Oskar Schlemmer (born September 4, 1888 in Stuttgart , † April 13, 1943 in Baden-Baden ) was a German painter , sculptor and set designer . From 1920 to 1929 he worked as a master at the Bauhaus in Weimar and Dessau and designed its logo . In his works, Schlemmer primarily addresses the position of the human figure in space. In his main creative period (1920–1932) he created numerous paintings of stereometric figures as well as interlocking groups of figures, whose geometrical-choreographic design echoes universal harmonization efforts. His most famous painting is the Bauhaus staircase from 1932.
Oskar Schlemmer's parents Mina Neuhaus and the businessman and comedy poet Carl Leopold Schlemmer died around 1900. Oskar was the youngest of six siblings. From 1899 he lived in the Swabian town of Göppingen , where he first attended secondary school. After the death of his parents, he left school in 1903 for financial reasons. In the same year, the now fifteen-year-old moved to Stuttgart, where he began training as a commercial draftsman in the leading inlay workshop Wölfel & Kiessling. From 1904 he also attended an advanced training school where figure drawing and style were taught.
After completing his apprenticeship, Schlemmer enrolled at the Stuttgart School of Applied Arts , which he only attended irregularly and left after one semester. In the autumn of 1906 he was accepted into the Stuttgart Academy of Fine Arts . There Schlemmer made the acquaintance of Willi Baumeister , Alf Bayrle , Alfred Heinrich Pellegrini and Otto Meyer-Amden . With the latter, he had a lifelong friendship. In 1909 he moved into the composition school of Friedrich von Keller and thus into the master class. Two years later Schlemmer moved to Berlin, where he initially tried to continue working independently. During his year in Berlin he got to know both the form analysis of Cubism and the French avant-garde . He also made his first contacts with the so-called "Sturm" group around Herwarth Walden .
In 1913 Schlemmer returned to Stuttgart and became a master student of Adolf Hölzel . During this time he got to know the dancer couple Albert Burger and Elsa Hötzel. With them he found enthusiasm for stage work; The first sketches for his later famous Triadic Ballet were made here.
The attempt to open a new art salon at Neckartor with his brother Wilhelm in April 1913 , which was to serve as an exhibition space for avant-garde art, suffered from devastating press coverage. The gallery had to close again after around 15 months. In 1914 Schlemmer, together with Willi Baumeister and Hermann Stenner, was commissioned to create twelve murals for the main hall of the German Werkbund exhibition in Cologne. In this context, the later Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius first became aware of Schlemmer. In the so-called "Expressionist Hall", which Adolf Hölzel had set up on behalf of the " Association of Art Friends in the Countries on the Rhine " as part of the "Art Exhibition Stuttgart 1914" with works by 24 artists, he was, like Baumeister and Josef Eberz , most strongly represented with three oil paintings.
With the beginning of World War I, Schlemmer volunteered for service. He was first used on the Western Front and later on the Eastern Front in Russia. However, injury and subsequent convalescence enabled him to continue painting. In 1918 he presented works with Willi Baumeister at the Kunsthaus Schaller in Stuttgart. Another group exhibition followed two years later in the Der Sturm gallery in Berlin. As early as 1919, Schlemmer had joined forces with Baumeister and other artists to form the Üecht Group , an artists' association that campaigned - albeit unsuccessfully - for a comprehensive reform of art teaching and for Paul Klee to be appointed to Stuttgart.
In autumn 1920 Schlemmer married Helena Tutein, from then on called "Tut Schlemmer". The marriage had three children. In the year of his marriage, Walter Gropius appointed him to the Bauhaus in Weimar . There he was given the management of the mural painting workshop; later that for wood and stone carving ( master form ).
In the following year Schlemmer designed sets and costumes for one-act operas by Franz Blei and Oskar Kokoschka , for which Paul Hindemith composed the music. In September 1922 his Triadic Ballet premiered in Stuttgart; a three-part dance, the dance sequences of which develop from the joking to the serious. So-called figurines , costume bodies developed by Schlemmer, aimed at a first "demonstration of three-dimensional costumes". In 1923, Oskar Schlemmer carried out the wall design in the Weimar workshop building.
In 1925 the Bauhaus moved to Dessau , where Schlemmer now also headed the Bauhaus stage as an independent department. He wrote the basic article man and fictional figure , in which he formulated the claim of generally applicable typification by means of masking and costuming. His pioneering Bauhaus dances also emerged in his Dessau years .
A new edition of the Triadic Ballet with organ music by Hindemith took place from 1926 in several German cities. The performances made Schlemmer internationally known. Invitations to ballet performances in Paris and New York followed.
From April 1928 he took on extensive teaching duties at the Bauhaus. In addition to drawing lessons and stage theory, Schlemmer established the subject of the human being , which attempted to draw formal, biological and philosophical content.
Schlemmer left the Bauhaus in the summer of 1929 and was appointed by Oskar Moll to the State Academy for Arts and Crafts in Breslau in June , where he taught until it closed in 1932. He was entrusted with leading a stage arts class and developed the subject of people and space . Almost a year earlier, he had accepted an order to design the wall for the fountain area in the Folkwang Museum in Essen. He worked on its final completion until 1930.
At the beginning of his time in Breslau, Oskar Schlemmer took on the stage design for two short operas by Igor Stravinsky . The musical drama The Happy Hand by Arnold Schönberg ultimately became Schlemmer's last set of scenes to be performed.
Schlemmer was now at the height of his work. He received recognition and awards at exhibitions in Basel, Cologne and Darmstadt. He was at the XVII. Represented the Venice Biennale, showed pictures in Munich and Essen and took part in group exhibitions of contemporary art in Belgrade, Zagreb, New York and Brussels. The Berlin gallery Flechtheim held a solo exhibition in early 1931, which later moved to Krefeld and Zurich.
The political radicalization by the NSDAP increasingly led to the defamation of modern art and artists. Schlemmer's wall design for the Weimar workshop building had already been painted over in 1930 by order of the Thuringian State Minister for the Interior and Public Education, Wilhelm Frick .
At the end of March 1932, the Breslau Academy largely ceased teaching by means of an emergency ordinance. A few months later Schlemmer moved to Berlin, where he was able to accept a teaching position at the United State Schools for Free and Applied Arts . Oskar Schlemmer's most famous painting, Bauhaus stairs (Museum of Modern Art, New York), was created at that time. Alf Bayrle , with whom Schlemmer was friends from his time in Stuttgart, organized and designed a performance of the Triadic Ballet in Paris with him.
Adolf Hitler's seizure of power at the beginning of 1933 heralded Schlemmer's last decade; for him a period of spiritual and existential gloom. Social misfortune was followed by the private: on January 15, 1933, his best friend and spiritual partner Otto Meyer-Amden died.
Gradually Schlemmer was eliminated from the public art scene. In March, his first major retrospective at the Württembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart was closed by the National Socialists before the opening. The Nazi press described Schlemmer as "art Bolsheviks". In May he resigned from the United State School for Free and Applied Arts in Berlin without notice . 1934 fell his murals for the Essen Museum Folkwang the iconoclasm of the Nazis to the victim.
Acquaintances gave Schlemmer a relatively safe place in Baden near the Swiss border. He settled with his family in Dettighofen-Eichberg and thus avoided further disputes in the National Socialist 'art business' for the time being. Despite the most economical way of life, this was a happy time for the family and nature was a challenge for the artist.
From July 19, 1937, one day after Adolf Hitler opened the Great German Art Exhibition in the Haus der Kunst in Munich, the vicious exhibition “Degenerate Art” was shown in the gallery building in the neighboring Hofgarten , where Schlemmer was represented with five paintings. A few weeks later one of his pictures appeared in the Berlin propaganda show Bolshevism without a mask . However, 1937 was also the year in which the London Gallery showed a large gourmet exhibition.
On September 30, 1937, he left Dettighofen with his family and moved to Sehringen, a current district of Badenweiler . Here, however, he soon got into financial difficulties and thus into existential needs. In 1938 he decided to take up a position at the Stuttgart painter Albrecht Kämmerer, which Baumeister had offered him. The unsatisfactory work for an artist of this time included various paintings on buildings and camouflage paints for military airfields and industrial plants.
In the autumn of 1940 Oskar Schlemmer moved to Wuppertal , where he worked in the Wuppertal working group of the paint manufacturer Dr. Kurt Herberts should try out the artistic use of lacquer colors. The entrepreneur also offered work opportunities to a number of other artists, including Carl Grossberg , Georg Muche , Gerhard Marcks and Willi Baumeister . They were officially listed as professors for painting technique. At Herberts, Schlemmer worked on a series of publications that summarized different results in painting. The plan for a lacquer cabinet , wall and ceiling paneling , which were to combine to form a total work of art, emerged. Schlemmer wanted to try out the possible color effects of the paint on larger boards. The project was not implemented for cost reasons. Instead, Schlemmer began his final group of works in 1942 with the Wuppertal window paintings - interiors and street views in watercolors or oil on cardboard.
The externally determined lifetime through commissioned work as well as the lack of opportunity to advance his own artistic creation triggered mental and physical shocks in him at that time, which led to a chronic state of weakness. After diagnosed jaundice and acute diabetes as well as a coma attack, stays in hospitals in Stuttgart and Freiburg im Breisgau followed . His health deteriorated further in the months that followed. In April 1943 he went to a sanatorium in Baden-Baden , where he succumbed to cardiac paralysis after a few days. He was buried in the Stuttgart forest cemetery in Stuttgart-Degerloch .
Oskar Schlemmer was a member of the German Association of Artists . His works were shown at documenta 1 (1955), documenta II (1959) and documenta III (1964) in Kassel .
Schlemmer already indicated his interest in dolls and masks at an early stage ( Still life with three hand puppets , 1906). The figure in the room was his great likeness. However, Schlemmer's years at the academy were still characterized by a multitude of forms and styles, which at first stood suddenly next to one another. The result was oil paintings in a pastose style, approaches to Swabian open-air painting and expressions of French peinture ( half-nudes in the interior , 1909), while in Jagdschloss im Grünwald (1911) the exploration of early Cubism was heard and the relationship between spatial dimensions and surface dimensions was tested.
From 1912 onwards, Schlemmer tended to systematically negate individual attributes in figurative representations ( Female head in gray , 1912). During this phase his work reached higher levels of objectification and depersonalization . Figurative abstractions already pointed the way to generally valid type design, which led to complete abstraction with the work Divided Figure (1915). An axilla made of horizontal and vertical lines formed the reference system for the outline figure.
After creating murals together with Hermann Stenner and Willi Baumeister for the main hall of the German Werkbundausstellung in Cologne in 1914, in which the Stuttgart native was able to practice architectural painting, his formal simplification resulted in 1916 in the picture Homo , which shows a basic figure in side profile which appeared again and again in a modified form in Schlemmer.
Schlemmer's endeavors to create a supra-individual, typical figuration were bundled in the multi-figure composition Plan with Figures (1919). Schematic outline figures are fitted into a surface and reinforced in the modular. Anthropomorphic figures were reduced to fictional characters. Schlemmer tried his hand at various relief sculptures that expanded his formal language into the spatial perspective ( ornamental sculpture on a split frame , 1919/1923).
Oskar Schlemmer's art work cannot be assigned to any of the styles that were predominant at the time. Although his painting is linked to the constructivist principles of line, tectonics and economy, due to his pervasive model of “man as measure and middle”, it is separated from them. Schlemmer's “middle term” aims at a struggle for balance and unification. As a German artist, coming from the “Middle Country”, he felt he was particularly committed to conveying opposing forces. This explains his lifelong pursuit of synthesis, harmony and universality, which was particularly expressed in the middle phase of his artistic life.
From 1923 onwards, those pictures were created that established Schlemmer's fame. The Bauhaus idea, which is to subject everything that can be designed to a functional aesthetic character, wants to fuse architecture, painting and sculpture with one another and at the same time contribute to the reconciliation between technology and art as well as man and civilization. The core of this idea found its way into Schlemmer's work. He freed his pictures from annoying accessories and all randomness. With Tischgesellschaft (1923) he not only dealt with one of his favorite subjects, he also introduced the figurative rear view, a motif that was now more and more of a determining factor for him, for example with passers-by (1924/1925).
With the picture Römisches from 1925, which borrows from classicist style, the previously strict planimetry was transferred into perspective spatial depth. Overlapping figures enter into varied relationships with the spatial environment. The anatomy of the human form interacts with space in a tense manner. The palette also changed, it became more colorful and rich in contrast.
Schlemmer now found his symbol of modern man, a supra-individual, objective and timeless type, which he linked to the idea of modern construction. People and space were interlinked, Schlemmer's imagery overcame the strict separation of figurative-organic vitality and spatial-technical construction.
Schlemmer renounced physiognomic or physical peculiarities in his figures, which give the individual character and identity. His creatures are stereometric jointed puppets, homogeneous and interchangeable. However, they are not an expression of urban or civilizational anonymity, as is the case with George Grosz or Giorgio de Chirico . Rather, the painter described his image of man as technically functional. At the same time, it reflected the body cult of the twenties, which expressed itself through a return to the natural beauty of man. Not just a new awareness of the body, but a new attitude towards life, in which the organism and mind work together as one, was the goal that educational reformers of this time strived for and that also did not remain untouched by Schlemmer. Schlemmer's figures thus became counter-theses of pure creaturality.
He discovered the human figure, which should be neither an individual nor a carrier of expression, as the ideal of the absolute, clamped into the tectonically structured space. “I want to create types of people and not portraits, and I want the essence of the room and not interiors.” Planimetric and stereometric references were also combined in a group of fourteen in imaginary architecture (1930) to form an image-bearing figural sequence. Here human bodies form a gymnastic formation that overlays the architecture of the room.
Between 1928 and 1930 Schlemmer designed murals for the fountain area of the Folkwang Museum in Essen. Here, too, his theme was the total work of art, in which the laws of space and human proportions meet. For from Adolf rading designed house Rabe in Zwenkau designed Schlemmer 1931 five meters high four divided metal composition consisting of the elements Homo (FIG T) , a relief figure, axis cross and a head in profile , which is still in its original state. Schlemmer also created three silhouette-like frescoes in the stairwell of the Rabe family's house .
From 1931 a group of pictures was created that have stairs and railing motifs as their subject ( group on railing , 1931). Figures were now staggered behind and on top of one another and coordinated in a grid-like planarity. Axial or diagonal railing struts control the rhythm and structure of these images. The strict surface tectonics brought Schlemmer closer to Piet Mondrian , of whom Schlemmer was supposed to claim that he was “actually the god of the Bauhaus”.
Schlemmer's preference for railing motifs had, in addition to an artistic aspect, a psychological background. In a deeper sense, the railing symbolizes a kind of support, a firm hold against the uncontrollable forces of the irrational. Measure and unity serve the purpose of discipline. The railing motif guarantees a firm order and is opposed to the feeling of chaos and disintegration, which is the prevailing sense of time given the political crisis at the beginning of the 1930s. “We need number, measure and law as armor and armor in order not to be engulfed in chaos,” demanded Schlemmer himself.
Schlemmer also carried the railing motif in Bauhaus stairs (1932) with a different accentuation . Three tower-like staggered, ascending back figures in a light architecture became the symbol of the youth cult movement of the 20th century, a symbol of aspiring youth in a bright future. Bauhaus stairs formulate the liberation of man himself, is a model and expression of unbroken modernity. It describes the interaction between humans and space, between humanity and civilization, and expresses the vision of a future culture.
Schlemmer's figure representations underwent a change. In a series of overpaintings, his palette became dark and dark ( Dunkle Gruppe , 1936). The threatening atmosphere that emanated from his pictures reflected his mental state. Schlemmer's painting now testified to abandonment and introspection. His artistic zenith had passed. Various watercolors were created and, from 1940, a series of Wuppertal city views and test panels for the Modulation and Patina project .
In the summer of 1942 Schlemmer began his last group of works, the Wuppertal window pictures , varying window views on cardboard or oil paper. The reduced colors, which are applied with a brush, colored pencil or oil, show various living and interior scenes, mostly surrounded by rectangular window frames. The pictures, in which feelings of longing and melancholy resonate, can no longer follow the expressive depictions of the 1920s and 1930s and remain the last evidence of a multi-layered artist's biography.
The lacquer ballet
On the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the paint company Kurt Herberts in Wuppertal on December 6, 1941, Schlemmer created his so-called “paint ballet”, which was to be performed in the Barmer Theater after the company choir, a chronicle and a speech by the theater ballet . Ultimately, dancers from the company's own gymnastics group appeared in the Wuppertal Concordia Hall in figurative costumes made of "colored, varnished cardboard, balls, sticks and so on". After the presentation, Schlemmer wrote to his wife Tut:
“The festival is noisy.
The dance 'Reigen in Lack' lasted a little more than three minutes, after a sarabande by Handel, slowly and sedately. Six women, each with a different costume made of glass balls, beer mats, cardboard shapes, etc. They did it right and wrong. More would not have been possible. Dr. Herberts very much; he wanted the costumes to be preserved so that they could be shown again from time to time. Also called in the newspaper: 'of unique charm'. The educated were very impressed, the common man asks: 'What does that mean?' But that is the fate of things. "
Schlemmer's brother Carl Schlemmer was involved in creating the figurines . The costumes were worn over black jerseys and presented in front of a black curtain so that only the costumes could be seen in the spotlight.
The costumes and other recordings of Schlemmer's last stage work - apart from two published letters, some color watercolors and photographs - are no longer preserved. However, for the 100th Bauhaus anniversary in 2019 , the Düsseldorf Theater der Klänge created a multimedia reconstruction, which is the first re-performance since the premiere.
Since Tut Schlemmer's death in 1987, there has been a dispute over Oskar Schlemmer's legacy, especially between his granddaughter Janine, Karin Schlemmer's daughter , and her cousin Raman, the son of Ute-Jaina Schlemmer and the painter Paran G'schrey .
Copyright lawsuits attempted to prevent the exhibition and printing of Schlemmer's works. The catalog of the Stuttgart Art Museum contains white pages instead of Schlemmer's works. The exhibition of the family wall painting was also threatened with legal action, as an expansion of the wall allegedly violated copyright law. Due to the inheritance disputes, Schlemmer's texts had to be omitted in 2004 in a publication of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart presented on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of Adolf Hölzel's death.
The house he designed in Sehringen near Badenweiler also got involved in inheritance disputes; a foreclosure auction was canceled several times, efforts to obtain a publicly accessible preservation and / or a status under monument protection were not crowned with success until then.
On January 1, 2014, 70 years after Schlemmer's death, the copyright of the artist and his heirs expired. Under the title Oskar Schlemmer - Visions of a New World , the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart opened a comprehensive retrospective of his work on November 21, 2014, which has not been shown in Germany for around 40 years. As part of the supporting program, the Triadic Ballet was performed by the Bavarian State Ballet in the chamber music hall of the neighboring University of Music and Performing Arts in Stuttgart . The Düsseldorf Theater der Klänge has also been staging a new production under the title TRIAS - the Triadic Ballet since 2014 .
From October 13, 2016 to January 16, 2017, the Center Pompidou-Metz presented the exhibition Tänzermensch (The Dancing Artist) together with C. Raman Schlemmer, Oskar Schlemmer's grandson.
Oskar Schlemmer Prize
The Grand State Prize for Fine Arts of the State of Baden-Württemberg , endowed with 25,000 euros, bears the artist's name in honor of the artist.
- 2014 he was first to the from Freiburg native artist Katharina Grosse awarded
- 2016: Elger Esser , photographer, born 1967 in Stuttgart
Museums and collections
- Bauhaus Archive
- Bauhaus Dessau
- Art Museum Basel
- Museum of Modern Art , New York City
- Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco
- State Gallery Stuttgart
- Art forum Ostdeutsche Galerie , Regensburg
- 1929: Large art exhibition, Kunstverein Kassel
- Oskar Schlemmer , Kestner Society , Hanover, 1953/1954.
- bauhaus - Workshops for Modernity , at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York, 2009/10.
- just what is it… 100 years of modern art from private collections in Baden-Württemberg. 10 years of the Museum of New Art in the ZKM , in the ZKM Karlsruhe , 2009/10.
- From Rodin to Giacometti. Modern sculpture , in the State Art Gallery Karlsruhe , 2009/2010.
- Bridge, Bauhaus, Blue Rider. Treasures from the Max Fischer Collection , in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart from March 6th to June 20th, 2010.
- Oskar Schlemmer - Visions of a New World , Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, November 21, 2014 to April 6, 2015.
- Oskar Schlemmer: l'homme qui danse , Center Pompidou-Metz , October 13, 2016 to January 16, 2017
- Oskar Schlemmer - the bauhaus and the way to the modern , Ducal Museum Gotha , April 28, 2019 to July 28, 2019
- Oskar Schlemmer , Von der Heydt-Museum , Wuppertal, November 3, 2019 to February 23, 2020
- Nobert Berghof (Red.): Examples: Art in pursuit. Degenerate Art (exhibition) 1937 in Munich. Neckar, Villingen 1998 (picture folder, in it by O. S: Roman and 5 figures in space. 1925, large format), without ISBN.
- Supplement to this, ibid. 1998, contains from OS u. a., without ISBN.
- Why ballet? and misunderstandings. Pp. 68-70.
- Man and fictional character. P. 71–74 with ill.
- Analysis of a picture and other things. Pp. 74–78 with ill.
- Exhibition catalog: Kestner Society , Hanover, 1956, introduction: Alfred Hentzen .
- Wolfgang Kermer (Ed.): From Willi Baumeister's diaries: Memories of Otto Meyer-Amden, Adolf Hölzel, Paul Klee, Karl Konrad Düssel and Oskar Schlemmer. With additional writings and letters from Willi Baumeister. Edition Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 1996 ( contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart , edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 8) ISBN 3-89322-421-1 .
- Kay Kirchmann: Oskar Schlemmer. In: Jeannine Fiedler, Peter Feierabend (Ed.): Bauhaus. Könemann, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-89508-600-2 , pp. 280-287; New edition: hfullmann publishing, Potsdam 2013, ISBN 978-3-8480-0275-7 .
- Karin von Maur : Oskar Schlemmer and the Stuttgart avant-garde 1919. With a foreword by Wolfgang Kermer. State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, Stuttgart 1975. (= Contributions to the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, edited by Wolfgang Kermer; 1).
- Karin von Maur: Oskar Schlemmer. Monograph and œuvre catalog of paintings, watercolors, pastels and sculptures, 2 vols. Munich 1979.
- Karin von Maur: Oskar Schlemmer. The Folkwang cycle. Painting around 1930. Stuttgart 1993.
- Karin von Maur: Schlemmer, Oskar Alfred Victor. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 59-61 ( digitized version ).
- Karl Ruhrberg: Art as a social mission. The painters at the “Bauhaus” under Walter Gropius. In: Karl Ruhrberg, Ingo F. Walther (Ed.): Art of the 20th Century , Part 1, Painting. Taschen, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8228-6029-8 , pp. 176-183.
- Dirk Scheper: Oskar Schlemmer - The Triadic Ballet and the Bauhaus Stage. Akademie der Künste Berlin 1988. (= series of publications of the Academy of the Arts, vol. 20).
- Norbert M. Schmitz: Oskar Schlemmer's anthropological design. In: Jeannine Fiedler, Peter Feierabend (Ed.): Bauhaus . Könemann, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-89508-600-2 , pp. 288-291; New edition: Ullmann, Potsdam 2013, ISBN 978-3-8480-0275-7 .
- Arnd Wesemann: The Bauhaus stage. in: ibid., pp. 532-547.
- Daniel Spanke: Constructed Apollo. Willi Baumeister's Apollo Pictures and the New Man from Otto Meyer-Amden and Oskar Schlemmer (writings from the Baumeister Archive in the Stuttgart Art Museum, vol. 3). Berlin / Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-422-07022-6 .
- Friederike Zimmermann: “Man and Art Figure”. Oskar Schlemmer's intermedia program. Dissertation, University of Freiburg i. Br. 2014, 2nd edition, ISBN 978-3-7930-9767-9 .
- Julius Bissier - Oskar Schlemmer. Correspondence. Edited by Matthias Bärmann, Erker-Verlag, St. Gallen 1988, ISBN 3-905545-82-9 .
- Friedenstein Castle Foundation, Gotha (ed.): Oskar Schlemmer. The Bauhaus and the path to modernity . arnoldsche Art Publishers 2019, ISBN 978-3-89790-558-0 .
Oskar Schlemmer - Images of Man. Documentary, Germany, 2015, 51 min., Script and director: Nicola Graef , production: Lona media, SWR , arte , first broadcast: January 11, 2015 on arte, synopsis by ARD .
Film report on the occasion of the Stuttgart exhibition Oskar Schlemmer - Visions of a New World .
- Oskar Schlemmer - human. Doer. Visionary. Documentary, 2019, 35 min., Script and director: Juliane Tutein, production: Filmakademie Baden-Württemberg GmbH
- The style-defining band Bauhaus , founded in 1978 by four art students, used the Bauhaus logo designed by Oskar Schlemmer on publications and merchandising items .
- Literature by and about Oskar Schlemmer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Oskar Schlemmer in the German Digital Library
- Oskar Schlemmer. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Oskar Schlemmer on kunstaspekte.de
- Archives of the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
- Materials by and about Oskar Schlemmer in the documenta archive
- Karin von Maur: Oskar Schlemmer (1888–1943) , published on April 19, 2018 in: Stadtarchiv Stuttgart: Stadtlexikon Stuttgart.
- ^ Exhibition catalog Art Exhibition Stuttgart 1914 , Kgl. Art building, Schloßplatz, May to October, ed. from the Association of Art Friends in the States on the Rhine, Stuttgart 1914, p. 47, cat.-no. 403 ( self-portrait ), p. 48, cat.-no. 421 ( Swiss landscape) and cat.-no. 423 ( girl's head ).
- ^ Nicola Kuhn: The last avant-gardist. In: tagesspiegel.de of November 27, 2014, accessed on February 22, 2015.
- ↑ bad-bad.de: Oskar Schlemmer (1888–1943)
- ↑ Süddeutsche Zeitung: Wuppertal varnish ballet. Retrieved February 8, 2020 .
- ↑ kuenstlerbund.de: Ordinary members of the German Association of Artists since it was founded in 1903 / Schlemmer, Oskar ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on January 19, 2016)
- ↑ Fig. In Nobert Berghof (Red.): Art in the persecution: Degenerate art (exhibition) 1937 in Munich. 18 examples , plus supplement: life data and personal testimonials. Neckar, Villingen 1998, without ISBN, large format.
- ↑ "I want to create types of people and not portraits, and I want the essence of the room and not interiors." Oskar Schlemmer summarized the approach of his art in a few words. at arsmundi.de, accessed on May 11, 2016.
- ↑ K. von Maur: Oskar Schlemmer - Perspektiven des Menschenbildes. “Quotation” in the Oskar Schlemmer catalog, exhibition by the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart at the Württembergischer Kunstverein Stuttgart, August 11 to September 18, 1977, p. 9.
- ^ Johann Eckart von Borries: Oskar Schlemmer. The murals for the fountain area in the Museum Folkwang Essen , Reclam, Leipzig, 1960
- ^ Kulturstiftung Leipzig (ed.): The Rabe House in Zwenkau . Leipzig 2018.
- ^ Letter to Otto Meyer-Amden , from January 3, 1926, in Andreas Hüneke (Ed.): Oskar Schlemmer. Idealist of form. Letters, diaries, writings 1912–1943. Reclam, Leipzig 1990, ISBN 3-379-00473-1 .
- ^ Christiane Gibiec: From Weimar to Wuppertal: So much Bauhaus in one place. In: .kultur.bayer.de
- ↑ a b c Karin von Maur: Oskar Schlemmer: d. Painter, d. Wall designer, d. Sculptor, d. Draftsman, d. Graphic artist, d. Stage designer, d. Teacher . Catalog for the exhibition d. State Gallery Stuttgart, d. in Württemberg. Kunstverein Stuttgart took place from August 11 to September 18, 1977. New edition Edition. Prestel, Munich 1982, ISBN 3-7913-0588-3 , pp. 242 .
- ↑ a b Oskar Schlemmer: Letters and Diaries . Ed .: Tut Schlemmer. Hatje, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-7757-0117-6 , pp. 176 f .
- ↑ a b Bettina Trouwborst: Dortmund: Theater of Sounds : "The lacquer ballet" . In: dance . Der Theaterverlag, February 2019, ISSN 1869-7720 , p. 35 ( der-theaterverlag.de [accessed on February 3, 2019]).
- ^ Marion Meyer: The forgotten ballet from the paint factory . In: Rheinische Post . January 11, 2019 ( rp-online.de [accessed February 3, 2019]).
- ↑ Pedro Obiera: Oskar Schlemmer's “Lacquer Ballet” performed in Düsseldorf. In: wr.de. Westfälische Rundschau, 2019, accessed on February 3, 2019 (German).
- ↑ Thomas Frank: Theater der Klänge Düsseldorf performs lacquer ballet by Oskar Schlemmer. In: wz.de. Westdeutsche Zeitung, accessed on February 3, 2019 .
- ^ Nikolai B. Forstbauer: Oskar Schlemmer retrospective. The finger is stretched. ( Memento from January 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Stuttgarter Nachrichten , July 4, 2008.
- ↑ Fate looks at us . In: Der Spiegel . No. 42 , 1995, pp. 240-242 ( online ).
- ↑ Wolfgang Kermer (Ed.): "Dear Master Hölzel ..." (Willi Baumeister) - students remember their teacher. On the 70th anniversary of Adolf Hölzel's death on October 17, 2004. State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart, WerkstattReihe , Vol. 11, 2004, ISBN 3-931485-67-6 .
- ↑ gb: Demolition is not easy. In: Badische Zeitung , Lokales, Badenweiler , February 12, 2010, interview with H. Ringhof about monument protection rights.
- ↑ Sigrid Umiger: wooden house on the block. In: Badische Zeitung , Lokales, Badenweiler , January 28, 2010.
- ^ Gabriele Babeck-Reinsch: highest bid from a Berlin lawyer. In: Badische Zeitung , Lokales, Müllheim , March 3, 2010.
- ↑ dpa : Foreclosure auction of Schlemmer house failed. In: Badische Zeitung , Lokales, Badenweiler , March 8, 2010.
- ^ Dop: Schlemmer-Haus again under the hammer. In: Badische Zeitung , Lokales, Müllheim , October 25, 2011.
- ↑ dop: The pictures and the house. In: Badische Zeitung , Lokales, Müllheim , October 27, 2011.
- ^ A b Adrienne Braun: The new man is geometrized. In: Stuttgarter Zeitung , November 20, 2014.
- ↑ Stuttgart bows to Oskar Schlemmer . In: Stuttgarter Zeitung , November 20, 2014
- ↑ Renée Wieder: Dance like in the days of the Bauhaus . In: Rheinische Post . Rheinische Post Verlagsgesellschaft, Düsseldorf December 23, 2014 ( rp-online.de [accessed on August 12, 2017]).
- ^ Oskar Schlemmer: The Dancing Artist / An Imagined Museum - Announcements - e-flux. Retrieved May 18, 2020 .
- ^ Oskar Schlemmer. Dancer person | Center Pompidou Metz. Retrieved May 18, 2020 .
- ^ Badische-zeitung.de , Art , February 20, 2016: Photographer Esser receives the Oskar Schlemmer Prize. (February 20, 2016)
- ↑ bauhaus - Workshops for modernity. In: MoMA , accessed January 12, 2015.
- ↑ just what is it ... In: ZKM Karlsruhe , accessed on January 12, 2015.
- ↑ ani: From Rodin to Giacometti: The Kunsthalle shows “Modern Sculpture”. In: ka-news , November 26, 2009.
- ↑ Bridge, Bauhaus, Blauer Reiter. Treasures from the Max Fischer Collection. In: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart , accessed on January 12, 2015.
- ↑ Exhibition: Oskar Schlemmer - Visions of a New World. In: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart , November 21, 2014 to April 6, 2015.
- ^ Oskar Schlemmer: The Bauhaus and the path to modernity. In: stiftungfriedenstein.de, 2019.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German painter, sculptor and set designer|
|DATE OF BIRTH||4th September 1888|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Stuttgart|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 13, 1943|
|Place of death||Baden-Baden|