Typography ( spelling recommended by the Duden and the Swiss Federal Chancellery ) or typography (from ancient Greek typographía ; from Latin týpos "stroke, impression, figure, type ", and graphics ) is an ambiguous designation: in the traditional sense it relates to the design of Printing units with movable letters (types). In media theory , typography stands for printed writing in contrast to handwriting (chirography) and electronic and non-literal texts.
An early modern book printer was called typographus , which in the 16th and 17th centuries could also mean printer-publisher. Today, typography usually describes the media-independent design process that uses font , images, lines, surfaces and empty spaces to create all types of communication media. In contrast to calligraphy , writing or font design, typography is designing with found material.
The microtypography or detail Typography is the design intricacies of the following brief:
- the font , small caps and ligatures
- the tracking and spacing (these are the letter spacing and character spacing), the word spacing
- orthotypographically correct punctuation
This is the overall design of a print or website. These include, among other things
- the page format ,
- the type area ,
- Line width, spacing ( leading ) and number,
- the avoidance of inappropriate word breakings and paragraphs ,
- the structure of the page and the text,
- the placement of images and tables in the text,
- the quantity ratio of the writing to images and tables,
- the font size and
- the fonts .
Are basic elements in pleading
- the line for the horizontal writing direction ,
- the column or the column for the vertical writing direction (→ column set ).
The individual elements of the page structure should be sensibly coordinated with one another, whereby the choice of font size and the correct positioning of figures, graphics and tables are particularly important. The harmonious division of the printed and unprinted area is crucial: One side must neither appear overloaded nor bare. The so-called grid typography is helpful here , in which the typographic elements are arranged according to a prefabricated design grid.
Another name for macro typography is layout , although the term layout is usually much more specific.
The history of typography is closely linked to the development of fonts and the changing (re-) production possibilities of printed texts; meanwhile also of digital media.
With the help of typography, the content, the purpose or the appearance of a work can be clarified. The statement of a text can be supported visually, whereby the good legibility i. d. R. comes first.
The areas of application of typography include, in addition to the design of bulk texts in novels or non-fiction books ( work typesetting ), above all commercial typesetting . This includes business stationery (letterheads, business cards, forms), printed advertising materials (flyers, brochures, posters) or even family prints (invitations, commemorative cards).
When it comes to the visual appearance of communication media, typographers usually try to harmonize the design with its content (message). Sometimes an attempt is also made to convey a subliminally different message (subtext), which may well contradict the content of the text. By influencing the statement of a text or a message in this way, a typographer can assume the role of co-author.
Possibilities of typographic design are traditionally the use of different fonts , font sizes / font sizes and types of labeling , the choice of line length (line length), the lines Falls , the printing area within the paper size , the assignments of different elements to each other in the layout, the choice of the appropriate paper and much more .
The types of markings are used to "highlight" individual text passages or paragraphs against the rest of the text, e.g. B. verbatim speech or quotations. For example, if typographers want to make it clear that a text passage represents what a protagonist has spoken , then it can be shown in italics: Hermione! shouted Harry ...
In typographical consider professional typographers the orientation of the user, the assessment of the target group (s), the specific conditions of the medium, is designed for the "Ortho Typography" (the ortho and typographically correct form), as well as different ways of reading, with which readers encounter texts of various kinds. With the typography of a romantic text, for example, attention is paid to an even and trouble-free reading flow. Sentences or words to be emphasized are i. d. Usually rather subtle so as not to emphasize them too much. Here, italic or small caps cuts the same font as the "basic text" (the non-excellent text) used in the same line width. In technical jargon, this is referred to as "integrated" or "quiet" fonts. The "informative reading" (e.g. in newspapers or online portals), on the other hand, requires a typographical implementation that allows content to be classified when skimming over it, before deeper text levels - often in smaller font sizes - are offered.
Typography has been part of the specialist knowledge of printers and typesetters since Gutenberg , but today it is an important part of the training of graphic designers , digital and print media designers and similar professional groups. The new media and the design of websites in particular presented typographers with new challenges such as user-friendliness and functionality. In the meantime, almost everyone can create documents (e.g. letters) or their websites on the computer and thus do typography.
Since typography as a graphic design has historically developed in the field of art , the discussion arose in the post-war period whether typography represented an art form in its own right. In fact, new forms of typography have emerged in Italian Futurism , Russian Constructivism, and Dadaism . While the Italian Futurists recognized a special artistic statement in the destruction of traditional text forms and thus elevated typography to an art form, the German Dadaist Kurst Schwitters wrote that typography could "under certain circumstances" be art.
In contrast to the history of art, however, the history of typography after 1945 developed a strong orientation towards the recipient of the message, which at the same time required greater restraint and a less clear author's role on the part of the typographer. Due to their stronger connection to everyday culture and their integration into economic processes, post-war typographers such as B. Kurt Weidemann ( inter alia designer of Daimler's corporate typeface ) that typography as an art is “irrelevant”; rather, it depends on restraint in favor of legibility and the desired effect on the part of the reader, and it is not about the self-realization of the designer.
- In traditional printing in Germany, in continental Europe and in many other parts of the world, the French system of measurement largely applies, i.e. Cicero and Didot's point . Other systems of measurement are also used.
- In the computerized printing industry , the English system of measurement with pica and DTP point applies worldwide today .
|French units of measure||Ratio||English units of measure|
|Parisian foot||[pied]||324.864 mm||864||English foot||[foot]||304.8000 mm|
|french customs||[pouce]||27.072 mm||72||English customs||[inch]||25.4000 mm|
|Cicero||[Cicéro]||4.512 mm||12||Pica||[pica]||4.233 3 mm|
|french line||[ligne]||2.256 mm||6th||english line||[line]||2.116 6 mm|
|Didot point||[point Didot]||0.376 mm||1||DTP point||[DTPP]||0.352 7 mm|
In the course of the conversion to photosetting, an attempt was made to fix the point to exactly 37 5 µm. In practice, however, the DTP point prevailed in IT.
In Germany typographic fonts are subject to the ornamental design similar character law . The stronger copyright applies to such fonts, contrary to what is required by font manufacturers, but not or only in special cases of extreme design height such as initials fonts that are already in the direction of paintings. The same is likely to apply to handwriting and calligraphy . It is sometimes controversial to what extent typographical unique items cannot themselves be addressed as calligraphy. However, copyrights can exist for fonts (computer typefaces) if the hinting program, which ensures the aesthetic display even with low resolutions, has a sufficient creative height as a computer program . In addition, the names of the fonts are subject to trademark law . As such, a text set or engraved image is not subject to copyright or design law, and it is controversial whether an ancillary copyright exists on the basis of the Unfair Competition Act (UWG).
"Elementary Typography", "New Typography" or "Functional Typography" is a style within font and print design from the beginning of the 20th century.
"Experimental typography" means:
- Scientific attempts to examine the effect of typographic designs on test subjects. In this they are not to be confused with the efforts of “expressive” and “extreme typography”.
- A movement within typography that, from 1945 onwards, questions the “classic designs” with its own design proposals and new media. These experiments relate to a) cinematographic, b) opto-dynamic (e.g. neon advertising) and c) kinetic attempts at expression.
- Printer language
- Type caster
- Type Directors Club
- International Center for the Typographic Arts (ICTA)
- Otl Aicher : typography. Reprint of the original edition. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2005, ISBN 978-3-87439-683-7 .
- Gavin Ambrose, Paul Harris: Basics of Typography. Stiebner, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8307-1332-6 .
- Johannes Bergerhausen, Siri Poarangan: decodeunicode: The characters of the world. Verlag Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2011, ISBN 978-3-87439-813-8 . All 109,242 characters of typography according to the Unicode standard.
- Hans R. Bosshard: Typography, writing, legibility . Verlag Niggli, Salenstein 1996, ISBN 978-3-7212-0163-5 .
- Friedrich Forssman , Ralf de Jong : Detailed typography. 4th edition. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2004, ISBN 978-3-87439-642-4 .
- Hans Peter Willberg , Friedrich Forssman: Reading typography . Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 1997, ISBN 3-87439-375-5 .
- Damien and Claire Gautier: design, typography etc. Niggli Verlag, Sulgen 2010, ISBN 978-3-7212-0668-5 .
- Florian Gaertner, Lars Harmsen , Ulrich Weiß: Slanted magazine. Slanted Publishers ,
- Jost Hochuli: Making books. An introduction to book design, especially book typography. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-422-06058-8 .
- Stephanie and Ralf de Jong: Correspondence. See, understand, choose and convey writing. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2008, ISBN 978-3-87439-746-9 .
- Bernhard Walter Panek: Typographic and psychological design of printed matter: writing and lines, ornaments, symbols and logos, images, layout, corrections and quality assurance, foreign language typesetting. 2nd Edition. Wiener Universitätsverlag Facultas, Vienna 2002, ISBN 978-3-7089-0157-2 .
- Emil Ruder : Typography. 8th edition. Niggli Verlag, Sulgen 2009, ISBN 978-3-7212-0043-0 .
- Hans Peter Willberg, Friedrich Forssman: First aid in typography. Guide to design with font. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 1999, ISBN 978-3-87439-474-1 .
- Hans Peter Willberg: Signpost writing. First aid for dealing with scriptures. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2001, ISBN 978-3-87439-569-4 .
- Michael Wörgötter: TypeSelect. Hermann Schmidt, Mainz 2010, second edition, ISBN 978-3-87439-685-1 .
- Manuela Krauß: Typography for graphic designers. wvb Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86573-801-1 .
- Rainer Malaka, Andreas Butz, Heinrich Hussmann: Media Informatics: An Introduction. 2009, ISBN 978-3-8273-7353-3 .
- Wolfgang Beinert : TYPOLEXICON. The lexicon of typography.
- Johannes Bergerhausen et al .: decodeunicode. the world's writing systems. (No longer available online.) Mainz University of Applied Sciences, archived from the original on July 23, 2018 (all 98,884 typographic Unicode characters).
- Ralf Janaszek: typo-info.de. (Course or glossary on typography, layout, font).
- typefacts.com - typographic knowledge clearly summarized and illustrated
- "Signs - Books - Networks". Virtual exhibition of the German Museum of Books and Writing, including a thematic module on typography
- www.page-online.de/typografie-grundlagen - Typo tips for web and print
- Typography, Typography, the. Duden online; accessed on February 10, 2020.
- Spelling: Guide to German spelling . (PDF; 822 kB, 160 pages) 4th updated edition. Federal Chancellery , Bern 2017, p. 149; Quote: "Typography that".
- Hans Widmann : Author trouble of a scholar in the 16th century. In: Börsenblatt for the German book trade - Frankfurt edition. No. 89, November 5, 1968, pp. 2929-2940, here pp. 2930/2931.