|Exclamation, exclamation, call signs||!|
- - Hyphen ; Hyphen ;
|Indent ; Up line||-|
quotation marks "" »« / «»
‚'› ‹ / ‹ ›
|Slashes / \|
|Brackets () |
Quotation marks can also be used to highlight words, groups of words and parts of a text or word about which you want to comment, about which you want to make a statement or from whose use you - for example ironically or by underlining another meaning - distance yourself would like to. These types of use are grouped under the collective term modalizing function (from modal , 'denoting the way').
Quotation marks are the translation of the Latin technical term signum citationis ' quotation mark ' from printer language and are used for opening and closing characters with this function. The text between the quotes is quoted (one meaning of quote ). In order to differentiate between the quotation mark at the beginning and the end of a quote, words such as opening and closing or below and above are usually used. Rarely does one speak of quotation and final , execution , or (more rarely) quotation marks .
In all German-speaking countries they are also colloquially called quotes , with the opening quotes at the bottom and the closing quotes at the top . In Germany the quotation marks are also called quotation marks , in the north it is colloquial as “Tüddel” or “Tüddelchen” (probably in Middle Low German “tud (d) er”: rope to tie a grazing animal, here: “tüdern” or “tie” one associated character). The similar standard German colloquial term "Tüttelchen" is more unspecific and can - depending on the context - also mean "dots", "insignificant trifles" or " serifs ".
The labeling of quotations is old and can already be demonstrated in literary commentaries from antiquity; Thus, in a Montekassinese semi- uncial manuscript of the commentary by the pseudo-Ambrosius to the Pauline letters , which was written before 570, there is a double hook in front of each quotation. This custom was probably already practiced in the commentary tradition of the philologists of the Library of Alexandria , which was founded in the third century BC.
In the Aristotle edition of the Milanese Renaissance humanist Francesco Filelfo , which was published in 1483 or 1484, literal and analogous quotations are marked with double slashes on the left edge of each line. Until then, verbatim quotations had been highlighted or not at the discretion of the author. Non-literal borrowings were marked on the edge . After the publication of Filelfo's edition, quotation marks for verbatim quotations became popular. It is uncertain whether the humanists continued the ancient and medieval use with this type of emphasis or whether it was an independent development.
Quotation marks in German
The use of quotation marks is regulated in particular in § 89 and § 94 of the revised official German spelling rules of 2006 . Quotation marks are used to enclose something that is reproduced verbatim (§ 89). This concerns:
- Verbatim statements ( direct speech ):
“I always have to work!” she sighed.
- Literally reproduced text passages ( quotations ).
Quotation marks can be used to highlight words or parts within a text and, in certain cases, to make it clear that one is taking a position on their use or is referring to them (§ 94). this concerns
- Headlines, work titles (for example of books and plays), names of newspapers and the like:
She read the article “Chance for a diplomatic solution” in the “Wochenpost”. She reads Thomas Mann's novella “Death in Venice”. Do you know Fontane's novel “Effi Briest”? We are currently reading “Unterm Rad” by Hesse.
For upper and lower case see § 53 E1.
- Proverbs, utterances and the like, on which a commentary position is made:
The saying “hurry with a while” is often heard. “Every beginning is difficult” is not always a helpful saying. His critical "The wine tastes like vinegar" annoyed the waiter. Her pleading “are you coming tomorrow?” Changed me. His constant apology “I don't have time!” Is not very believable. I am annoyed by his constant “I can't anymore!”.
This type of text is not separated by a comma.
Otherwise, § 90 to § 92 apply.
- Words or groups of words about which you want to make a statement:
The word "fälisch" is based on West "falen". The term “existentialism” is used in many ways today. All of his friends called him "Fat". The preposition “without” requires the accusative.
- Words or groups of words that one wants to be understood differently than usual - ironically or figuratively, for example:
And you want to be a "loyal friend"? I thank you for this “service of love”. He got his "flu" again. This time she jumped “only” 6.60 meters.
To use the quotation mark to avoid repetitive words, see Underquotes .
Quotation marks with other punctuation marks
- If question marks or exclamation marks meet with quotation marks, they are placed in front of the final character if they belong to the literally reproduced text (§ 90):
She asked: "How are you?" He yelled: "Stop immediately!"
- If the verbatim text is followed by the accompanying sentence (superordinate sentence) or is continued, you put a comma after the final character (§ 93):
"You are going home immediately!", He ordered. When he said: “That was a crazy idea!” I was very embarrassed.
- If full stop, question mark or exclamation mark come together with quotation marks, they are placed after the final character if they belong to the accompanying sentence (§ 90):
I have read “Buddenbrooks” and “Zauberberg”. He pointed out that "no one saw the accused at the scene".
- Occasionally both the cited text and the accompanying sentence can end with a question mark or exclamation mark (§ 91):
Do you like the novel “Quo vadis?”? Let go of this eternal “I don't want!”!
- Before the comma between the verbatim text and the accompanying sentence, the verbatim sentence loses its final point (§ 92):
"Let's go to the cinema," she suggested. "After reading this you will understand what I mean," said Grandpa.
- An accompanying sentence is enclosed in commas (§ 93):
"Tomorrow morning", he promised, "I'll be back."
- If the literal text follows the accompanying sentence, there is no longer a period after the final character (§ 92):
He stated: "Everyone has to decide for himself." We shouted: "Watch out!"
Quotation marks in science
In the philologies - whose texts deal scientifically with a language, i.e. both reproduce quotations and contain the object-language material to be discussed and, if necessary, cite the meanings assigned to this material - the use of one and the same quotation marks would in all cases, i.e. both for quotations and also for individual words and also for their meanings lead to confusion. A distinction is therefore made:
- Only quotations from other scientific literature or from fiction are put in double quotation marks in accordance with the official rules and quotations in single quotation marks.
- Individual words, syntagms and sentences that are the subject of linguistic description and analysis are never in quotation marks, but are set in italics . (Example: The word democracy is a well-known suitcase word .)
- In particular, foreign language expressions can be followed by an indication of the meaning; this is in single quotation marks - without brackets, commas or any other offset. (Example: The expression smog is made up of the English words smoke 'Rauch' and fog 'Nebel'.) Some German universities also use the simple (English) quotation marks above ('…').
In the bibliographic notice for literature, the use of quotation marks and italics are clearly defined. Usually only the titles of articles in books and magazines are put in quotation marks, while the titles of independent works are in italics and without quotation marks.
In biology, quotation marks are used when specifying cultivated forms and varieties of plants. For example with a cultivated form of the Sawara false cypress : Chamaecyparis pisifera 'Squarrosa' (scheme: genus type 'cultivar' / 'cultivar').
Typographic quotation marks
If further quotation marks are used within quotation marks, so-called half or single quotation marks (') are usually used . On typewriters, this symbol also serves as a substitute symbol, in this case for an apostrophe and as a foot , minute and arc minute substitute.
Typographic quotation marks are preferred, however , which differ from language to language and sometimes from country to country. Only in areas where this is not possible, for example on the typewriter, is the character "allowed".
Germany and Austria
In the German briefs are available in all countries (except Switzerland and Liechtenstein) as a quote either the German quotation marks ( "..."; Mnemonic: 99-66 ) or the French quotation marks with the tips inward used ( "...", Guillemets even quotes called). The quotation marks owed in the printer language called quotes the fact that the (older) French form evokes the impression of a crow's foot; in the meantime this ornithological background has disappeared, so that all kinds of quotation marks are now used with it. The French quotation marks with the tips pointing outwards - as is common in the Romance languages - are mainly used in German typesetting in Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
In the official set of rules (e.g. Duden R7 – R12, also in the guidelines for typesetting, as well as in the Wahrig Spelling Dictionary §§ 89–95), the rules for use are dealt with, but not whether "German" quotation marks or guillemets apply are using. Both options are equally important. In Duden Volume 9 (Correct and Good German) , the German quotation marks are assigned to handwriting and typewriting , while the Guillemets are assigned to letterpress printing , with '…' and '…' being the same as half quotation marks. The advantages of guillemets over German quotation marks are that they cannot be confused with commas , apostrophes and customs symbols . In addition, the German quotation marks interfere with the formation of lines by moving the image from the middle of the line, while the French quotation marks do not resemble other punctuation marks and support the formation of lines. According to the text portal Rotkel , the guillemets are also characterized by a more elegant appearance. While guillemets predominate in letterpress printing, German quotation marks are usually used in newspapers.
Equally disadvantageous for both types of typographically admissible quotation marks are the missing keys on German standard keyboards. Under certain circumstances, these can still be entered using the keyboard, see the section #Direct entry using the keyboard .
The half quotation marks are simple versions of the double German and French: '…' and '…'. There are different views as to whether quotation marks can be combined with another type of half quotation mark (»…‚… '… «,“… ›…‹… ”). The clearer contrast speaks in favor of this, especially where quotation marks and half quotation marks meet (»›… ‹«, "‚ ... '"opposite" ‚...'", "› ... ‹"), but the less uniform typeface speaks against it. The Duden recommends putting individual words or phrases from foreign languages in German quotation marks, while whole sentences or sections are in quotation marks in the language of origin.
The quotation marks mentioned above for meaning information in linguistic texts are always the typographical 'half' quotation marks, according to German typography above and below, according to English above, regardless of the quotation marks otherwise used in the text for quotations.
Switzerland, Liechtenstein, France
Unlike in Germany and Austria, the French double and single quotation marks ( Guillemets ) in the style of the French written language are used more frequently in Swiss typesetting , i.e. with the points facing outwards ("..."), but with significantly less white space between the characters and that of text included with them. Guillemets are required in official federal texts, German quotation marks are not permitted. In the university area, the handling is different, the cultural and social science faculty of the University of Lucerne, for example, allows both German and Swiss quotation marks, the ETH Zurich in turn refers to the official spelling of the federal government (Guillemets).
Swiss typesetting applies to all languages used in Switzerland. In the Swiss Schulschrift German normally ( "...") used quotation marks.
- Andrea asked me: "Have you read Grass '‚ Blechtrommel'? "(In Germany and Austria, German)
- Andrea asked me: "Have you read Grass'› Tin Drum ‹?" (Chevrons in Germany and Austria)
- Andrea asked me: "Have you read Grass' 'Tin Drum'?" (Guillemets in German-speaking Switzerland, without gaps)
- Andrea m'a demandé: “As-tu lu“ Le Tambour ”de Grass? »(Guillemets in France, with a small distance)
- Andrea m'a demandé: «As-tu lu‹ Le Tambour ›de Grass?" (Guillemets in French-speaking Switzerland, without gaps)
- Andrea asked me: "Have you read Grass' 'Tin Drum'?" (Typewriter set)
Third level quotation marks
In the event that a quotation occurs in a quotation, you either use the first level quotation marks (traditionally on the typewriter: "... '..." ... "...' ...") or use a third type of quotation marks as in the following example:
"After a long, detailed analysis of Putin's illegal actions [...], Grishkevich concludes:" On the basis of the above, I ask the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation [...] for an official assessment of the circumstances of the adoption and signature of the federal law ›On the incorporation of changes and additions to the Federal Law“ On the general principles of the organization of legislative (representative) and executive bodies of state power of the subjects of the Russian Federation ”‹ […]. «The court's reaction - zero."
|language||default||alternative||Distance to the text|
|primary||secondary 2||primary||secondary 2|
|Chinese (China)||“…”||'...' 6|
|Chinese (Taiwan) 8||「…」||『…』6|
|English (UK) * 1||'...'||“…”||“…”||'...'||1-2 pt|
|English (USA) * 1||“…”||'...'||'...'||“…”||1-2 pt|
|French 3||«...»||‹…› 1||“…”||'...'||¼ em (PC: non-breaking space )|
|Greek 7||«...»||“…”||1 pt|
|Italian 3||«...»||“…”||'...'||1-2 pt|
|Norwegian||«...»||'...'||"..."||, ... '|
|Polish||"..."||»…« 5 or ‛… ' 9|
|Portuguese (Portugal)||«...»||“…”||“…”||'...'||0-1 pt|
|Switzerland 3||«...»||‹…›||"..." or "..."||'...' or '...'|
In many languages, alphabets and countries, the double quotation marks are usually used and the half or alternative for more specific purposes, for example within a quotation, for technical terms or in headings with a larger font size. However, there are exceptions: In British English, single quotation marks are often used primarily, in American mostly double quotes.
Representation and input on the computer
Virtually all computer fonts designed for Latin script today contain the typographical quotation marks. Problems can only arise with very old fonts.
The opening quotation mark in US-American font and the closing one in German are identical (see above ). In most fonts, the only difference between the German opening and English closing quotation marks is the vertical position. The closing single English quotation mark is identical to the typographical apostrophe , while the German single opening quotation mark is often visually indistinguishable from the comma, the shape of which the quotation marks are almost always based on or with which they are identical.
Some fonts contain inclined, straight shapes for the quotation marks instead of curved shapes; The upper quotation mark in these fonts is usually not suitable for German (wrong inclination), more on this below . In texts in which the author has no influence on the reader's choice of font (e.g. e-mail ) it is better to use the guillemets ; In texts whose font the author can determine (texts on paper, to a certain extent also WWW pages), care should be taken to select a font suitable for German.
The correct display in browsers depends not only on the type and version of the browser, but also on the font used, other fonts available on the computer and the document encoding. As they are contained in the most widely used encoding ISO 8859-1 , the typographically correct ones best support the (double) French quotation marks. In the meantime, however, the German quotation marks are also unproblematic as long as the information given in web typography is followed.
There are some problems with outdated browsers: Netscape 4 , for example, does not display the double or half-closing German quotation marks correctly and replaces the French half-quotation marks with the larger and smaller characters.
Word processors such as Microsoft Word , LibreOffice / OpenOffice.org and many more have a function that automatically replaces typewriter characters with typographical ones as they are entered. They are based on the set language of the document, although the change to French or Swiss characters is not always easy to recognize. In Microsoft Word up to version 2013, in contrast to other programs, when the language “German (Switzerland)” was set, the German quotation marks were still used; since Word 2016 the Swiss quotation marks have been used. The automatism relies on correct punctuation, there may be problems with the distinction between closing half quotation marks and apostrophes.
There are simple "search and replace" based macros with which all displayable types of quotation marks can be exchanged for entire documents or only selected parts of the document, without changing the language settings for the text being edited. This is particularly recommended for documents with mixed languages or for languages that are not installed (and therefore not automatically recognized).
Word processing programs allow all types of quotation marks. In LaTeX , single and double English quotation marks are set in the source text by single or double grave accents (opening) and straight apostrophes (see below, closing) (`... 'and` `...' '); straight quotation marks (see below) should not be used in the source text, as they only provide closing quotation marks in the finished document. For the German form of the opening quotation marks, use the additional package babel with the option german (or ngerman ) and write
“. Alternatively, these can then also be entered directly via the keyboard if Unicode is used as the coding.
Direct input via keyboard
X Window System in general
Under the X Window System , the program xmodmap can be used to link the keycodes of the keys with the mnemonic names (see coding table ) of the keysyms of the characters. The following combinations are possible when using the Compose button ( Comp):
|Comp , "||= [ " ]|
|Comp < "||= [ “ ]|
|Comp , '||= [ ‚ ]|
|Comp < '||= [ ' ]|
|Comp < <||= [ « ]|
|Comp > >||= [ » ]|
|Comp . <||= [ ‹ ]|
|Comp . >||= [ › ]|
The following combinations are possible with German and Swiss keyboard layouts:
|Alt Gr + V||= [ " ]|
|Alt Gr + B||= [ “ ]|
|Alt Gr + Y||= [ » ]|
|Alt Gr + X||= [ « ]|
|Umschalt + Alt Gr + V||= [ ‚ ]|
|Umschalt + Alt Gr + B||= [ ' ]|
|Umschalt + Alt Gr + Y||= [ › ]|
|Umschalt + Alt Gr + X||= [ ‹ ]|
|Alt Gr + N||= [ ” ]|
|Umschalt + Alt Gr + N||= [ ' ]|
Under macOS , these and other characters are usually entered using the keyboard. The keyboard overview application , which can be displayed in the keyboard menu from Mac OS X 10.3 onwards, provides an overview of the current key assignment (System Settings… → Country Settings → Keyboard Menu). An alternative to this, again from 10.3, is the character palette, which is also to be displayed in the keyboard menu and which, among other things, can also replace keyboard entries with double clicks. It is also possible throughout the operating system to automatically replace “dumb quotes” with typographical quotation marks (under Language & Text → Text → Intelligent Quotes).
⌥ + ^
or ⌥ + ⇧ + W
|= [ " ]|
⌥ + 2
or ⌥ + ⇧ + ^
|= [ “ ]|
|⌥ + S||= [ ‚ ]|
|⌥ + #||= [ ' ]|
|⌥ + Q||= [ « ]|
|⌥ + ⇧ + Q||= [ » ]|
|⌥ + ⇧ + B||= [ ‹ ]|
|⌥ + ⇧ + N||= [ › ]|
Swiss keyboard and keyboard layout:
|⌥ + 2||= [ “ ]|
|⌥ + ⇧ + G||= [ ‚ ]|
|⌥ + !||= [ ' ]|
|⌥ + ,||= [ « ]|
|⌥ + ⇧ + ,||= [ » ]|
|⌥ + ⇧ + 3||= [ ‹ ]|
Neo keyboard layout
With the Neo keyboard layout , all typographical quotation marks are switched using the Shift key (for double quotation marks) / Mod 3(for single quotation marks) + 4(opening [French] guillemets ) / 5(closing [French] guillemets) / 8(opening [German] quotation marks) / 9(closing [ German], simultaneously opening [English] quotation marks) / 0(closing [English] quotation marks) is generated.
|Type||quotation marks||Unicode||Windows||HTML||LaTeX 1||Keysym name 2|
|German||double||"||201E||Alt + 0132||& ldquo;||"` or \ glqq||doublelowquotemark|
|"||201C||Alt + 0147||& ldquo;||"'or \ grqq||left double quotemark|
|easy||‚||201A||Alt + 0130||& sbquo;||\ glq||singlelowquotemark|
|'||2018||Alt + 0145||& lsquo;||\ grq||leftsinglequotemark|
|English||double||"||201C||Alt + 0147||& ldquo;||`` or \ ldq||left double quotemark|
|”||201D||Alt + 0148||& rdquo;||'' or \ rdq||right double quotemark|
|easy||'||2018||Alt + 0145||& lsquo;||`or \ lq||leftsinglequotemark|
|'||2019||Alt + 0146||& rsquo;||'or \ rq||rightsinglequotemark|
|French||double||«||00AB||Alt + 0171||& laquo;||"<or \ flqq||guillemotleft|
|»||00BB||Alt + 0187||& raquo;||"> or \ frqq||guillemotright|
|easy||‹||2039||Alt + 0139||& lsaquo;||\ flq||U2039|
|›||203A||Alt + 0155||& rsaquo;||\ frq||U203A|
1 German and French forms are available with the babel package and its option (n) german .
2 Mnemonic names of the X Window System keysyms for use with xmodmap
Problems and common mistakes
Since the typographically correct quotation marks are not contained in ASCII and also vary depending on the country and language, incorrect quotation marks are often used. The visual similarity to other characters ( apostrophe , accent and minute or second characters) also contributes to the confusion .
The correct quotation marks and examples of some of their common misspellings are listed below:
|Character 1||Unicode||English Unicode name||Wrong spelling 1|
|'||U + 2018||left single quotation mark 2||
` - Gravis (U + 0060)
' - replacement character for the apostrophe (U + 0027)
|'||U + 2019||right single quotation mark 2||
' - Replacement character of the apostrophe (U + 0027)
´ - Acute accent (U + 00B4)
|‚||U + 201A||single low-9 quotation mark||, - comma (U + 002C)|
|‛||U + 201B||single high-reversed-9 quotation mark||
` - Gravis (U + 0060)
' - Apostrophe (U + 0027)
|"||U + 201C||left double quotation mark 2||
" - straight quotes (U + 0022)
` ` - two grave accents
|”||U + 201D||right double quotation mark 2||" - straight quotation marks (U + 0022)|
|"||U + 201E||double low-9 quotation mark||
" - straight quotation marks (U + 0022)
,, - two commas
|‟||U + 201F||double high-reversed-9 quotation mark||
" - straight quotation marks (U + 0022)
` ` - two grave accents
'' - two apostrophes
|‹||U + 2039||single left-pointing angle quotation mark||< - Less than (U + 002C)|
|›||U + 203A||single right-pointing angle quotation mark||> - greater than (U + 002E)|
Notes on this
1 The characters are enlarged to 200%.
2 The original Unicode names were assigned based on the English usage. This can add to the confusion when using it in other languages.
Some popular fonts, such as Courier New , Verdana, or Tahoma , misrepresent the closing quotation marks; these fonts are therefore not suitable for the correct representation of German texts (see above ).
Quotation marks as a hand sign
Especially in English-speaking countries, quotation marks are visualized in an oral presentation with a gesture in which one or both hands are raised and the index and middle fingers are bent twice and then stretched up again. This in English air ratio ( air quote or Luftanführungszeichen , poetic and double Bunny finger ) called hands can euphemism , irony or sarcasm to express.
- German spelling: rules and dictionary. Official regulation, §§ 89–95, ids-mannheim.de (PDF).
- Duden, spelling of the German language. Mannheim 1996, Spelling guidelines R8 – R12 and guidelines for typesetting: quotation marks.
- Wolfgang Brandt, Norbert Nail: quotation marks. Attempt to systematize their functional use. In: mother tongue. 86: 407-426 (1976).
- Typography for web authors: quotation marks and apostrophes
- Quotation marks for typefacts
- Wolfgang Beinert : Quotation marks . Typolexicon
- The Unicode Standard Version 7.0 - Core Specification , Chapter 6.2: Language-Based Usage of Quotation Marks . (PDF; 549 kB; English)
- Unicode U + 2000..U + 206F General Punctuation (PDF; 309 kB; English)
- Friedrich Kluge (inception), Elmar Seebold : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 24th edition. De Gruyter , Berlin / New York 2002, ISBN 3-11-017473-1 , p. 44 .
- Onomasiology Online 8 (2007), p. 7. For further designations of the quotation marks see (the same article elsewhere) Joachim Grzega : Von Klammeraffen und Gänsefüßchen: Culture and cognition in the mirror of punctuation marks and special characters . (PDF; 272 kB)
- Tüder / Tud (d) in duden.de
- As an example a newspaper headline: The correct attitude of the Tüddelchen. In: Hamburger Abendblatt. September 2, 2011, accessed May 30, 2013 .
- Tüttelchen, das. Duden, accessed on May 30, 2013 .
- Montecassino Cod. 150, EE. p. 770, lines 1–13, in: Hans Foerster: Abriß der Latinischen Paläographie. 2nd Edition. Stuttgart 1963, plate 5.9.
- After Giordano Castellani: Francesco Filelfo's "Orationes et Opuscula", 1483/1484. The first example of quotation marks in print? In: Stephan Füssel (ed.): Gutenberg yearbook 2008. 83rd year. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2008.
- Formal guidelines for writing academic papers (PDF) in the Department of Romance Studies / Literary Studies
- Nadine Schabralski: Notes on the form of a scientific work . ( MS Word ; 93 kB) University of Bochum, 1999.
- Editorial information for the Rheinisches Museum für Philologie at the University of Cologne ( Memento from November 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 91 kB)
- Compare many handouts for linguistics students, for example information on how to write a linguistic work ( Memento of November 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 167 kB), published at the German Seminar of the University of Zurich by Christa Dürscheid u. a., July 21, 2014, p. 4; Ekkehard Felder: Instructions for writing a written academic paper. Minimum standards of the Institute for German Studies at the University of Potsdam ( Memento from June 14, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 24 kB), October 1, 2006, p. 2; Norms for manuscripts of the journal Vox Romanica , October 2005, Section II.2.
- Introduction to Dendrology - Nomenclature and Taxonomy (PDF; 224 kB) Ulmer-Verlag, p. 2, top center.
- printer language . textkritik.de
- quotation marks. In: Duden - Correct and good German. 5th edition. Mannheim 2001.
- Friedrich Forssman & Ralf de Jong: Detailed typography. Schmidt, Mainz 2002, ISBN 3-87439-568-5 , pp. 260-263.
- How are quotation marks placed? rotkel.de
- Swiss Federal Chancellery (Ed.): Writing instructions. Instructions of the Federal Chancellery on the writing and formulation in the German-language official texts of the federal government, 2nd edition . S. 21 ( online version [PDF; accessed on September 11, 2019]).
- Übers. Hannelore Umbreit and Alfred Frank, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-8321-8022-5 .
- Δημήτρης Ν. Μαρωνίτης: «Το Εγκόλπιο της Ορθής Γραφής. (PDF) 1998, p. 7 (Greek)
- 10.1.7. Εισαγωγικά. publications.europa.eu
- z. B. at Eckhart Nickel : Hysteria. P. 57.
- Air Quotes ; James R. Alburger: The Art of Voice Acting. Focal Press, 2011, p. 124 restricted online version in the Google Book Search USA .