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Hebrew (עברית)

Spoken in

IsraelIsrael Israel , Palestinian Territories
Palastina autonomous areasPalestine 
speaker 9 million (around 200,000 in the US )
Official status
Official language in IsraelIsrael Israel
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


Modern Hebrew (Hebrew עברית; German Ivrit , also Iwrit , Iwrith or Ivrith ) is the most widely spoken language in Israel and the only official language (since July 19, 2018, Arabic , which is also strongly represented, only has the status of a minority language). It was created through the planned further development and expansion of ancient and middle Hebrew . Its introduction is the only successful attempt to date to revive a sacred language and make it a modern standard language .

In Hebrew usage, Ivrit refers to both ancient Hebrew and modern Hebrew, with no distinction between the language levels (see German for the German language). In German, Ivrit always stands for modern Hebrew.


Ivrit belongs to the Semitic languages , which in turn belong to the family of Afro-Asian languages . Ivrit belongs to the subgroup of the northwest Semitic languages (together with Aramaic ) and there in the subgroup of the Canaanite languages , of which it is the only non-extinct representative.

Hebrew was almost extinct as a daily spoken language since late antiquity, but remained in the diaspora as a liturgical and written language, for example for books or letters ( Jehuda ha-Nasi , Maimonides , Josef Karo and others). Due to the influences of the surrounding spoken languages, the pronunciation of Hebrew in particular changed, so that three main directions arose: Ashkenazi (Central and Eastern Europe), Sephardic (Western and Southern Europe) and Yemeni (Western Asia).


For the prehistory see Hebrew language .

The first Hebrew translation of Shakespeare : “At this hour in sleep!” Monologue, Henry IV. In Solomon Löwisohn's Meliẓat Yeshurun , 1816.

At the end of the 19th century, at the time of nationalism emerging in Western and Eastern Europe , attempts began to revive Hebrew , which is almost exclusively used in rabbinical literature , as an everyday idiom and to expand the vocabulary in order to create a national language for the dispersed Jewish people . Both vocabulary and grammar have often been adapted to the patterns of European languages. Despite everything, the differences between ancient Hebrew and modern Hebrew are much less significant than, for example, between ancient Greek and modern Greek (see Greek language ).

As a counter-movement to the assimilation of the Eastern European Jews , in the course of which many Jews made Russian , Polish or German their colloquial language, many Jews tried to upgrade and literary Yiddish and at the same time began to write secular texts in Hebrew. Elieser Ben-Jehuda , who was the first to speak exclusively Hebrew with his children from the start, played a key role in the revitalization of the language. He emigrated to Jerusalem and suggested words for new technical achievements such as "newspaper"; so he became the "father of Hebrew" in Israel.

In 1921, Hebrew became one of the three national languages in the British Mandate of Palestine . Since the founding of the State of Israel in 1948, it has been the official language there and has proven itself as a modern, functional standard language . The language , which is new to many immigrants , is taught in the Ulpan to this day . This is an intensive course in which Ivrit is taught.

When transforming the former sacred language into an official language, the creation of colloquial expressions was particularly important. Many such expressions were initially adopted primarily from Russian and Arabic. Words were also borrowed from other languages, such as English , German , Yiddish and French .

Translations from world literature , written primarily by Saul Tschernichowski and Zeev Jabotinsky , played another important role in expanding the vocabulary of modern Hebrew .

Other Jewish languages and dialects are threatened with extinction due to a lack of native speakers . This is less true of Yiddish, which is related to German and which is still quite common among Orthodox Jewish groups - especially those who reject secular Zionism - but rather for other languages ​​such as the Sephardic language (also Judeo-Spanish or Ladino), Jewish- Persian or Jidi, Judeo-Berber , Judeo-Tat, Judeo-Georgian , Judeo-Aramaic dialects, Jevan or Judeo-Greek, Karaim and others. After Theodor Herzl had assumed that the inhabitants of a future Jewish state would speak German, there were also considerations in the British mandate of Palestine in the 1930s to make Yiddish the state language. Ultimately, however, the decision was made - not least for historical reasons - to use Hebrew, which also proved to be particularly helpful for the oriental Jews.


The Hebrew Sprachrat in Palestine had proposed a pronunciation with 25 consonant beginning of the 20th century / ʔ , b, w, ɡ, d, h, z, ħ , t, j, k, x, l, m, n, s , ʕ , p, f, ts, q, r, ʃ, t / and / θ /, but even Ben-Yehuda did not follow the circular. A pronunciation with slightly different consonant phonemes emerged (24 in total): / ʔ, b, v, ɡ, dʒ, d, h, w, z, ʒ, x, j, k, l, m, n, s, p, f, ts, tʃ, r, ʃ / and / t /, where the phonemes / ʔ, v, x, t, k, s / can each be the pronunciation of two different letters. For some Sephardic Jews there were also / ħ / and / ʕ /.

In the historical pronunciation of Hebrew, six consonants had spirantized forms: / b, ɡ, d, k, p / and / t / alternated with / v, ɣ, ð, x, f / and / θ /. Of the spirantized variants, only three are preserved in modern Hebrew: / v, x / and / f /. The emphatic consonants that are typical of the Semitic languages ​​have been replaced by non-emphatic variants; / q / was replaced by / k / and / tˁ / by / t /. The historical half-vowel / w / coincided with the consonant / v /; However, / w / exists as a phoneme in loanwords . The standard pronunciation of / ħ / is now / x /, and / ʔ / is usually not implemented. Many speakers also replace / h / with / ʔ / or it is omitted. A number of phonological contrasts have thus been neutralized. The phoneme / r / is usually realized as uvular [ʁ] or [ʀ].

Schematic representation of the consonant phonemes:

voiceless plosives p t k ʔ
voiced plosives b d ɡ
voiceless fricatives f s ʃ x H
voiced fricatives v z ʒ
Affricates ts
Nasals m n
Vibrant r
lateral fricative l
Approximant w j

/ ʤ /, / w /, / ʒ / and / ʧ / occur in loan words and their derivatives (e.g. "ג׳ינגול" / dʒinˈgul / juggling "לדג׳ה" / ledaˈdʒe / " laying on records", " להסוויץ׳ " / lehasˈwitʃ " switch ").

Vowelism has also been simplified. Modern Hebrew has five vowel phonemes: / a , e , i , o / and / u /.

In a standard pronunciation such as T. in broadcasting, the phonemes / ħ / and / ə / and z. Sometimes also / ʕ / received and / r / is pronounced as tongue-r ([r]).


The Hebrew script is a consonant script . Nevertheless, vowel carriers like Waw (ו) and Jod (י) are often used to designate (originally) long vowels (as so-called matres lectionis ). The iodine acts as a carrier for the i, Waw for the "u" or "o". Aleph expresses the crackling sound , but this is no longer made clear in today's pronunciation, in contrast to the Arabic Alif . Heh (ה) is also used to denote the feminine ending "-a", although this ending- "Heh" is not spoken.

In today's Ivrit, as in Spanish, no distinction is made between long and short vowels, so that today the vowel carriers can also designate short, or more precisely "not-long" vowels.

The use of half-vowels to denote vowels is more extensive today than in Classical Hebrew. De facto today the vowels o and u are mostly and often also i represented by a mater lectionis , regardless of their original shortness or length (see section Late and Modern Unocalized Spelling in the article Hebrew Alphabet ). However, many dictionaries (including common Hebrew-German dictionaries) still register the entries in the traditional form, which can cause problems for learners in finding the words.

While the Hebrew alphabet remains in its own scriptural tradition, the punctuation in Ivrit is largely based on the systems common in European languages ​​with the Latin script. The use of the individual characters largely corresponds to that in European languages. The rules of punctuation are established by the Academy for the Hebrew Language in Jerusalem. Comma, semicolon and question mark are used, despite the different writing direction, in the forms common in European systems - in contrast to Arabic , where the question mark is reversed (؟), mostly also commas and semicolons. The forms of three punctuation marks, on the other hand, come from their own tradition: the maqqef (-), hyphen, is not halfway up the letters, but at the height of the upper edge of letters without a stroke. Geresch (׳) and Gerschajim (״) serve as (single and double) quotation marks , in the same form at the beginning and at the end of the cited text. Both characters are also used to mark abbreviations: Geresch for the abbreviation of individual words, e.g. B. כל׳ for כלומר klwmr ( kǝlomar ), “d. h. ”, Gerschajim for abbreviations that consist of several words, e.g. B. ת״א for תל אביב tl ʾbjb , "Tel Aviv". Both characters are also used when using Hebrew letters as numerals, e.g. B. יום ד׳ jwm d ("Day 4", i.e. Wednesday) or תש״פ, tšp ("[Year 5] 780", i.e. 2019/20).


In Hebrew, the definite article and some prepositions are appended directly to the word to which they refer. Ownership can be indicated by adding suffixes. Hebrew has two grammatical genera (male and female) and in some cases a dual in addition to singular and plural. Cases like in most European languages ​​are out of the question because they are indicated by prepositions. Hebrew has no indefinite and only one definite article. It is one of the inflected languages .


Hebrew nouns are changed according to gender and number, but not according to case. Most nouns share a common root with a verb with a similar meaning, but the formation of nouns is not as systematic as that of verbs. In addition, loanwords often do not inflect according to a scheme.


Hebrew has two genera: male and female. Female nouns can generally be recognized by the ending ה- (pronounced -a) or ת / -ית / -ות- (pronounced -et / -it / -ut). Nouns that end in other letters are mostly masculine. In spelling, the endings א, -ה- and ע- have to be distinguished, although they are pronounced the same. There is no neuter gender (neuter).


There are three numbers in Hebrew: regularly singular and plural, and in exceptional cases dual.

The standard plural ending for masculine nouns is -im:

Especially with two-syllable nouns, the ending leads to a shift in emphasis and thus to a change in vocalization.

The typical ending for feminine nouns in the plural is -ot. These are only appended after the ending -ah or -et has been deleted. A feminine noun ending in -it / ut ends in -iot / -ujot in the plural.


There are masculine nouns with feminine plural ending, e.g. B .:

There are also female nouns with a masculine plural ending, e.g. B .:

Two nouns have completely irregular plural forms:


Hebrew also has a dual, denoted by the ending [-ˈajim] for both masculine and feminine nouns, but its use is also limited in ancient Hebrew. In New Hebrew, among other things, dual forms are used for some expressions of place, time and measure. These words also have plural forms, which are used for quantities over two. For example:

Singular dual Plural
פעם אחת [ ˈpaam aˈxat] ( once ) פעמיים [ paaˈmajim ] ( twice ) שלוש פעמים [ʃaˈloʃ peaˈmim ] ( three times )
שבוע אחד [ ʃaˈvua eˈxad] ( one week ) שבועיים [ ʃvuˈajim ] ( two weeks ) שלושה שבועות [ʃloˈʃa ʃavuˈot ] ( three weeks )
מאה [ ˈmea ] ( hundred ) מאתיים [ maˈtajim ] ( two hundred ) שלוש מאות [ʃloʃ meˈot ] ( three hundred )

Some objects that typically appear in pairs, especially body parts, have a dual form as plural, for example:

In these words, the dual is used as a plural; so it is called [jaˈdajim] , even when we speak of five hands.

Some plural tantum words also have dual form:

Status constructus

The construct state is used as in other Semitic languages to identify the nouns in a genitive regens connection.

In Hebrew, the two nouns are placed one behind the other (with or without a hyphen) and the first noun or the reference word must be put into the constructus form:

  • Male nouns usually retain their form in the singular.
  • Female nouns in the singular receive the ending -at -ת instead of the ending -a -ה.
  • Male nouns lose the -m -ם of the plural ending in the plural; the ending is pronounced -e or -ej.
  • Female nouns keep their form in the plural.


Some (mostly older words) change their vocalization in the constructus form.

If a compound noun is to be used with a certain article, the article is placed before the nomen rectum, e.g. B.

In colloquial language, or with very stuck expressions, this rule is sometimes deviated from and the article is placed before the first noun.


Apart from the use of the possessive companions שלי [ʃeˈli] , שלך [ʃeˈlax] etc., affiliation with Hebrew nouns can be expressed by inseparable suffixes . The examples here are [ˈjeled] ילד (masculine, singular) "child", "boy", [jalˈda] ילדה (feminine, singular) "girl", [jelaˈdim] ילדים (masculine, plural) "children", "boys" , [jelaˈdot] ילדות (feminine, plural) "girl",

ילד [jeled] ילדה [jalda] ילדים [jeladim] ילדות [jeladot]
1st person singular ילדי [jaldi] ילדתי [jaldati] ילדיי [jeladaj] ילדותי [jaldotaj]
2nd person singular masculine ילדך [jaldexa] ילדתך [jaldatxa] ילדיך [jeladexa] ילדותיך [jaldotexa]
2nd person singular feminine ילדך [jaldex] ילדתך [jaldatex] ילדיך [jeladajix] ילדותיך [jaldotajix]
3rd person singular masculine ילדו [jaldo] ילדתו [jaldato] ילדיו [jeladav] ילדותיו [jaldotav]
3rd person singular feminine ילדה [jalda] ילדתה [jaldata] ילדיה [jeladeha] ילדותיה [jaldoteha]
1st person plural ילדנו [jaldenu] ילדתנו [jaldatenu] ילדינו [jeladenu] ילדותינו [jaldotenu]
2nd person plural masculine ילדכם [jaldexem] ילדתכם [jaldatxem] ילדיכם [jaldexem] ילדותיכם [jaldotexem]
2nd person plural feminine ילדכן [jaldexen] ילדתכן [jaldatxen] ילדיכן [jaldejxen] ילדותיכן [jaldotexen]
3rd person plural masculine ילדם [jaldam] ילדתם [jaldatam] ילדיהם [jaldejhem] ילדותיהם [jaldotehem]
3rd person plural feminine ילדן [jaldan] ילדתן [jaldatan] ילדיהן [jaldeihen] ילדותיהן [jaldotehen]

However, these forms are mostly limited to literature and high-level language; in spoken Hebrew, the analytical construction (like הספר שלי [haˈsefer ʃeˈli] "the book of me") is preferred to the form ספרי [sifˈri] ("book-mine"). Exceptions are some fixed terms, such as? מה שלומך [ma ʃlomˈxa?] , Literally "How is your peace?" In the meaning of "How are you?" Furthermore, this form is used more often in the case of relatives.


In Hebrew, adjectives are followed up and, as in Romance languages , the gender and number are adjusted to the noun they refer to.


Most adjectives are inflected according to the following scheme:

Adjectives ending in -i, which in many cases describe the origin, are inflected slightly differently:

Use in sentence

Hebrew does not know the copula “to be” in the present tense. It uses nominal sentences, that is, sentences without a verb of their own. The sentence "The house is big" is expressed as follows:

There are forms of being in the past / future .

In attributive position, the adjective follows the noun:

The definite article has to be repeated again before the adjective. There are also some verbs that express a state that can be used as adjectives.



Adverbs are formed less systematically than most other Hebrew parts of speech.

Some adverbs correspond to their adjectives:

Some absolute infinitives are used like adverbs:

Some adverbs correspond to the feminine singular or plural form (mostly archaic) of the associated adjective:

However, most adverbs are more likely to be adverbial clauses formed in one of the following ways:

  • With the preposition -ב and the associated noun
  • In the form "auf ... Manner", either with באופן [beˈofen] and the adjective in the masculine singular form or with בצורה [bet͡suˈra] and the adjective in the feminine singular form

These forms are not mutually exclusive; at least the latter forms can be used for almost any adverb.

Of course there are also a number of adverbs without an associated adjective.


Adverbs generally come after the verb they are referring to. However, due to the relative freedom of the word order in the sentence, this rule can be deviated from.


Hebrew verbs are described by a root (שורש [ˈʃoreʃ] ) that usually consists of three consonants . Different stems or conjugation patterns with different meanings can be formed from these roots , which are then vocalized schematically . For example, the root ktb (to write) becomes:


The conjugation patterns are called Binjanim (בניינים, literally "building"). There are seven patterns, three of which have active and passive meanings; Hitpa'el is used for reflexive meanings.

All verbs have past, present and future forms. Other forms exist only for certain binjanim, e.g. B. the infinitive (five binjanim), the imperative (also five binjanim), gerund (five) and past participle (one).

Verbs in the same Binjan are generally conjugated in the same way, with minor differences for some verbs whose roots consist of four consonants and verbs with a so-called hollow root whose second consonant is Wav or Jod. Another larger subgroup are the verbs whose third root consonant is He, verbs with so-called weak roots. These different schemes are each called [gizˈrah] (גיזרה).

The names of the Binjanim arise from the root פ-ע-ל (to do , hence the word פועל "Poal" for verb ), the respective stem is formed, which always corresponds to the third person singular masculine of the perfect.


Pa'al (פעל) is the most common binjan. Verbs in this Binjan can be transitive and intransitive, but are always active. There are no verbs with four-syllable roots in this binjan. There are also most of the gizrot here , since the verbs mentioned with weak or hollow roots belong in these binjan. In addition, the few (about ten) irregular verbs belong in the Binjan Pa'al.

Verbs from the Pa'al can form a past participle, a gerund, an infinitive and an imperative.


Verbs in Binjan Nif'al (נפעל) are always intransitive. Nif'al is the passive equivalent of the Pa'al. So every transitive verb in the Pa'al can be made into a passive verb by using the Nif'al. However, this is not the most common usage as modern Hebrew avoids the passive voice.

Even if not explicitly passive, the verbs in Nif'al have a passive meaning. For example:

The root ש-ב-ר is the same for both verbs. Verbs with this ambiguity of meaning are called ergative verbs .

Sometimes Nif'al verbs mean something similar to their Pa'al counterparts. So פגש and נפגש both mean meeting , but the former implies a chance meeting, the latter a scheduled meeting.

There are also verbs that have no Pa'al counterpart or whose counterpart is uncommon, for example:

Nif'al verbs can form the infinitive, imperative and gerund.


Pi'el (פיעל) - verbs are active and both transitive and intransitive, although the transitive slightly predominate. Most Pi'el verbs have no Pa'al equivalent and vice versa, but in cases where there is a root in both binyanim, the Pi'el verb is mostly an intensification of the Pa'al verb. Examples:

Other Pi'el verbs have a causative relationship to the corresponding Pa'al verb, compare:

There are also cases where a pa'al and a pi'el verb have the same root, without even remotely similar meanings:

Pi'el verbs can form imperative, infinitive and gerund.


Pu'al (פועל) is the passive counterpart to the Binjan Pi'el; similar to how Pa'al and Nif'al relate to one another. Unlike Nif'al, however, it only designates passive verbs. It is little used except that some Pu'al present participles form commonly used adjectives, e.g. B .:

This usually also applies to the corresponding Pi'el counterparts:

Pu'al verbs do not have a gerund, imperative or infinitive.


Hif'il verbs (הפעיל) can be transitive and intransitive, but are always active. They often have counterparts in other binjanim to which they have a causative relationship, compare:

Of course, this again does not apply to all verbs. Hif'il verbs have an imperative, an infinitive and a gerund.


Huf'al (הופעל) is very similar to Pu'al and is similarly rarely used, with the exception of a few present participles, only that Huf'al is the passive counterpart of Hif'il instead of Pi'el.

Huf'al verbs cannot form an imperative, an infinitive or a gerund.


Hitpa'el verbs (התפעל) are fundamentally intransitive and usually have a reflexive or reciprocal sense, for example:

Furthermore, Hitpa'el verbs often have an imperfective connotation, which means that the use of a Hitpa'el verb implies that the action is not completed. Of course there are again cases of verbs that are perfectly normal intransitive verbs, even if they may correspond to a verb from another Binjan.

  • התנהג [hitnaˈheɡ] ( to behave ) has the same root as נהג [naˈhaɡ] (to drive ), which is due to the basic meaning "to lead".

Hitpa'el verbs can form infinitive, gerund and imperative.


The role of the infinitive is less pronounced in Hebrew than in many European languages. For example, Hebrew modal verbs can not form an infinitive at all. The infinitive is called in Hebrew שם הפועל "schem hapoal", actually " verbal noun ", since this form is viewed as a combination of noun and verb. Compare with the German forms "das Essen", "das geht" etc.

Older dictionaries usually sort verbs according to their roots, newer ones tend to sort according to infinitive, also because the binjan can be recognized by the infinitive. Basically, a -ל is placed in front of the stem to form the infinitive, similar to to in front of the infinitive in English . But the vocalization often changes.


Old Hebrew does not know a present tense per se, only a present participle, which is used as a present tense in New Hebrew. The Hebrew present tense is therefore inflected like an adjective and only knows four forms for male / female; Singular / plural:

Paradigms in the present tense
Binjan root Singular Plural meaning
masculine feminine masculine feminine
Pa'al שׁמר שומר שׁוֹמרֶת שׁוֹמְרִים שׁוֹמְרוֹת guard
ʃ-mr ʃoˈmer ʃoˈmeret ʃomˈrim ʃomˈrot
Paʻal (hollow) גור גר גרה גרים גרות dwell
gur at all gaˈra gaˈrim gaˈrot
Paʻal (weak) רצה רוצֶה רוצָה רוצים רוצות want
r-ts-h pink roˈtsa roˈtsim reddish
Pi'el גדל מְגַדֵּל מְגַדלֶת מְגַדְּלִים מְגַדְּלוֹת raise
possibly megaˈdel megaˈdelet megadˈlim megadˈlot
Hif'il קטנ מַקְטִין מַקְטִינָה מַקְטִינִים מַקְטִינוֹת to shrink (something)
ktn makˈtin maktiˈna maktiˈnam maktiˈnot
Hitpa'el בטל מִתְבַּטֵּל מִתְבַּטלֶת מִתְבַּטְּלִים מִתְבַּטְּלוֹת be canceled; lounge around
btl mitbaˈtel mitbaˈtelet mitbatˈlim mitbatlot
Hoof'al קטנ מוּקְטָן מוּקְטנֶת מוּקְטָנִים מוּקְטָנוֹת be shrunk
ktn mukˈtan mukˈtenet muktaˈnim muktaˈnot
Pu'al גדל מְגוּדָּל מְגוּדלֶת מְגוּדָּלִים מְגוּדָּלוֹת be raised
possibly meguˈdal meguˈdelet megudaˈlim megudaˈlot
Nif'al שׁמר נִשְׁמָר נִשְׁמרֶת נִשְׁמָרִים נִשְמָרוֹת be guarded
ʃ-mr niʃˈmar niʃˈmeret niʃmaˈrim niʃmaˈrot

Past and future

Hebrew only knows two tenses: past (עבר, awar) and future (עתיד, 'atid), which can, however, be replaced by a vav meaning “and”. A so-called "Waw hahipuch" (lit. "Waw of reversal"), which is placed in front of a conjugated verb form, gives a past tense in ancient Hebrew a future meaning and vice versa. This system was simplified in New Hebrew.

Paradigms in the past
Binjan root Singular Plural
3rd person 2nd person 1st person 3rd person 2nd person 1st person
masculine feminine masculine feminine masculine feminine
Pa'al שׁמר שָׁמַר שָׁמְרָה שָׁמרְתָּ שָׁמַרְתְּ שָׁמרְתִּי שָֽׁמְרוּ שְׁמַרְתֶּם שְׁמַרְתֶּן שמרְנוּ
ʃ-mr ʃaˈmar ʃamˈra ʃaˈmarta ʃaˈmart ʃaˈmarti ʃamˈru ʃmarˈtem ʃmarˈten ʃaˈmarnu
Paʻal (hollow) גור גָּר גָּרָה גָּרְתָּ גָּרְתְּ גָּרְתִּי גָּרוּ גָּרְתֶּם גָּרְתֶּן גָּרְנוּ
gur at all ˈGara ˈGarta cooks ˈGarti ˈGaru cooked garden ˈGarnu
Paʻal (weak) רצה רָצָה רָצְתָה רָצִיתָ רָצִיתְ רָצִיתִי רָצוּ רְצִיתֶם רְצִיתֶן רָצִינוּ
r-ts-h raˈtsa raˈtsta raˈtsita ratite raˈtsiti raˈtsu retsiˈtem sit down raˈtsinu
Pi'el גדל גִּידֵּל גִּידְּלָה גִּידלְתָּ גִּידַּלְתְּ גִּידלְתִּי גִּידְּלוּ גִּידַּלְתֶּם גִּידַּלְתֶּן גִּידלְנוּ
possibly giˈdel gidˈla giˈdalta giˈdalt giˈdalti gidˈlu gidalˈtem gidalˈten giˈdalnu
Hif'il קטנ הִקְטִין הִקְטינָה הִקְטנְתָּ הִקְטַנְתְּ הִקְטנְתִּי הִקְטינוּ הִקְטַנְתֶּם הִקְטַנְתֶּן הִקְטנּוּ
ktn hikˈtin hikˈtina hikˈtanta hikˈtant hikˈtanti hikˈtinu hiktanˈtem hiktanˈten hikˈtanu
Hitpa'el בטל הִתְבַּטֵּל הִתְבַּטְּלָה הִתְבַּטלְתָּ הִתְבַּטַּלְתְּ הִתְבַּטלְתִּי הִתְבַּטְּלוּ הִתְבַּטַּלְתֶּם הִתְבַּטַּלְתֶּן הִתְבַּטלְנוּ
btl hitbaˈtel hitbatˈla hitbaˈtalta hitbaˈtalt hitbaˈtalti hitbatˈlu hitbatalˈtem hitbatalˈten hitbaˈtalnu
Hoof'al קטנ הוּקְטַן הוּקְטְנָה הוּקְטנְתָּ הוּקְטַנְתְּ הוּקְטנְתִּי הוּקְטְנוּ הוּקְטַנְתֶּם הוּקְטַנְתֶּן הוּקְטנּוּ
ktn hukˈtan hukteˈna hukˈtanta hukˈtant hukˈtanti hukteˈnu huktanˈtem huktanˈten hukˈtanu
Pu'al גדל גּוּדַּל גּוּדְּלָה גּוּדלְתָּ גּוּדַּלְתְּ גּוּדלְתִּי גּוּדְּלוּ גּוּדַּלְתֶּם גּוּדַּלְתֶּן גּוּדלְנוּ
possibly guˈdal gudˈla guˈdalta guˈdalt guˈdalti gudˈlu gudalˈtem gudalˈten guˈdalnu
Nif'al שׁמר נִשְׁמַר נִשְׁמְרָה נִשְׁמרְתָּ נִשְׁמַרְתְּ נִשְׁמרְתִּי נִשְׁמְרוּ נִשְׁמַרְתֶּם נִשְׁמַרְתֶּן נִשְׁמרְנוּ
ʃ-mr niʃˈmar niʃemˈraá niʃˈmarta niʃˈmart niʃˈmarti niʃemˈru niʃmarˈtem niʃmarˈten niʃˈmarnu
Paradigms in the future tense
Binjan root Singular Plural
3rd person 2nd person 1st person 3rd person 2nd person 1st person
masculine feminine masculine feminine masculine feminine masculine feminine
Pa'al שׁמר יִשְׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמְרִי אֶשְׁמוֹר יִשְׁמְרוּ תִּשְׁמוֹרנָה תִּשְׁמְרוּ תִּשְׁמוֹרנָה נִשְׁמוֹר
ʃ-mr jiʃˈmor tiʃˈmor tiʃˈmor tiʃmeˈri eʃˈmor jiʃmeˈru tiʃˈmorna tiʃmeˈru tiʃˈmorna niʃˈmor
Paʻal (hollow) גור יָגוּר תָּגוּר תָּגוּר תָּגוּרִי אָגוּר יָגוּרוּ תָּגוּרְנָה תָּגוּרוּ תָּגוּרְנָה נָגוּר
gur yesˈgur taˈgur taˈgur taˈguri agur yesˈguru taˈgurna taˈguru taˈgurna naˈgur
Paʻal (weak) רצה יִרְצֶה תִּרְצֶה תִּרְצֶה תִּרְצִי אֶרְצֶה יִרְצוּ תִּרְצֵנָה תִּרְצוּ תִּרְצֵנָה נִרְצֶה
r-ts-h jirˈtse tirˈtse tirˈtse tirˈtsi erˈe jirˈtsu tirˈtsena tirˈtsu tirˈtsena nirˈtse
Pi'el גדל יְגַדֵּל תְּגַדֵּל תְּגַדֵּל תְּגַדְּלִי אֲגַדֵּל יְגַדְּלוּ תִּגְדַּ֫לְנָה תְּגַדְּלוּ תִּגְדַּ֫לְנָה נְגַדֵּל
possibly jegaˈdel tegaˈdel tegaˈdel tegadˈli agaˈdel jedadˈlu tigˈdalna tegadˈlu tigˈdalna negaˈdel
Hif'il קטנ יַקְטִין תַּקְטִין תַּקְטִין תַּקְטינִי אַקְטִין יַקְטינוּ תַּקְטינָה תַּקְטינוּ תַּקְטינָה נַקְטִין
ktn Jaktin takˈtin takˈtin takˈtini acˈtin jakˈtinu takˈtejna takˈtinu takˈtejna nakˈtin
Hitpa'el בטל יִתְבַּטֵּל תִּתְבַּטֵּל תִּתְבַּטֵּל תִּתְבַּטְּלִי אֶתְבַּטֵּל יִתְבַּטְּלוּ תִּתְבַּטלְנָה תִּתְבַּטְּלוּ תִּתְבַּטלְנָה נִתְבַּטֵּל
btl jitbaˈtel titbaˈtel titbaˈtel titbatˈli etbaˈtel jitbatˈlu titbaˈtelna titbatˈlu titbaˈtelna nitbaˈtel
Hoof'al קטנ יוּקְטַן תּוּקְטַן תּוּקְטַן תּוּקְטְנִי אוּקְטַן יוּקְטְנוּ תּוּקְטנָּה תּוּקְטְנוּ תּוּקְטנָּה נוּקְטַן
ktn jukˈtan tukˈtan tukˈtan tukteˈni ukˈtan jukteˈnu tukˈtana tukteˈna tukˈtana nukˈtan
Pu'al גדל יְגוּדַּל תְּגוּדַּל תְּגוּדַּל תְּגוּדְּלִי אֲגוּדַּל יְגוּדְּלוּ תְּגוּדלְנָה תְּגוּדְּלוּ תְּגוּדלְנָה נְגוּדַּל
possibly jeduˈdal teguˈdal teguˈdal tegudˈli aguˈdal jedudˈlu teguˈdalna tegudˈlu teguˈdalna neguˈdal
Nif'al שׁמר יִשָּׁמֵר תִּשָּׁמֵר תִּשָּׁמֵר תִּשָּׁמְרִי אֶשָּׁמֵר יִשָּׁמְרוּ תִּשַּׁמרְנָה תִּשָּׁמְרוּ תִּשַּׁמרְנָה נִשָּׁמֵר
ʃ-mr jiʃaˈmer tiʃaˈmer tiʃaˈmer tiʃamˈri eʃaˈmer jiʃamˈru tiʃaˈmerna tiʃamˈru tiʃaˈmerna niʃaˈmer

Note: The feminine forms of the second and third person plural are now commonly replaced by the masculine forms of these persons.


The imperative is formed based on the future tense. For this purpose, the t is omitted from the second person singular form and, if necessary, a feminine or plural ending is added. Example:

  • לבוא [laˈvo] ( come )
    • 2nd singular, m .: תבוא [taˈvo] ( you will come ) to בוא [bo] ( come! )
    • 2nd singular, f .: תבואי [tavoˈi] ( you will come ) to בואי [boˈi] ( come! )
    • 2nd plural: תבואו [tavoˈu] ( you will come ) to בואו [boˈu] ( come! )

Exceptions to this are hitpa'el verbs. For the imperative, the preceding 'ת' of the future tense is replaced by a 'ה'.

In everyday language, instead of the imperative, the full future tense can also be used as a request. This can be translated as the subjunctive ("could you come" instead of "come!"). The polite request consists of the imperative plus please (Hebrew בבקשה ).

The negative imperative differs in form. Here the complete second person plural of the future tense is used and the word [al] אל is placed in front of it :

For a request in the first person plural ("Let's ..."), the plural imperative of לבוא (to come), i.e. בואו , is used, plus the actual verb in the first person plural of the future:

The negation of this ("let's not ...") is formed by inserting "לא" between the auxiliary verb "בואו" and the main verb:

Perfect participle

There is only one of the binjanim , namely Pa'al, a perfect participle. This is mostly used as an adjective.


Gerunds can only be used as nouns in Hebrew and are actually a way of forming nouns. They are formed according to the following schemes:


Hebrew makes a distinction in the 2nd and 3rd person according to gender. An overview:

Ivrit: system of personal pronouns
person Gender / Sex Singular Plural
1 אני [aˈni] אנחנו [aˈnaxnu]
2 masculine אתה [aˈta] אתם [aˈtem]
feminine את [at] אתן [aˈten]
3 masculine הוא [hu] הם [hem]
feminine היא [hi] הן [hen]

In the plural, reference is made to mixed-use or mixed-sex groups with the masculine forms.

Declination of personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are declined using prefixes . An overview of the most important cases:

Ivrit: case forms of personal pronouns
Nominative dative accusative Inessive ablative Comitative
Singular 1 אני [aˈni] לי [li] אותי [o'ti] בי [bi] ממני [mime'ni] אתי [i'ti]
2 m אתה [aˈta] לך [le'xa] אותך [ot'xa] בך [bexa] ממך [mim'xa] אתך [it'xa]
f את [at] לך [lax] אותך [ot'ax] בך [bax] ממך [mim'ex] אתך [i'tax]
3 m הוא [hu] לו [lo] אותו [o'to] בו [bo] ממנו [mime'no] אתו [i'to]
f היא [hi] לה [la] אותה [o'ta] בה [ba] ממנה [mime'na] אתה [i'ta]
Plural 1 אנחנו [aˈnaxnu] לנו ['lanu] אותנו [o'tanu] בנו ['banu] מאתנו [meita'nu] אתנו [i'tanu]
2 m אתם [aˈtem] לכם [la'xem] אתכם [et'xem] בכם [ba'xem] מכם [mi'kem] אתכם [it'xem]
f אתן [aˈten] לכן [la'xen] אתכן [et'xen] בכן [ba'xen] מכן [mi'ken] אתכן [it'xen]
3 m הם [hem] להם [la'hem] אותם [o'tam] בהם [ba'hem] מהם [me'hem] אתם [i'tam]
f הן [hen] להן [la'hen] אותן [o'tan] בהן [ba'hen] מהן [me'hen] אתן [i'tan]

Possessive pronouns either exist as separate words, resulting from the combination with the preposition [ʃel] "של" (see there) or they merge directly with the noun (see possession ).


In Hebrew, certain nouns are clitically linked to the possessive personal endings ; These are used:
1) in written language to indicate ownership structures
2) to form adverbial noun phrases (cf. German, if you like , etc.).
As an example for (1) use the word מכתב [mix'tav] "letter", as an example for (2) use [bigˈlal] בגלל: "because of":

Ivrit: case forms of personal pronouns
person Ending example 1 Transcription translation Example 2 Transcription translation
Singular 1 {-i} מכתבי [mixtav'i] my letter בגללי [biglal'i] because of me
2 m {-xa} מכתבך [mixtav'xa] your letter בגללך [biglal'xa] because of you
f {-ex} מכתוך [mixta'vex] בגללך [bigla'lex]
3 m {-O} מכתבו [mixta'vo] his letter בגללו [bigla'lo] because of him
f {-a} מכתבה [mixta'va] Your letter בגללה [bigla'la] because of her
Plural 1 {-enu} מכתבנו [mixtav'enu] our letter בגללנו [bigla'lenu] because of us
2 m {-xem} מכתבכם [mixtav'xem] your letter בגללכם [biglal'xem] because of you
f {-xen} מכתבכן [mixtav'xen] בגללכן [biglal'xen]
3 m {-at the} מכתבם [mixta'vam] Your letter בגללם [bigla'lam] because of her
f {-on} מכתבן [mixta'van] בגללן [bigla'lan]

Some of the most important prepositions:

  • [al] על: Mostly in the meaning “open”, “closed”, declination from עלי
  • [el] אל: "to", "to", declination from אלי (also אליך, אלי etc.)
  • [ʃel] של: "von", important for the formation of the possessive pronouns

The same applies to prefixes as to prepositions. They are also connected to each of the following nouns and may change its vocalization.

The most important prefixes

  • [ke] -כ: mostly in the meaning "how"
  • [le] -ל: mostly in the meaning "to / to"
  • [mi] -מ: mostly in the meaning of "from", declination irregular


Cardinal numbers

With the exception of multiples of ten, Hebrew numerals always have a masculine and a feminine form. It is noticeable that the masculine numerals typically have a feminine ending [a] ה-. Numerals are placed in front of the noun to which they refer, with the exception of the one, and are matched in gender to the noun. The (shorter) female numerals are used for counting. The words שתיים [ʃˈtaim] and שניים [ʃˈnaim] (two), when placed in front of a noun, have the special forms שתיי [ʃtej] and wennיי [ʃnej] . Between eleven and twenty, the units are placed in front of the tens; from twenty the tens is placed in front and the units are connected with and (-ו, [ve] or [u] ). An overview:

number f m number f m number f m number number
1 אחת אחד 11 אחת-עשרה אחד-עשר 21st עשרים-ואחת עשרים-ואחד 30th שלושים 40 ארבעים
[a'xat] [e'xad] [a'xat es're] [a'xad a'sar] [es'rim ve a'xat] [es'rim ve a'xad] [ʃlo'ʃim] [arba'im]
2 שתיים שניים 12 שתים-עשרה שנים-עשר 22nd עשרים-ושתיים עשרים-ושניים 50 חמישים 60 שישים
[ʃˈtaim] [ʃˈnaim] [ʃtem es're] [ʃnem a'sar] [es'rim ve ʃˈtaim] [es'rim ve ʃˈnaim] [xami'ʃim] [ʃi 'ʃim]
3 שלוש שלושה 13 שלוש-עשרה שלושה-עשר 23 עשרים-ושלוש עשרים-ושלושה 70 שבעים 80 שמונים
[ʃa'loʃ] [ʃlo'ʃa] [ʃloʃ es're] [ʃloʃa a'sar] [es'rim ve ʃa'loʃ] [es'rim ve ʃlo'ʃa] [ʃvi'im] [ʃmo 'nim]
4th ארבע ארבעה 14th ארבע-עשרה ארבעה-עשר 24 עשרים-וארבע עשרים-וארבעה 90 תשעים 100 מאה
[arba '] [arba'a] [arba 'es're] [arba'a a'sar] [es'rim ve arba '] [es'rim ve arba'a] [tiʃ'im] [me'a]
5 חמש חמישה 15th חמש-עשרה חמישה-עשר 25th עשרים-וחמש עשרים-וחמישה 120 מאה-ועשרים 200 מאתיים
[xa'meʃ] [xami'ʃa] [xa'meʃ es're] [xami'ʃa a'sar] [es'rim ve xa'meʃ] [es'rim ve xami'ʃa] [me'a ve es'rim] [mata'jim]
6th שש שישה 16 שש-עשרה שישה-עשר 26th עשרים-ושש עשרים-ושישה 300 שלוש מאות 456 ארבע מאות חמישים-ושש
[ʃeʃ] [ʃi'ʃa] [ʃeʃ es're] [ʃi'ʃa a'sar] [es'rim ve ʃeʃ] [es'rim ve ʃi'ʃa] [ʃlo'ʃa me'ot] [ar'ba me'ot xami'ʃim ve ʃeʃ]
7th שבע שבעה 17th שבע-עשרה שבעה-עשר 27 עשרים-ושבע עשרים-ושבעה 1000 אלף 2000 אלפיים
[ʃeva '] [ʃiv'a] [ʃeva 'es're] [ʃiv'a a'sar] [es'rim ve ʃeva '] [es'rim ve ʃiv'a] ['elef] [al'pajim]
8th שמונה שמונה 18th שמונה-עשרה שמונה-עשר 28 עשרים-ושמונה עשרים-ושמונה 3000 שלושת אלפים 10,000 עשרת אלפים
[ʃmo'ne] [ʃmo'na] [ʃmo'ne es're] [ʃmo'na a'sar] [es'rim ve ʃmo'ne] [es'rim ve ʃmo'na] ['ʃloʃet ala'fim] [a'seret ala'fim]
9 תשע תשעה 19th תשע-עשרה תשעה-עשר 29 עשרים-ותשע עשרים-ותשעה 100,000 מאה אלפים 1000000 מיליון
[teʃa '] [tiʃ'a] [teʃa 'es're] [tiʃ'a a'sar] [es'rim ve teʃa '] [es'rim ve tiʃ'a] [me'a ala'fim] [mili'jon]
10 עשר עשרה 20th עשרים עשרים 30th שלושים שלושים 1000000000 ביליון, מיליארד 1000000000000 טריליון
[ 'it he] ['asara] [es'rim] [es'rim] [ʃlo'ʃim] [ʃlo'ʃim] [bil'jon, mil'jard] [tril'jon]

Ordinal numbers

The basic forms of ordinal numbers are formed up to ten by adding an -i to the cardinal number in the male form and an -it in the female form. The vowels inside the numeral are matched to the i. For the plural, an -m is added to the masculine form; in the feminine form, the t at the end of the word is replaced by -ot. Exceptions: The word ראשון [riˈʃon] (the first) is derived from ראש [roʃ] (head, beginning). The formation of the feminine cardinal numbers "the first" and "the second" takes place with the ending -a. With רביעי [reviˈi] (The fourth) the א of the cardinal number ארבע [arba '] is omitted. From 11 onwards the ordinal numbers are formed by placing the specific article ה in front of the corresponding cardinal number in the female or male form.

The ordinal numbers from 1 to 10:

Cardinal number f m Ordinal number f m Ordinal number plural f m
1 אחת אחד 1. ראשונה ראשון the first ראשונות ראשונים
[a'xat] [e'xad] [riʃon'a] [ri'ʃon] [riʃo'not] [riʃo'nim]
2 שתיים שניים 2. שנייה שני the second שניות שניים
[ʃˈtaim] [ʃˈnaim] [ʃni'ja] [ʃe'ni] [ʃni'jot] [ʃni'jim]
3 שלוש שלושה 3. שלישית שלישי the third שלישיות שלישים
[ʃa'loʃ] [ʃlo'ʃa] [ʃli'ʃit] [ʃli'ʃi] [ʃliʃ'jot] [ʃli'ʃim]
4th ארבע ארבעה 4th רביעית רביעי the fourth רביעיות רביעים
[arba '] [arba'a] [revi'it] [revi'i] [revi'jot] [revi'im]
5 חמש חמישה 5. חמישית חמישי the fifth חמישיות חמישים
[xa'meʃ] [xami'ʃa] [xami'ʃit] [xami'ʃi] [xamiʃ'jot] [xami'ʃim]
6th שש שישה 6th שישית שישי the sixth שישיות שישים
[ʃeʃ] [ʃi'ʃa] [ʃi'ʃit] [ʃi'ʃi] [ʃiʃ'jot] [ʃi'ʃim]
7th שבע שבעה 7th שביעית שביעי the seventh שביעיות שביעים
[ʃeva '] [ʃiv'a] [ʃvi'it] [ʃvi'i] [ʃvi'jot] [ʃvi'im]
8th שמונה שמונה 8th. שמינית שמיני the eighth שמיניות שמינים
[ʃmo'ne] [ʃmo'na] [ʃmi'nit] [ʃmi'ni] [ʃmi'njot] [ʃmi'nim]
9 תשע תשעה 9. תשיעית תשיעי the ninth תשיעיות תשיעים
[teʃa '] [tiʃ'a] [tʃi'it] [tʃi'i] [tʃi'jot] [tʃi'im]
10 עשר עשרה 10. עשירית עשירי the tithe עשיריות עשירים
[ 'it he] ['asara] [asi'rit] [asi'ri] [asi'rjot] [asi'rim]


Sentence order

Basically there is the sentence order in Hebrew: subject-predicate-object . However, there are exceptions:

  • Since the original sentence order of the Hebrew predicate-subject-object was, use of this sentence order is perceived as archaic and can be used for this purpose.
  • Objects can be moved to the beginning of a sentence for emphasis if they are clearly identified as objects.
  • Personal pronouns can be omitted, similar to Spanish, if the reference of a sentence is clear.
  • A subject can be at the end of the sentence or repeated to emphasize it.
  • In sentences in which the copula sein (see below) is omitted, the subject is repeated with a personal pronoun in order to make references clear. Example:

השער הוא חמשה שקלים לאירו - [haʃaˈar hu xaˈmiʃa ʃkaˈlim leˈewro] - The exchange rate (er) is five shekels for one euro.


In Hebrew, objects are mostly identified by prepositions or prefixes; Cases per se do not exist. Prepositions and prefixes are combined with the personal pronouns, see the chapter on prepositions and prefixes.

Direct object

Direct objects can best be compared with German accusative objects. However, this does not always have to be true. In Hebrew, a distinction is made between whether the direct object is determined (i.e. with a specific article) or indefinite:

In this case, the direct object immediately follows the verb

In addition to the definite article –ה, the preposition [et] is also required here.

Indirect object

All objects that are introduced by a preposition other than et are referred to as indirect, e.g. B. נזכרתי בזה - [nizkarti be'ze] - I remember: Prefix –ב [be]

אמרתי ליורם - ['amarti le'yoram] - I said to Joram: Prefix –ל [le]

אתה מדבר על העבודה - [aˈta medaˈber al haavoˈda] - You are talking about work: preposition על [al]

אנחנו הולכים אל דוד - [aˈnaxnu holchim el ˈdavid] - We go to David: preposition אל [el]

Subordinate clauses

Hebrew does not have a large number of conjunctions; Most of the subordinate clauses begin with the conjunction –ש [ʃe-] , which can be either “that” or a relative pronoun. Subordinate clauses retain the original SVO word order. Most conjunctions are prefixes and are directly connected to the following word.

Some subordinate conjunctions:

To be and have the copula

The verbs sein and haben are defective in Hebrew , that is, they do not contain all forms.

The verb to be , in Hebrew " להיות " [lihiˈjot] , has no present tense. The past and future tenses are used analogously to German. Example:

The verb “haben” has no infinitive. It is paraphrased with the word יש [jeʃ] "there is" and a prepositional construction. Example:

If the negative is to be expressed, יש [jeʃ] is replaced by אין [ejn] :

The words [jeʃ] and [ejn] can also be combined with the personal pronouns (איני, אינך etc.). However, this is only used in the written language.

[jeʃ] and [ejn] exist only in the present tense; in the past and future the third person singular form of [lihiˈjot] להיות isused.


unvocalized vocalized transcription German
כל בני האדם נולדו בני חורין ושוים בערכם ובזכיותיהם. כלם חוננו בתבונה ובמצפון, לפיכך חובה עליהם לנהוג איש ברעהו ברוח של אחוה.
כֹּל בְּנֵי הָאָדָם נוֹלְדוּ בְּנֵי חוֹרִין וְשָׁוִים בְּעֶרְכָּם וּבִזְכֻיּוֹתֵיהֶם. כֻּלָּם חוֹנְנוּ בַּתְּבוּנָה וּבְמַצְפּוּן, לְפִיכָךְ חוֹבָה עֲלֵיהֶם לִנְהֹוג אִישׁ בְּרֵעֵהוּ בְּרוּחַ שֶׁל אַחֲוָה.
kol bnej haadam noldu bnej xorin veʃavim beerkam uvizxujotehem. kulam xonenu batvuna uvematspun, lefixax xova alejxem linhog ish bere'ehu berax ʃel axava. All people are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should meet one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


General descriptions and grammars


  • Shula Gilboa: Lextra Language Course Plus Hebrew Cornelsen Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-589-01862-8 .
  • Hebrew made easy - a language course for beginners for self-study , Prolog Verlag / Doronia Verlag, Tel Aviv / Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-929895-03-X .
  • Jakob Mendel: Supplement to Ascher Tarmon, Esri Uval, Tables of Hebrew Verbs, 4th edition 1998. Hebrew-German verb index sorted according to verb roots and binjanim J. Mendel, Berlin 2010.
  • Miriam Rosengarten, Vera Loos: Ivrit - step by step. Hebrew for beginners. Marix, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-86539-039-0 .
  • Heinrich Simon: Textbook of the modern Hebrew language. Verlag Enzyklopädie, Leipzig 1988, ISBN 3-324-00100-5 .
  • Asher Tarmon, Ezri Uval: Tables of the Hebrew Verbs Tamir, Jerusalem 1998, ISBN 965-376-008-4 .
  • Eliezer Tirkel: Hebrew made easy. Achiasaf, Tel-Aviv 1992, ISBN 3-9801131-0-8 .
  • Manuel Wiznitzer: Langenscheidts practical textbook Hebrew. A standard course for self-learners. Langenscheidt, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-468-26160-8 .
  • Shulamit Zemach-Tendler: Textbook of the New Hebrew Language (Iwrit) , Buske Verlag, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-87548-117-8 .
  • Yaacov Zinvirt: Learning to read and understand Hebrew. An audiovisual learning program. LIT Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-643-10016-0 .
  • Smadar Raveh-Klemke: Ivrit bekef: Hebrew for German speakers. Hempen, 2011, ISBN 978-3-934106-84-0 .


  • Marcel Müller: Language dispute. In: Dan Diner (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture (EJGK). Volume 5: Pr-Sy. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2014, ISBN 978-3-476-02505-0 , pp. 555-557.
  • Ghil'ad Zuckermann : Language contact and lexical enrichment in Israeli Hebrew (=  Palgrave studies in language history and language change ). 2nd Edition. Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2004, ISBN 1-4039-1723-X (English).

Web links

Wikibooks: Hebrew  - Study and Teaching Materials
Wiktionary: Ivrit  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Jack Fellman: The Revival of a Classical Tongue. Elizer Ben Yehuda and the Modern Hebrew Language . Mouton 1973, p. 85.
  2. R. Malatesha Joshi, PG Aaron (Ed.): Handbook of Orthography and Literacy . Routledge 2005, p. 343.
  3. ^ Joel M. Hoffman: In the Beginning. A Short History of the Hebrew Language . New York University Press 2004, p. 203.
  4. R. Malatesha Joshi, PG Aaron (Ed.): Handbook of Orthography and Literacy . Routledge 2005, p. 344.
  5. ^ A b Robert Hetzron: The Semitic Languages . Routledge 1997, p. 314; R. Malatesha Joshi, PG Aaron (Ed.): Handbook of Orthography and Literacy . Routledge 2005, p. 344.
  6. ^ A b Robert Hetzron: The Semitic Languages . Routledge 1997, p. 314.
  7. Hebrew-English Idiom Dictionary Blog ( Memento of the original from January 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.israelforum.com
  8. ^ Angel Sáenz-Badillos, John Elwolde: A History of the Hebrew Language . Cambridge University Press 1996, p. 283; Judith Junge: Predicate Formation in the Verbal System of Modern Hebrew . Walter de Gruyter 1987, p. 10.
  9. A summary in German can be found in: Heinrich Simon: Textbook of the modern Hebrew language. Leipzig 1970, 163–166.