obliged to participate, must adapt the existing generic risk assessment tools to the needs of their company. This can be done in the form of a company agreement .
The Works Council Constitution Act gives works councils the opportunity to secure all the resources they need to deal with the issue, because safeguarding occupational health and safety is not only an obligation of employers, but also of employee representatives. When implementing occupational safety in the area of psycho-mental stress, knowledge is the most important basis for successful work. Good knowledge and practical experience in the application of the Works Constitution Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act and case law are required, because laws and judgments not only provide knowledge, but also actions that are required for the enforcement of occupational safety and health. Employee representatives also find good support from trade unions, insurance companies, employers' liability insurance associations, the trade supervisory authorities and, last but not least, from other works councils that have already successfully implemented occupational safety in the area of psycho-mental stress.
Implementation difficulties from the point of view of the authorities
In their practical guide to instruction (2006), INQA and BAuA report: “Although companies have been obliged by the Occupational Safety and Health Act since 1996 to determine physical and psychological workloads at the workplace as part of a risk assessment and to keep them as low as possible this is still not implemented in many companies. Above all, psychological workloads are still hardly taken into account. "
The results of current research projects for the implementation of the risk assessment from the perspective of the BAuA:
- Lack of willingness to act: Without the impetus from trade unions, works councils or occupational health and safety authorities (isolated), companies usually do not take up the subject of "psychological stress" as an object of the risk assessment (GB).
- Little competence to act: Neither company nor supra-company occupational safety actors have sufficient competence in dealing with the topic of "psychological stress".
- Difficult cooperation: from the works council, employer and occupational health and safety actors at the GB on psychological stress or inadequate coordination between the actors.
The Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia described obstacles in the implementation in five categories: acceptance, complexity, perceptibility, assessment and design.
Addressing psycho-mental stress
In order for psycho-mental stress to be taken into account in occupational safety, it must be clearly addressed and perceived in the company. Largely independent of company management, works councils can also create structures that guarantee special confidentiality when advising employees by members of the works council. This can, for example, be done specifically with technical aids that enable anonymous communication between works council members and employees in compliance with the provisions of data protection . Another measure is cooperation with external consultants , which works councils can recommend to the employees they support.
- Degree of influence on work: To what extent can the work be determined at one's own discretion?
- Working speed: control over work intensity , breaks , etc.
- Workflow : Can you influence what is to be done when and in which order?
- Influence on the physical environment : heat, light, ventilation, organization of the workplace, etc.
- Meetings of decisions : to what extent can decisions be influenced, have an impact on their own work?
- Social interaction : To what extent does an employee have the freedom (and e.g. the time) to collaborate with colleagues?
- Social mobility : can the employee easily switch tasks ?
A participatory management style (for example in the form of participatory productivity management ) improves the employees' control of their work and is one of the most effective instruments with which companies can increase the resilience of employees. The participation of the employees in decisions must not be limited to mere hearing and the application of the listening techniques learned by the manager, but there must be actual authorization of the employees. Not only managed employees are severely affected by this, but especially managers at the lowest management levels who are under great pressure from both the lowest and the next higher hierarchical level. You can effectively relieve yourself and your employees if you give your employees actual decision-making powers and the associated resources . In companies with a works council, managers who are not executives are also clients of works councils, as are the employees of these managers.
With suitable measures, stress can be reduced and resilience (psychology) or resistance can be improved. If this is not possible with an acceptable amount of effort and with the help of people you trust, an attempt can be made on an individual level to avoid an incorrect burden. Possibilities and methods for individual coping and for reducing psychologically stressful stress are summarized under the term stress management .
The increasing importance of psycho-mental stress is also evident from the correspondingly large range of advisory literature on "self-help". For example, on the subject of " burnout ", more than 300 titles can be found at a large internet bookseller. In accordance with their nature, self-help books mainly address the individual "responsible" level, which is particularly important in professional life where the individual can achieve little at an organizational level. The quality range of the advice literature in this area is very wide and ranges from authors with solid psychological and uncompromised basic training to advice books that have worked their way up from the esoteric area to the psychology shelf and assign the individual full responsibility for his psychomental well-being.
In February 2009, the German salaried health insurance company reported on a significant increase in self-medication in the workplace under the main topic "Doping in the workplace". When asked in an interview with the Süddeutsche Zeitung on the subject of "stress, ambition and drug abuse", the psychologist Frank Meiners described around 400,000 to 800,000 people affected as "real dopers". Not the absolute numbers, but the trend in drug abuse is worrying. “Experts suspect that it is primarily professional groups such as managers, stockbrokers, journalists and doctors who dope. Particularly affected are people who are in a very deregulated work situation - i.e. everyone who works a lot of overtime, has to work at night or is otherwise heavily stressed. Another result of our study is that more healthy women take medication than healthy men: 23.5 percent have doped before, and only 11.5 percent of men. "
Conversation with confidants
In addition to the often lengthy and tough work at the organizational level, employee representatives can also help to support immediate measures at the individual level in the event of a psycho-mental stress. An immediate measure that can be implemented very quickly in practice in dealing with harmful psycho-mental stress is for the individual affected employee to talk to someone they trust in good time , in particular with family members and the family doctor, but also with works council members and social advisors. The exposure situation and the possible lack of a sufficiently realistic risk assessment should be recorded in writing. In the works council, if any, affected employees will find contact persons, for example in the committees, which deal with occupational safety and the compatibility of family and work and can investigate and document the absence or incompleteness of risk assessments at company level.
Strict confidentiality must be observed when advising employees individually. In a radio broadcast on the topic of warning signals - mental health at work , a works council member of a large service company warned that “dismissals for personal reasons” could be a consequence of companies learning about mental health problems of their employees: “We have seen mental illnesses more likely serve as a template for the employer to kick out ailing people who cannot get through the production process. We have seen that there is not very much support at the labor court either, which means that the employer is usually entitled to such terminations. ”Depending on the corporate culture, it can therefore make sense for employees to look for advice by doctors or organizations ensure that there is a sufficient safety distance between their advisor and the company. Suitable advisory institutions can be found, for example, through the occupational medicine institutes of the universities, employee organizations and also in the church sector.
In 2004 the European social partner organizations ( Businesseurope , UEAPME , CEEP and ETUC ) concluded the social partner agreement on psychosocial stress at work . This is a voluntary agreement and not a binding EU directive. On this basis, most of the EU countries introduced legal regulations to protect against health-endangering psychological stress in the workplace and equated them with the risks of noise, light, vibration, toxins, etc.
Germany only included the risk assessment with regard to psychological stress in 2013, after most EU countries had already established binding regulations for the reduction of psychosocial stress in the workplace.
- "14 Points of the Management Program" by William Edwards Deming
- Work psychology
- Industrial and organizational psychology
- Burnout syndrome
- Workplace Health Promotion
- Cognitive Load Theory (theory of cognitive load in learning)
- Risk assessment
- Bonus crisis
- Good work
- Short procedure psychological stress
- Self-efficacy expectation
- Stress from the threat to the self
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- Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Psychological stress and strain in professional life. Recognize - create. , 2002, ISBN 3-88261-431-5
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- R. Satzer, M. Geray: Stress - Psyche - Gesundheit, the START procedure for risk assessment of workloads , Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-7663-3683-5
- Martin Seidl: Health impairments and strains of company interest representatives , 1999 Munich, ISBN 978-3-87988-373-8 (doctoral dissertation, Vienna 1998; good as an introduction for works councils to the topic of mental stress based on their own stress situation)
- Federal Association of Accident Insurance Funds (Munich): GUV information for the accident insurance companies
- Mental health at work in Germany - Report of the Professional Association of German Psychologists (April 22, 2008) (PDF; 1.26 MB)
- Federal Labor Office: Database for practical aids for risk assessment, psychological stress
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- Toolbox: Instruments for recording mental stress and checklist - mental stress - Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA)
- Psychological stress at the workplace - Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA Dresden, author: Gabriele Richter) (PDF; 619 kB)
- Mental workload and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders - Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA)
- PRIMA-EF : Guidelines on the European framework for action for psychosocial risk management. A handbook for employers and employee representatives. (PDF; 651 kB)
- Risk assessment in the event of psychological stress: German and European approaches and experiences - Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (sponsor of the BAuA project "Risk assessment in practice"), workshop documents, 2008
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- Psychological stress - District government Düsseldorf
- Mental stress in the workplace - Bavarian State Office for Health and Food Safety
- Psychosocial Risks - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
- Prevention online - independent portal for occupational safety, health protection, environmental protection and quality
- Psycho-mental stress is caused by working conditions - website developed during works council work with links that are updated about weekly
- Max Weber: On the psychophysics of industrial work at Zeno.org
Germany, differentiated according to activity or industry
- Between innovation and everyday guerrilla warfare: On the stress situation of IT employees - Erich Latniak and Anja Gerlmaier, Institute for Work and Technology at the Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences, IAT Report 2006-04, (PDF; 295 kB)
- A new stress situation in the IT industry - what to do? (PDF; 403 kB), guidelines for sustainable health promotion - Andreas Boes, Tobias Kämpf, Katrin Trinks, 2009
- Perspective89 - Stress on teachers and school lessons
- Perspective89 - Review: Stress and demands on teachers
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- DIN EN ISO 10075, Ergonomic basics with regard to mental workload .
- BAG: Decision 1 ABR 4/03 of June 8, 2004: "According to § 3 of the VDU work regulations, the employer has to determine and determine the safety and health conditions for VDU workstations, especially with regard to a possible risk to eyesight as well as physical problems and psychological stress to judge."
- In English, the title for the standard is "Ergonomic Principles Related To Mental Workload " . In summary, with the one used in the German version concept of psychological distress , this results in the concept of psycho-mental stress , with its use to be associated with mental disorder is avoided.
- BDP report: p. 55 in the report of the Professional Association of German Psychologists , Mental Health at Work in Germany . ( Memento of the original from November 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) April 22, 2008.
- Hans Selye: Hormones and Resistance , 1971.
- Stressoren , BAuA Glossary, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
- Dr. Michael Jost: Psychological stress in everyday life. In: Psychotherapy. Dr. Michael Jost, April 3, 2018, accessed May 9, 2018 .
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- Federal Association of Company Health Insurance : BKK Health Report 2008 ( Memento of the original from December 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Federal Association of German Employers: Position of the employers on the importance of mental stress at work . ( Memento of the original from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 406 kB) May 2005, ISBN 978-3-938349-05-2 .
- Michael Kittner: Occupational Safety and Health Act - Basic Commentary ... , 4th edition 2007, ISBN 978-3-7663-3788-7 .
- P. Braun describes the positive example of a general works agreement : At Daimler AG, mental stress is now systematically collected , BAUA ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) Data: ND: 061315, SO: Gute Arbeit, CN: ZS0845, IM: 20 (2008), No. 4, pp. 30–31 (1 fig.).
- Only through the arbitration board did the works council of Sick AG, with the help of the University of Freiburg, introduce a risk assessment. M. Böhm: Sick AG: Implemented with a holistic risk assessment against increasing work pressure , BAUA ( page can no longer be accessed , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) Data: ND: 059780, SO: Gute Arbeit, CN: ZS0845, IM: 19 (2007) No. 5, pp. 18-20.
- R. Satzer: A holistic risk assessment includes mental stress , BAUA ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) Data: ND: 061132, SO: Gute Arbeit CN: ZS0845 IM: 20 (2008) No. 3, pp. 32–33 (Fig.).
- Training Course for Addressing the Risk at Workplace ( Memento of the original from May 10, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. : "TRIA" project, questionnaire evaluation on occupational safety . ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 27 kB) 2005 (data collection).
- Michael Kittner: Occupational Safety and Health Act ... , p. 18, para. 3.
- Scientific Institute of the AOK : Mental illnesses increasingly lead to incapacity for work ( Memento of the original from December 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ( PDF ( Memento of the original from October 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this note. ), May 10, 2005.
- Bundestag : Psychological stress in occupational diseases .
- ICD-10 diagnostic group . Usual, instead of the concept of today mental illness the concept of mental disorder to use.
- BDP report: Table 3, p. 10
- Bundestag printed paper 16/7704 (PDF; 1.9 MB), report by the federal government on the status of safety and health at work and on accident and occupational diseases in the Federal Republic of Germany in 2006 , p. 29, table 10.
- More and more mental illnesses. www.die-topnews.de, March 25, 2009, accessed on March 25, 2009 . .
- BKK Health Report 2010: Health in an aging society. (PDF, 5.68 MB) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved February 13, 2011 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. P. 15 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- BKK Health Report 2010: Health in an aging society. (PDF, 5.68 MB) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved February 13, 2011 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. P. 73 ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- BKK Health Report 2010: Health in an aging society. (PDF, 5.68 MB) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved February 13, 2011 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. P. 74 ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Statistical report from the EU, quoted from: Sicherheit und Gesundheit am Social Agenda , No. 25, November 2010, , pp. 23–24, see p. 24, last section. , in:
- A quart des salariés français sont dans un "état d'hyperstress" qui met leur santé en danger. In: franceinfo. Retrieved November 28, 2017 (French).
- Observatoire de la santé psychologique au travail. In: http://www.stimulus-conseil.com/ . Retrieved November 28, 2017 (French).
- Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs : Occupational Health Care ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , February 6, 2007 (The approval of the Federal Ministry of Labor took place in an announcement of the draft bill for that came into force on 24 December 2008 Regulation on the simplification and strengthening of occupational health care (ArbMedVV). The ArbMedVV is a subject of occupational health care . Its focus is on Physiological stress. In the area of psycho-mental stress, the freedom of employers and employee representatives remains largely unaffected.)
- BDP report, p. 11 and Leo Nefiodow: The sixth Kondratieff: Paths to productivity and full employment in the age of information , 2000, p. 136.
- BDP report, p. 49 and Hans Mayer-Daxlanden: The influence of flow work on the health of the American worker , 1930, Deutsche Krankenkasse, 17, column 551.
- Lennart Levi: Spice of Life or Poison Breath of Death? , 2002, In: magazine, 5 (Stress lass! Conscious handling of stress), pp. 11–13.
- Dietrich von der Oelsnitz, Frank Schirmer, Kerstin Wüstner: The wasting organization: Performance and health in a demanding working environment , Springer-Verlag, 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-05307-9 . Pp. 114-115 .
- Dietrich von der Oelsnitz, Frank Schirmer, Kerstin Wüstner: The wasting organization: Performance and health in a demanding working environment , Springer-Verlag, 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-05307-9 . Pp. 117-121 .
- Jens Gäbert, Brigitte Maschmann-Schulz: Codetermination in health protection. 2nd edition, 2008, ISBN 978-3-7663-3870-9 .
- BSI , authorized translation Gerd Reinartz / Ludger Pautmeier: OHSAS 18002: 2008 - Occupational health and safety management systems - Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS 18001: 2007 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically defective marked. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Andrea Fergen, Brigitte Kurzer: Assessing psychological stress - but how? An operational tool for risk assessments , Industrial Union of Metal 2005, No. 5706-9249 .
- Christine Doyle: Work and Organizational Psychology. An Introduction with Attitude. , Chapter 4 (pp. 111-158): A Study of Stress: Design of Environments and of Work 2003, ISBN 978-0-415-20872-7 .
- Kermit Pattison: Worker, Interrupted: The Cost of Task Switching ( Memento of the original from September 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , July 28, 2008.
- VI - 96 Stress at work makes you sick ( memento of the original from December 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Resolution, 115th German Medical Association 2012, German Medical Association.
- ver.di Northern District: Risk assessment according to the Occupational Safety and Health Act ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , info No. 3, October 2007.
- BAG: Codetermination in Health Protection, 1 ABR 13/03 and 1 ABR 4/03, June 8, 2004.
- Martin Resch, Andreas Blume: Discussed a thousand times and yet nothing happened (for the implementation of the risk assessment), BIT Bochum , Computer Fachwissen No. 2/2004 and 3/2004 (The article did not take into account the judgment that went beyond the legal position presented there of the Federal Labor Court of June 8, 2004, according to which risk assessments are to be made even if there are no specific risks of psychomental stress.)
- Influencing the observation: reducing the perceived "dissonance" between desire and reality by influencing perception.
- "Human Capital as Business Partner", found in a description of the goals of the Goinger Kreis, an association of personnel experts from various German companies.
- Andreas Zielcke: The new double. The transformation of the employee into an entrepreneur - a contemporary physiognomy . In: FAZ , July 20, 1996, Pictures and Times.
- BDP report: p. 10.
- Occupational Safety and Health Act ,
- Rolf Satzer, Max Geray: Stress - Psyche - Health. The START procedure for risk assessment of workloads , 2008 (2nd edition), ISBN 978-3-7663-3683-5
- Archive link ( Memento of the original from December 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Presentation by Ina Krietsch and Thomas Langhoff, Prospektiv GmbH, Dortmund; for BAuA / GRAziL (PDF; 542 kB).
- blog.psybel.de »Blog Archive» Do you want to use the “PsyBel” survey instrument? ..
- Bayerischer Rundfunk, B5 am Sonntag: Health magazine from December 14, 2008 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , in the podcast from minute 10 the article: Warning signals - Mental health at work as reporting on the event Mental health at work - Dangers and warning signals between burn-out and depression ( memento of the original from May 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. with the speaker Peter Angerer (Institute and Polyclinic for Occupational and Environmental Medicine at LMU Munich).
- New Quality of Work initiative : good leadership. Avoid psychological stress . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) INQA report No. 10, 2008, ISBN 3-86509-434-1 .
- See e.g. B. High Priority Health and Safety, Health and Safety Symposium, Police Union, April 10, 2008.
- Hans-Peter Unger, Carola Kleinschmidt: Before the job makes you sick: How today's world of work drives us into mental exhaustion - and what you can do about it , 2007, ISBN 978-3-466-30733-3 .
- Thorwald Dethlefsen : Fate as Chance , 9th edition, 1979/1998, ISBN 978-3-442-16115-7 . “[Man] has to endeavor to be as useful a cell as possible, just as he expects his body cells to be, so that he does not become a cancerous tumor in this world. If he leaves the order willfully to savor his misunderstood freedom, he should not be surprised if he is eliminated ”(p. 41) and“ One of the most common forms of exercise of power today is illness. In our time, illness guarantees the individual uncritical freedom for his unconscious claims to power ”(p. 233).
- German salaried health insurance : Health report 2009 ( memento from June 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) , main topic doping in the workplace .
- Süddeutsche Zeitung: Doping in the job - "Swallowing pills is nothing special" ( Memento of the original from February 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , February 13, 2009.
- B5 podcast from minute 13.
- Agreement between employees and employers helps manage stress in the workplace , ec.europa.eu, 24/02/2011.
- Systematically anchoring the protection of mental health in the workplace ( memento of the original dated July 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Press release, DGPPN, January 28, 2013.
- Psychosocial risks at work: Recognize dangers and reinforce protection. Intra-European comparison of the employer’s risk assessment with regard to psychological stress at the workplace ( memento of the original dated September 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , DGPPN.
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