Printer language

Printer language is the name for a technical language that arose in the printing industry, especially in printing technology . The term printer for this originated from the “printing” trade. Only with the development of mass production did a differentiation of the occupational groups take place.

The term typesetting language is occasionally used for those terms that do not refer to the actual printing process, but to the previous work step, the sentence . Printers, for example, defend themselves against spelling errors being referred to as " printing errors ". Instead, they use the term “typographical error” when a typographical error was caused by the typesetter .

List of terms

A.

Abbreviatur
Stands for abbreviation. In hot type of space saving was often for reasons abbreviert . Space was saved, especially in classifieds in newspapers and encyclopedias.
Barring, weeding
Removal of excess material created by punching.
Ablation plate
Current environmentally friendly plate type for CTP that no longer needs development.
Lay down
This activity means putting the lead type back and forth after printing. When typing by hand, the letters were put back in the type case . In the machine set , the cast set was melted down again.
Lying down
The rubbing off of fresh prints on the back of the sheet above.
Doctoring
Cleaning the inking unit of the printing machine. The ink is removed from the ink rollers together with the washing medium with a rubber squeegee.
Attenuator
Denotes solutions with which the blackening in photographic recordings is lightened. The best- known example is the Farmer's attenuator .
Slim down
Peeling of paper on the roll that has been damaged in transit.
Voting sheet
Approved template for production printing.
poll
Is the assessment and compensation of the differences in tone and color values ​​between the proof and the production run through the color guidance in the printing machine.
completion
In offset printing machines, it is used to describe the mutual unwinding of plate, rubber and impression cylinders.
Deduction
A printed sheet.
Etching engraving
Affiche
Subject-specific name for a poster.
awl
Setzer tool, turned wooden handle with cradle of Ahlen tip (reminiscent of a thick yarn needle without eye), serves for inserting the column line during the unbinding of the lead set and defective for piercing and pulling out characters from the set in the correction.
Commercial
Small print or typesetting work.
Alpha channel , α channel
Additional channel that saves the transparency of the individual pixels (picture elements) in addition to the color information in raster graphics. Layout applications initially only supported 1-bit channels (visible / transparent), but now also 8-bit channels (256 levels of transparency).
Pressure
A test print to check the quality, especially when working in multiple colors on a printing machine.
Pressure scale
Compilation of single and multiple prints for multi-color printing.
Handle
Control elements for manipulating vector graphics elements in graphics programs.
Investment, investment brand
Mechanical stops are the mark at which each individual print sheet is aligned with perfect fit and register in sheet-fed printing. It is also called the mooring mark . The marks that are also printed in sheet-fed offset printing together with other marks (crop marks, registration marks, collation marks) are also referred to as system marks.
Bleed , also falling off the edge
Is the line along which a print sheet is trimmed to its final format. If printed areas (colored areas, photos, graphics) protrude from the edge of the paper or printing material of a finished printed matter , they are called elements that fall off the edge or are in the bleed . Such elements are created in print templates with trim allowance.
Antialiasing
Reduction of the staircase or sawtooth effect in raster graphics.
Antiqua
Writing that goes back to the Roman alphabet carved in stone.
AP paper
Paper types that consist of at least 70% recovered paper. This includes the types of paper, cardboard and cardboard intended for packaging purposes, as well as some of the newsprint and hygiene papers produced in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Aquatint
Describes a gravure printing process used in artistic printmaking in which halftones are produced by etching the surface .
Arkansas Oil Stone
see Ölstein
Atlas colors
Printing inks with a metallic glossy surface.
ATM
The Adobe Type Manager converts PostScript fonts for display on the screen or for printers that do not support PostScript and is available for Windows and Macintosh computers.
Build up
The undesirable local accumulation of ink on the blanket in multicolor wet-on-wet offset printing.
Edition
Total number of printed matter produced at the same time.
resolution
Number of picture elements (dots / pixels) in an area or per route, through which the level of detail is determined.
Examples: Photo printer with 1440 dpi (dots per inch), imagesetter with 2.540 dpcm (dots per cm), photo for magazines with 300 ppi (pixels per inch)
Supervisory template
Reproduction templates on paper or cardboard, in contrast to transparencies or slides .
Elevator
Coating of the printing cylinder or the crucible on the counter pressure side. Tasks: Adapting the cylinder circumference to the thickness of the substrate. The elevator in letterpress printing consists of a cover sheet made of durable, strong paper and several underlay sheets. Depending on the type of underlay sheet, a hard lift or a soft lift is created.
Eye powder
Is the internal term for a particularly small or narrowly set and therefore difficult to read font.
Expression
1.) The termination of the production run. 2.) Output of a computer printer
Equalize
Create optically equal spacing between individual letters. Disturbing widths are eliminated by undercutting .
boom
Place of stacking of the printed sheets on sheet-fed printing machines. The stack can be removed from the delivery while the machine is running.
Recess
Opposite of overprinting . Excluding parts of the object that are behind other parts of the object. Example: If a circle in magenta is placed on an area in cyan, the cyan area is left out in its place, so ultimately no color is transferred to the cyan printing plate. If it were not left out, the circle would be blue (cyan + magenta) after printing. If only the cyan plate were printed, the circle would be white (or in the color of the substrate ), i.e. unprinted at that point.
Alignment
Arrangement of the text as left-justified , right- justified or centered flutter or justification .
Imposition
The work step in the production of printed products such as books and magazines in which the individual pages are placed on the printing forme in such a way that they are in the correct order after folding the printed sheet or roll section.
Extension of word spacing so that another line is created. Working technique to avoid whores and shoemakers .
Exclude
Term used by the typesetter, which describes the equalization of the individual lines in order to bring them to the required sentence width.
Award
Highlighting parts of text e.g. For example, by deviating from the basic font variants such as italic and bold typefaces or caps , by uppercase (capital letters) , by blocking , underline or coloring TYPES of the text, but also by other font sizes and. This also includes (handwritten) identification of relevant passages in the associated manuscript.
Autograph, reprint
These two terms summarize methods with the help of which drawings or prints are transferred from a special paper onto stone or metal.
Autocorrection
Text correction by automatic spell check in word processing software (while writing or afterwards).
Changes instructed by the writer, as opposed to home correction.
Authoring system
Synonymous with a visual programming environment .
Author correction
See author's correction.
Autotracing
The computer automatically follows a graphic contour, using the change in contrast in the image or in the graphic as a guideline. In this way, images saved as raster graphics can be converted into vector graphics, which can then be processed by specific software.
Autotype
Name for the rasterized letterpress form on zinc or plastic plates.
Azure lines
Fine line arrangements on documents, securities, checks that are supposed to make copying difficult.

B.

Ballard skin
Term for a removable copper layer on the gravure cylinder .
train
Name of the paper web in web printing machines.
Baryta paper
Paper coated with barium sulphate , on which particularly precise prints could be made. Was used prior to the introduction of photocomposition to transfer the set to film. This was done by means of a repro camera or by direct contact exposure on line film (negative / positive material or other light-sensitive foils, e.g. "K-9 foils"), as the paper has almost no fibers. In addition to printing from lead type, baryta paper was also used for composer typesetting.
Printability
Surface properties of papers such as smoothness, absorbency, and ink acceptance.
Substrate
Denotes paper, cardboard, foils and other printable materials.
Bound ( Bound )
Brochures and printed matter stapled in magazines or glued to the waistband.
Berlin format
Well-known newspaper standard format with a double page size of 470 × 630 mm (type area 420 × 280 mm). More than half of all daily newspapers are printed in this format.
Berlin manner
Term from chromolithography and describes the best-known puncturing technique in which the lithographer puts dots together in a semicircle to create halftones .
Imagesetter
Device for laser exposure of special films or printing plates in high resolutions (approx. 1200 to 2540 dpi).
Bleed
In further processing: Remnants of the paper or printing material after cutting it to the final format.
When creating a template: margin or area (in mm ; per edge with bleed elements) that extends the final format of a printed matter. The trim is added, hence the trim allowance . The trimming is necessary in terms of processing technology and is added in order to be able to compensate for or tolerate technical inaccuracies when cutting a printed sheet to the final format. If a finished printed matter to contain printed surfaces of the paper or printing substrate -edge protrude (in the gate are), should the master be applied previously larger, so that at each edge of a printed edge determines that can be pruned in the further processing . The rule is three millimeters, but values ​​between two and five millimeters are common.
Crop marks
Are required for further processing of a printed product because the paper format during the printing process is usually larger than the final format of the printed matter. In the case of simple printed matter such as letterhead and business cards, the product is cut based on the trim marks after printing.
Pollinate
Applying a dry dusting agent to the printed sheets to prevent them from setting off.
Bibliophile printed matter
Particularly elaborate and valuable printed matter. Especially books that are conventionally designed, printed and bound.
Tie
Merge individual pages into a book.
hyphen
ambiguous, see hyphen / divis and hyphen-minus for setting the orthographic hyphen .
Binding process
The most important binding methods in the processing of printed matter are wire stitching , adhesive binding and thread stitching .
Inner major
A capital letter (capitals) in the middle of a word. Examples are: iPad, BlackBerry. Originally these were only found in old family names, such as McIntosh, DeJong. The Binnenmajuskel can often be found in advertising, such as BahnCard, PreisHammer or SonnenStudio
Bit depth
The number of bits used to represent each and every pixel in an image. It determines the possible range of colors and hues.
Blueprint , ozalid copy
Blueprints are made of finished assemblies for text, image and level control before the plate is copied.
A fictional animal to have a typical printer's joke with the typesetter's apprentices.
Describes a process for the production of printing forms for letterpress printing from individual letters .
Colloquially critical term for a document that is difficult to read. An example is a newspaper page with heavy text without any loosening up with pictures or illustrations.
Blind fish or onion fish
Typesetters and printers call individual letters within a text from another font.
Dummy material
Designation for the non-printing parts of the lead type, such as exclusion , squares, piece lead, reglets and ridges.
Dummy or dummy
Sample of a book, a catalog, a packaging, the format and scope of which corresponds to the paper, the processing and the binding of the end product. However, all pages are unprinted or only produced as a unique item for this dummy.
Blind embossing
embossing patterns, motifs or writing without color.
Dummy text
Meaningless or meaningless text that is intended as a placeholder to convey the later visual impression.
speed camera
Small, unprinted areas that occur in the print on adjacent color areas when the colors are not properly fitted. Overfills are used to avoid speed cameras .
Adhesive binding process in which the entire book block is glued to the spine.
Designation from the hand sentence in which a conspicuous sign, such as an upside-down type of print or a filled square was inserted. This was intended to alert the proofreader and the author to unclear passages in the manuscript.
Justified
All lines are made the same width by widening the spaces between words.
Drill
Name for punching holes in a form, for example. The DIN perforations (double or quadruple) are common.
arc
Sheets of paper, printing material .
Sheet feeder
Name for a unit on sheet-fed printing machines that separates the individual sheets from the stack, transports them, aligns them precisely and transfers them to the printing machine.
Arch assembly
Compilation of several film parts serving as printing templates to form a printing form.
Arch norm
Short description of the title of a work attached to the foot, on the spine or in the trim of the first page of every printed sheet.
Sheetfed offset
Sheetfed offset and web offset are differentiated according to the type of paper fed in . With sheet-fed offset printing, sheets are printed and with web offset printing, paper webs are printed. Sheetfed offset is suitable for small and medium runs.
Bow signature
Identification of each printed sheet in the factory print by the consecutive number of sheets in the footer of the first page. The arc number is often repeated with an asterisk on the third side.
Short grain
The sheet of paper lies broadly in the paper web from which it is cut. The short edge is parallel to the direction of the paper (preferred direction of the fibers).
Bronzing
Bronzing is an ancient technique that requires the printer to match paper, vacuum ink, and bronze. The still fresh print of the vacuum ink is powdered with bronze dust using a cotton ball.
brochure
Term for a small volume of writing without a cover .
The bread script is not a specific font (typeface). Rather, in the classic sense, it is the predominant font from which most of a text is set. The typesetters earned their daily bread with the bread script.
Book block
The printed, stapled or perfect-bound and trimmed sheets of a book.
Book cover
Term for that part of the book that wraps around the book block and protects it.
Printer greeting
God greet art .
Book loop
Paper strips that are placed around newly published books as an eye-catcher and advertising medium .
Book cut
Result of trimming a book block. A distinction is made between head cut, front cut and foot cut.
Federation
In the case of double-sided documents, designation for the inner margin on which the document is bound.
Color composition
A form of image composition in multicolor printing.
Colourfulness
Identification for the degree of color taking into account the brightness. The brightness-dependent color is called saturation.
Brush trigger
Proof of a set page, in which the paper is not pressed on by machine, but by being brushed over with a brush to absorb ink.
A paper scooped out of the vat with a sieve with an uneven edge.

C.

C.
Abbreviation for the color cyan (blue) from the CMYK color model .
Chemigraphy
Term for a process in relief printing , in which zinc plates are etched up for printing, a chemograph is an employee in chemigraphy.
Chromagraph
A professional drum scanner by Rudolf Hell , developed in 1965.
Chromolithography
A color variant of lithography, which was to be the most common printing method for high-quality color illustrations until the 1930s.
Chromo paper and cardboard
Wood-free or wood-containing papers and cardboard, which are usually coated on one side and are particularly used in lithography .
Cicero
A typographical measure of 12 points .
CMYK
The four-color color system in the printing industry (cyan, magenta, yellow, depth or black [key]), also called process colors .
Color management , color management
The aim of color management is to reproduce as similarly as possible a template captured with any input device on any output device.
Composing
The manual or electronic copying of images and texts together for a print template .
Computer publishing
The media-appropriate creation (print or electronic media) or typographical / graphic preparation of documents on the workstation computer (PC, Mac, workstation), and the corresponding dissemination of the documents.
Computer to Film , CTF
From computer to film refers to a process for the production of films in which the manual sheet assembly is done electronically. For this purpose, data from various sources are brought together and output to a film imagesetter.
Computer to Plate , CTP
From computer to plate describes a process in which the offset printing plate is imaged directly from the computer in the platesetter.
Copy dot function
Method for the precise digital reproduction of film originals. High-resolution scanners capture the color separations and convert them into raster graphics . Within a purely digital workflow with digital plate exposure or digital printing, advertisements in the form of films can be integrated into the workflow in this way, for example .
The copyright notice using the copyright symbol was a prerequisite for copyright protection under American law until 1989 . The symbol is still used as a mark for copyright.
Cromalin
An analog (now obsolete) variant is one of DuPont developed hard proof with four C-litho films. This method was preferred to a conventional proof for reasons of cost or time.

D.

Hiding power
Describes the property of a printing ink to hide the structure and color of the substrate. The opposite property is called glaze or transparency .
Delta E value
Calculated distance between two color samples, for example between an original and its reproduction. The following applies to the lab system, for example${\ displaystyle \ Delta E_ {ab} ^ {*} = {\ sqrt {(L_ {2} ^ {*} - L_ {1} ^ {*}) ^ {2} + (a_ {2} ^ {* } -a_ {1} ^ {*}) ^ {2} + (b_ {2} ^ {*} - b_ {1} ^ {*}) ^ {2}}}}$
Densitometer
Devices for measuring the color density ( full tone density ) and optical density of printed matter, as well as in photo technology for measuring the blackening of negatives , slides and paper images.
Slide
Positive see-through photographic image.
Diazo film
Name for one-sided or double-sided coated carrier film made of polyester . Was used, for example, as a reference copy for offset assembly.
Thickened
Actual width of a character.
Didot system
Typographic system of measurement named after the French printer Francois Didot (1730–1804).
Digital proof
Test printout created directly from the database for various purposes
For submission to the client and for determining or checking color accuracy as part of color management .
Digital printing
Describes printing processes in which the print image is transferred directly from the computer to a printing machine without using a static printing form .
Digitizer
see graphics tablet
Divis
Synonymous with the word hyphen .
Wire stitching
Binding method in which the pages are stapled together using wire clips stuck through the spine.
Printing inks
Mixtures or solutions containing colorants that are transferred to the printing material using a printing forme .
Printing form
Medium in which text, images, and bar elements in the different printing method on the means of color printing material transferred. The type of printing form changes depending on the printing process used.
Print speed
Term for the number of sheets printed in a certain time, is expressed in sheet-fed and web-fed presses in sheets per hour .
Pressure characteristic
Indicates how far the printed raster point on the print medium deviates in size from the point on the film or on the plate.
Print contrast
Measured variable for determining the normal color . It is calculated using the formula K = solid tone density - screen density × 100% / solid tone density.
Print control strips
Four-color and / or special-color standardized precision measuring strips with which parameters such as gray balance , accuracy of fit and color density in proof and print can be monitored. They are printed as a reference outside the bleed.
Printing features
Describes certain features of a printed product by which the printing process can be recognized.
Print benefit
The copies to be cut from a printed sheet.
printing plate
Term for all flat, rigid or flexible printing forms for various printing processes .
Print order
Defined sequence for overprinting the individual printing colors, e.g. cyan , black , magenta , yellow , whereby the lightest color is usually printed last.
Blanket
The rubber blanket for indirect image transfer in offset printing.
Print type, letter
Single letter for the production of the hand type in letterpress.
Imprint, imprint
A legally required indication of origin in publications that contains information about the publisher , author , editor or editor .
Impression cylinder , plate cylinder
Term for the cylindrical part of a printing machine on which the printing form is located.
Drupa
Name of the world's largest international trade fair for printing and paper in Düsseldorf. It takes place every four years.
Ductor
Roller in the inking unit of a printing machine, from which the printing ink is passed from the ink fountain to the distribution rollers by means of a lifter.
Duplex printing
Printing a single color photo or image in two colors.
Print through
Another name for screen printing.
To shine through
If the transparency of the printing material is too high, the printed image becomes visible on the reverse side.
Punch through
Components of the printing ink penetrate the substrate.
Bullet
Spaces between print lines from bottom edge to top edge (not to be confused with line spacing).
Dye transfer
Name for a color copying process from Eastman-Kodak .
Dynamic printing or personalized printing
Describes the output of variable data on digital printing machines, whereby the page content or parts of the page, such as text, images or graphics, can change with each copy.

E.

Ebab
Trimming of the individual layers (folded sheets) of an entire book block in order to keep the original shape of the book.
Real spots, full tone
Designation for full colored areas without grid points .
True color file, Truecolor File
A color image file that is available after generation or image capture in an RGB file format with 8 bits each for the three color channels, i.e. a total of 24 bits. In such a file, colors = 16,777,216 colors can theoretically be represented.${\ displaystyle 2 ^ {24}}$
pancake
Joking name for a sentence that has fallen apart .
Bring in
Save one or more lines by deleting text or reducing the spaces between words.
Set up
Preparing the printing press for production printing .
Template
Creates a millimeter film with help and contains the trimmed and untrimmed format of all pages, the page layout , registration marks, as well as punching and conditioning character for a printing form.
Single sheet feeder
Device on printing machines that transfers sheets to the printing unit.
Indent
Line indentation, indentation of the beginning of the text at the beginning of a new line in order to structure a typesetting work appropriately.
Electromechanical engraving
Engraving of the gravure cylinder , the scanning cylinder and the gravure cylinder to be engraved being connected to one another by a shaft.
Electronic engraving
Engraving of the gravure cylinder , in which the signals for the engraving head come from the digital database for the printing form description.
Final film
The copied together, smooth film as a master copy for the production of the printing form.
Final format
The trimmed size of a page or double page.
Continuous printing
Used, for example, for printing forms. The paper has guide holes on the side.
Descreen
The conversion of screened print originals into halftone originals in order to avoid moiré formation when re-screening . Used in gravure printing for opal films .
Draft, layout
A mostly colored arrangement sketch for images and texts of a printed matter.
Episcope
Describes an optical device for the projection of reflective and transparent originals and is used for sketching or tracing sketches, drawings and photos.
European color scale, euro scale
The European color scale for offset printing (DIN 16539) contained standards for four-color offset printing. In the course of an international standardization of different color scales, DIN 16539 was withdrawn without replacement in 2002. It is recommended to use the ISO 2846-1 standard .

F.

The connection of individual pages or the folded sheets of paper to a booklet or book block by means of a thread, in contrast to wire stitching .
Strong magnifying glass with three to twelve times magnification, which is used in prepress for screen and register control.
Flag deduction
Proof copy to check not breaking wrapping set columns.
facsimile
Faithful copy or reproduction of an original, often a historically valuable document .
factor
Head of a letterpress typesetting; usually a master typesetter (obsolete term). Later, with the introduction of new graphic techniques, it was also used more generally to designate executive employees in the graphic industry.
Fold
Crease in the paper caused by folding.
Fold
Technique of print finishing , in which a printed sheet is folded in such a way that the individual pages of a book are arranged one after the other in the reading direction.
Fold types
The most important types of fold are cross-fold and parallel fold.
Color separation , color separation
Negative or positive film for the CMYK color system, which is obtained by taking photographs with a corresponding color separation filter or by calculating on the computer.
Color correction
The correction of color values ​​in color separations, for example to compensate for color casts.
Color management
see color management
Color marks
Used by the printer to check that the ink is fed evenly.
Colorants
Collective designation according to DIN 55943 for all coloring substances in printing inks.
Color model
A model that has individual colors (and possibly other parameters) as components and is used to clearly describe colors.
Color order
See print order
Color scale
see European color scale.
Color cast
The shift of one color to another color valence . The term is defined in DIN 55980.
Inking unit
A device on printing machines that is used to automatically track used color to the printing form .
Fan-out effect
Term for a width expansion of the paper web through moisture absorption in web offset printing .
Farmer's attenuator
Describes a process used in classical chemotechnical photography to reduce color depths.
Dampening system
With offset printing, it enables printing from a flat printing plate.
fish
One in the wrong compartment of the letter case lying pressure point .
Basis weight
Frequently used but incorrect designation for the area-related mass (this is the standard-compliant designation).
Collision mark
Orientation mark for the bookbinder in the collar between the first and last page of the printed sheet. This enables the bookbinder to determine whether the printed sheets have been compiled in the correct order.
Flexographic printing
A relief printing process in which the printing form is made of rubber or plastic.
Wrong character in the text, mostly upside down.
Body text
Term for a text in the basic font of a typesetting work without interruptions by paragraphs, headings, figures and footnotes.
Format bars
In letterpress, form the space between the column sentences . Depending on their position within the printing form, there are head, waist, outer, foot, cross and middle webs.
Forme cylinder
Another designation for the impression or plate cylinder, see impression cylinder.
Production run
Printing of the actual edition after completing all setup and coordination work.
Photolithography
Term for a process in which the tonal values ​​of photographic recordings of an original to be reproduced are corrected, copied onto the lithographic stone and prepared for printing.
Photopolymer plate
Current plate type for CTP , which works on the basis of photopolymers .
fracture
Collective term for broken fonts. From the middle of the 16th century to the beginning of the 20th century, it was the most widely used print font in German-speaking countries
Clipping
Describes the boundary of a rectangular or figurative image motif.
frontispiece
Illustration in front of the title page.
Frog (hand set)
Slidable angle piece on the angle hook .
Frog (letterpress)
Positioning mark for the paper to be printed on in manual printing presses, such as the Boston platen press .
Frogs (offset printing)
Used to tighten the paper web (mainly in web offset printing).
footnote
Explanation or note at the foot of a page on a specific text passage, which is marked with a superscript number or an asterisk.

G

Alley (typography)
Word spaces that are perpendicular to each other in typography, see misprints .
Alley (typesetting)
the aisle between the shelves.
Couchette
During paper production, the squeezing of the water from the freshly scooped paper. Transferred is the book printer custom, which can be traced back to the 16th century, of dunking the trained typesetter and printer apprentices with full clothing in a large vat during the couch celebration.
Mean
Are lowercase letters or minuscule .
Impression cylinder
Name for the cylinder with which the paper is pressed onto the printing form or against the rubber cylinder in offset printing. In gravure printing, it's called an impression roller .
Mixed sentence
Typesetting work in which other fonts are used in addition to the basic font.
Coated paper
Also referred to as art or picture printing paper in which the surface has been refined on both sides with an application of binding agent. Paper coated on one side is called chromo paper.
Quartered
A typographical unit of measurement from the time of lead typesetting with movable letters , which is still used in modern typesetting on the computer.
Gigantography, grid projection
Term for a grid enlargement, for example for the printing of large-format posters through photographic projection.
Smooth sentence
Set from just one font in large quantities with minor accentuation and no headings.
Gilt edging
Decoration of the book cut , usually the upper cut edge of a book block , with the gold being transferred from a carrier foil by machine.
God greet art
Traditional greeting from the printers and the printing industry.
Glass engraving grid
Serves to break down a halftone image into printable raster dots and is placed upstream of the film to be exposed in the reproduction camera.
dig
If missing characters, so-called corpses, have to be inserted, the affected line can become too long. Shoveling a grave means using typographic tricks to create additional space. Otherwise the rest of the paragraph would have to be repositioned.
Graphics tablet , digitizer
Name for a pointing device for computer input, in which the tip of a pen is moved on a plate.
Grammage
Industry name for the "basis weight" of paper.
Grotesque , sans serif
Sans serif antiqua typefaces in which the line width of the letters is almost even.
Basic font
The font size of a particular font that is predominantly used for typesetting work.
Gum arabic
In classical lithography , gum arabic was used for the necessary pretreatment of the litho stones before printing and strengthened their property of making the non-printing parts of the stone grease-repellent and water-absorbent. Gum arabic was also used in offset printing. So that the water-bearing printing plates do not oxidize too much due to atmospheric oxygen and become ink-bearing, they were protected from air by applying gum arabic.
Rubber blanket
Intermediate carrier used in offset printing from which the print is made on paper.
Rubber cylinder
Carrier of the rubber blanket in offset printing.

H

Hairline
A line type whose thickness is defined as a pixel of the output medium. As a result, a hairline is clearly visible on a printer with a resolution of 600 dpi, while it can only be recognized by a thread counter on the film or the printing plate with an imagesetter with 2540 dpi .
Denotes the thinner part of the letter image. The line thickness between the hairline and the base line varies.
halftone
Halftones are all intermediate tones between black and white.
Halftone image
A color or black and white image that, in contrast to line or raster images, has continuously varying tone values.
Neckline
Separates the table header from the actual table. Also called the headline .
Hamburgefonts
Font sample word for assessing the font design
Handset
Exclusively set by hand, as opposed to machine-set machine sets .
Home correction
Correction read by the in-house proofreading, in contrast to the author's correction.
Heidelberg
In short for Heidelberger Druckmaschinen, one of the world's leading manufacturers of sheet-fed offset presses.
Hot stamping
Instead of printing ink, an embossing stamp is used to apply a thin plastic film to the substrate using pressure and heat.
Heliogravure
The forerunner technique of modern gravure printing , in which the print image is transferred to the printing form using pigment paper and then etched.
Helio-Klischograph
The most common variant of the Klischograph is used for the electromechanical engraving of gravure cylinders.
Hexachrome
The attempt to remove the color restrictions of four-color printing with two additional printing colors, mainly orange and green.
HKS
A compilation or color fan deck of 120 full-tone colors with a total of 3,250 colors.
wedding
A sentence error in which two identical words appear one after the other.
Horizontal camera
"Model K" from Falz & Werner, Leipzig; 70 × 70 cm negative format
Horizontal camera
Reproduction camera in horizontal design, in contrast to the vertical camera. Horizontal cameras could be several meters long and often occupied several rooms: a light room and a dark room. The optics and the bellows protruded into the bright room. The template was clamped in a template holder in the bright room. The light-sensitive reprofilm was brought into the correct position in the dark room, the optics focused and exposed.
Whore child
In letterpress is the last line of a paragraph, which is the first line on a page or in a column.

I.

Imprimatur
Approval for printing by the author, publisher or client after he has found a proof (print) or press proof to be good.
imprint
See printer's note .
initial
Decorative first letter as the first letter of chapters or sections.
Incunabula , incunabula
Book prints from the time of Johannes Gutenberg between 1435 and 1500 with richly ornamented initials.
Integral sampling
With OT conversion in gravure printing, screened offset films are integrally scanned and converted into corresponding halftone values.
Infrared drying
Process for drying the printing inks.
Iris print
An effect printing process in which several colors with overlapping color edges are printed in one printing process.
ISBN
Abbreviation for international standard book number and is an identification feature for the unique identification of books.
ISO
Name for the International Organization for Standardization based in Geneva. Its task is to coordinate the national standards of the countries it represents.
Italic
Term for italic, slanted fonts.
IVW
Abbreviation for information community to determine the distribution of advertising media and is an institution for Germany that is supported by media companies, advertisers and advertising and media agencies. Its purpose is to provide valid data for the performance control of advertising media .

J

JDF
Abbreviation for Job Definition Format , designates a standardized open file format for describing print jobs and job control.
JPEG
Abbreviation for Joint Photographic Expert Group , stands for expert group of the CCITT / ISO standardization committees , which deals with image data compression in digital image processing. JPEG (JPG for short) is a widely used data format for digital photographs on the web .
Virgin
A page that was set by the typesetter without any error.

K

K
Name for the color black from the CMYK color model , the selection of the letter K comes from the English word key , since black is the key color for contrast and sharpness in four-color printing.
calender
A machine for smoothing or embossing paper using heated rollers.
calibration
Adaptation of various input and output devices to their color accuracy.
calligraphy
Is the art of fine writing by hand, with a quill pen , brush, ink or other writing utensils.
Plate cylinder channel
Used to fasten and tension the pressure plate using tensioning rails.
A decorative fabric edge glued to the head and foot of the spine of the book block.
Small caps
Uppercase letters at the same height as the lowercase letters without excess and descenders.
Laminating
The mechanical covering of paper, cardboard or cardboard with foil to apply a protective or decorative layer.
cone
The dimension of the printing type in the vertical direction of the typeface.
Wedge color
In the photolithography and Repro retouching blue-black glaze paint, consisting of dyes dissolved in water and used brushes retouch of contone and halftone films and serves on photo paper.
Blurb , laundry slip
Text on the flaps of the dust jacket of books.
Lowercase letter
see minuscule, also called common.
cliche
General term for all types of high pressure plates.
Klischograph
Was developed by Rudolf Hell from 1951 and is regarded as the forerunner of today's scanners . Scans templates electronically, breaks them down into pixels and engraves them in metal or plastic film. The first electronically generated printing forms were used as clichés in letterpress and newspaper printing .
Toggle press
Name for a lithographic press . The press was previously used to mint coins.
Coal arc lamp
A conventional light source in which light is generated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes. Carbon arc lamps have been used in copying offset plates.
column
Sentence wrapped to the intended dimension.
Column cord
A cord, usually made of hemp, which is used in lead type to secure the finished set against falling apart during transport or storage ( standing set ).
Complementary color
A term from color theory that denotes the opposite colors in the color wheel, for example red and green or blue and yellow .
Compress
Typographic designation for a line spacing without leading (Regletten).
Contact device
Device for the exposure of photographic films, which takes place in direct contact with the negative or positive under vacuum .
Contact grid
In contrast to the glass engraving grid, the contact grid is used to rasterize halftone recordings in the contact device.
Counter, turn back
Copying of reprofilms from right to wrong or vice versa.
Unprinted space between the top of the paper and the first line of text.
Copier
Automatic machine for copying individual films to any number of uses on offset printing plates.
Galley proof, proof for printing
Term for a copy of the sentence that has not yet been broken in order to be checked for errors.
Correction marks
Used to mark text errors and must be repeated on the right edge of the paper. Correction characters are standardized in Germany in the DIN standards DIN 16511 and DIN 16549-1 and are explained collectively in spelling dictionaries (e.g. Duden ).
Scabies
Scabies has been called the recovery of lead from printed metal type cast lines. Due to the resulting toxic fumes, the lead had to be melted down in closed rooms with extraction systems. The rooms were also called "Scabies".
Italic , Italic
Collective term for fonts inclined to the right.

L.

Painting, printing varnish
Prints can be coated with print varnish in the printing machine or with nitro lacquer in the varnishing machine .
Laminate
Covering a printed product with plastic film (laminate).
Running direction
Refers to the direction in which the paper fibers run.
Corpse
A missing letter or word in the printed text. Correcting the error buries the corpse .
layout
See draft
Legend
Description of the symbols, colors and signatures used on maps and illustrations.
Leporello fold
Refers to a type of fold in which the paper is folded in a zigzag shape. Printed matter folded in this way is called a leporello or folding book .
Letter
See print type
ligature
Description of a letter combination in which characters are combined to form a double character. Ligatures are, for example, the connections ff, fi, fl, ft .
Blueprint
See blueprint
Left aligned
Typographic expression for a line case in which all the beginning of the line are left-justified one below the other.
Linotype
Abbreviated name for the Linotype typesetting machine, in which, in contrast to the Monotype typesetting machine, complete lines of print are cast. The setting and pouring operations take place on one device.
Term for a notice pillar to which posters for outdoor advertising can be stuck.
lithography
Describes a process in which greasy ink is used to draw on a lithographic stone and the drawing is transferred to paper in the lithographic press. Until the advent of digital word and image processing in the 1990s, “lithography” was also a collective term for the process of processing images suitable for printing (rastering, making color separations, etc.). Service providers who carried out this process were called lithos. The images rasterized on reprofilms were colloquially called lithographs or lithos. See also photolithography .
Lithography stone
Consists of Solnhofen limestone and serves as a printing form for stone printing .
Lorem ipsum
Meaningless dummy text in pseudo-Latin.
Air rider
Lifts the paper web in front of the printing unit so that the print image becomes larger laterally after the printing unit.
A further processing process in which the pages of a book are milled and glued at the collar.

M.

M.
Name for the color red (magenta) from the CMYK color model .
Set of men
Term used in lead type for the exact subsequent phrase (new phrase) of a work. Lead type letters and lines only lasted a certain number of copies due to the mechanical stress. Works often had to be re-set when reprinting. If the sentence had to be exactly like the previous version (same line case, same scrap) it was “male sentence ”.
Mac, Macintosh
(Abbreviated) designation for the Macintosh - Personal computer company Apple . Originally, Macs were considered the preferred computer from both a printing and a design point of view because of their hardware and software, but this has now been put into perspective. Macs now use the same main processors (CPUs) as the dominant Windows PCs.
macOS, OS X, Mac OS X, Mac OS
Names of the two Mac operating system series from Apple, which have been renamed several times .
The current macOS series is a Unix operating system with corresponding compatibility with BSD and Linux; it was previously called OS X and before that Mac OS X. The screen output is based on PDF and practically every displayable object and document can be saved as a PDF document (including PDF / X). For typographically demanding designers, it offers typographical functions that go beyond the capabilities of other operating systems.
The old Mac OS series , unofficially called “Classic” with retrospective effect , was created in the mid-80s and was initially considered to be trend-setting in many respects, but from the beginning of the 90s it was not technically sustainable and was replaced by the current series in 2001.
Waste
Paper that is not properly printed and that is still used in print shops when setting up the machine for the first unclean proofs.
Capitals
Typographic designation for the capital letters (capital letters) of the alphabet.
manuscript
Typesetting template from an author for typesetting / printing. Originally the manuscript was the name for handwritten books, letters and other forms of publication.
Marginalia
Marginal gaps or marginal notes on the type area.
Brands
Stop forwards, upwards or to the side to align a sheet before it is fed into the machine.
Machine set
Describes the machine production of the sentence, whereby a distinction is made between the sentence of single letters or whole lines.
Term from reproduction technology for the photomechanical change of tone and color values ​​instead of manual corrections.
A process previously used in reproduction technology in which color separations are combined with specially graded positives or negatives in order to carry out specific color and tonal value corrections.
die
Typographical name for a metal mold for casting letters or lines of lead.
Media designer digital and print
Designation of today's apprenticeship occupation , which replaces the traditional occupations such as typesetter , lithographer , gravure retoucher , cliché etcher , master printer and many others with computer technology
Multi-metal plate
Term for offset printing plates that consist of two or more metal layers, such as the bi- and tri- metal plate . They are characterized by a higher number of copies.
measure up
Important trade fairs for the printing industry are drupa 2012 in Düsseldorf, Print 2010 in Chicago, Postprint 2010 in Berlin and IPEX 2010 in London.
Knife fold , knife fold
Machine folding technology, as opposed to pocket or buckled fold.
Mettage
Merging of lead type and graphic components to the finished lead type page. The butcher carries out this activity.
Microfilm , microfiche
Strong reduction of text and image information that can be enlarged back in reading devices.
Minuscule
Typographical designation of lower case letters, also called common .
Mixed colors
The colors created by mixing or overprinting two or more basic colors, also referred to as secondary or tertiary colors.
Center axis set, axial set
Set symmetrically aligned towards the center.
Missing dots
Missing halftone dots in gravure printing.
Moire
Unwanted pattern when overprinting screened color separations .
Assembly
Texts and images combined to form a ready-to-copy form, as well as the associated work process.
Assembly sign
Used to fit and control the sheet or paper path. Specifically, these are register marks, system centers, cut marks, pull marks, fold marks and flutter marks .

N

Cup
Designation of the depressions in the gravure cylinder, the color of which is then transferred to the paper.
Wet-on-wet printing
In a multi-color printing machine, the printing process is so fast that the colors cannot dry.
Acid test
Method of checking the printed sheet for drying. The fingernail brushing the fresh print must not leave any traces in the colored areas. It can also be used to check the direction of paper or cardboard.
negative
Refers to the reversal of a film positive, with the light tones appearing dark and the dark tones appearing light.
Standard printing inks
In the DIN 16539 set printing inks for offset printing.
Standard light
Term for the standardized spectral radiation distribution curves of certain light sources. The criteria for standard light are defined in the ISO standard ISO 3664
Use
The arrangement of a corresponding number of duplicates of the same motif in order to optimally fill the print sheet.

O

OCR technology
Abbreviation for Optical Character Recognition . The term from the IT sector describes machine text recognition, for example on check forms.
Oil stone
It is used by the lithographer to sharpen blades and tools, such as drawing pens , carving knives, planing knives, chisels and scrapers . It was a special oil or simply petroleum, and any other thin, non-resinous oil was used. The most famous oil stones are the Arkansas oil stones, which came from the US state of the same name.
Dispensing
Previously a common name for a book printing company.
Offset printing
Indirect planographic printing process in which the printing is carried out from a metal plate onto the paper via a rubber cylinder.
Offset printing machine
Machines for edition printing in offset printing, a distinction is made between sheet-fed rotary and web-fed offset printing machines.
Offset printing plate
Name for the printing form in offset printing, which can consist of one or more metal layers.
Opal film
Name for a special film as a template for the electronic engraving of the printing cylinder in gravure printing .
opacity
Term for the opacity of the paper, this is important for paper to be printed on both sides.
Orthochromatic
Term for photographic film material that is sensitive to blue and green light, but insensitive to red. So it can be developed in red darkroom light.
OT conversion
The offset-rotogravure conversion is a method of printing form production in rotogravure . Here, printing templates (films) made for offset printing are used for the engraving of gravure cylinders .

P

Pagina
Page number of a book, also called page or column number.
Panchromatic
Term for photographic film material that is sensitive to light of any color.
Panorama picture
An image that goes over two pages in the bunch.
Pantone Matching System
A system developed by the Pantone company that assigns a uniform designation and a uniform color mixture description in the various color spaces (RGB, CMYK, HSV) to usage colors.
Paperback
English term for a perfect-bound paperback with a paper or cardboard cover.
paper
The most common substrate in printing technology.
Parallel fold
All folds run parallel to each other. The parallel folds include the letter fold, the gate fold, the Leporello fold and the parallel center fold.
parenthesis
Typographic name for a round, square or curly bracket sign.
Passer
The perfectly fitting, exact overprint of several colors in multi-color printing.
Register marks
Markings for checking the accuracy of fit at the register.
pasty
Refers to printing ink and means viscous .
PCX
Image data format.
PDF
Means Portable Document Format and is the name of a file format for documents.
perforation
Hole or slot punching in the printed sheet, through which parts of a sheet such as postcards can be separated without tools.
periodical
Name for a regularly published printed work.
PH value
Describes the acid content of the dampening solution in an offset printing machine and is important for the quality of the production run.
Photosetting, photosetting
A method of making typesets in which letters are copied onto photographic material by exposure.
Pica point
The American unit of measurement for the font size in inches . 1P (pica) = 1/6 inch = 4.233 mm; 1pp (pica point) = 1/72 inch = 0.353 mm.
Piezo technology
Use in ink jet printer , by the ink jet by a piezoelectric transducer is modulated.
pigment
Term for coloring, insoluble substances.
Pigment paper
A special paper covered with a light-sensitive chrome gelatin layer for transferring the print image to the printing form in gravure printing .
pictogram
A single symbol or icon that conveys information through a simplified graphic representation.
pixel
The smallest unit of a digital raster graphic and its representation on a screen .
Pixel graphics , raster graphics
Refers to the description of an image in the form of computer-readable data.
plagiarism
Term from copyright law and denotes the theft of intellectual property, such as a literary, artistic or musical work.
poster
Large-format public notice or notice, it is usually used for advertising purposes.
Poster formats
The formats vary widely and range from about DIN A3 to 18/1 sheets, which corresponds to nine parts in DIN A0 format .
Flat sheet
A flat, unfolded print sheet.
Plan cutter
A machine for cutting flat sheets before printing, as well as the final trimming after printing.
Record spinner
Device for the even application and drying of the copy layer on offset plates using centrifugal force .
Plate cylinder
Printing forme cylinder in various printing processes on which a flexible printing plate is clamped.
plotter
An inkjet printer that can process large formats from A3 to A0.
PNG
Abbreviation for Portable Network Graphics and means Portable Network Graphics . Term for a graphic format for raster graphics with lossless image compression .
POD
Abbreviation for Printing on Demand and means printing on demand . The best- known example is book-on-demand , a publication process for very small editions of books and printed matter.
Polyester film
Particularly dimensionally stable polyester film used in the film assembly.
Polygraph
The Polygraph is a specialist journal for the printing industry in German-speaking countries.
Polygraphy
Common name in the GDR for the printing industry in its entirety.
Porte-page
Typesetting base for metal typesetting made of approx. 5 mm thick gray cardboard for transporting typesetting or for storing standing types.
positive
Correct tonal image of an object on which the brightness values ​​correspond to reality.
poster
The common German term for a decorative print.
PostScript
A page description language that has become a standard in the printing industry. However, it is increasingly being replaced by the PDF format.
ppi
Abbreviation for pixels per inch , that is, the number of pixels per inch (2.54 cm).
Shape
In book production, a distinction is made between color embossing and blind embossing , for example the application of the title to the cover using an embossing stamp in the embossing machine.
Preflighting
Work step in which the processing path from word processing or DTP programs to output is simulated using software. The aim is to localize errors in the creation of PDF or PostScript files and to be able to correct them if necessary.
Pre-press , prepress
Describes the summarized processes before the actual printing.
Impressionist
Impression cylinder in rotogravure printing.
Primary colors
Designation for the basic colors that cannot be mixed from other colors. The printing technique uses subtractive color mixing , which consists of the primary colors cyan , magenta and yellow .
Print server
Accepts print jobs in a computer network and forwards them to a printer or plotter .
Printer font
Font stored in the printer.
Proof
Proof is a representation of the print image on a paper-like carrier material and is created from the print templates, usually from the database. A proof is intended to simulate what the subsequent print result will look like as early as possible in the production chain.
projection
A method in the reproduction camera to produce artwork for large-format posters.
Proportional font
Font in which each character has a different width ( thickness ). In typewriter fonts, all letters have the same thickness. A common non-proportional font is Courier.
brochure
Name for an advertising leaflet, usually a printed product with pictures or, in an extensive form, a catalog .
Process color
The four main printing colors CMYK in four-color printing .
Powdering, dusting
Dusting fresh prints in the delivery system to prevent the ink from setting off.
Point
A typographic unit of measurement, abbreviated as pt. Or p. There are different point systems. The Didot point with 0.376 mm has prevailed in Europe . In the American pica point system , a point is 0.353 mm.
Point bonding
Dot gain , tone value gain
Raster dot broadening when printing compared to the printing template.
Hallmarks
Non-printing inner surfaces of the letter image of a printing type .

Q

Precision balance for determining the basis weight of paper. A 10 × 10 cm paper sample was hung on the hook on the scale and the display indicated the weight per square meter.
Square meter weight
The weight of one square meter of a given paper or cardboard box.
Paper: 7 g / m² to 150 g / m²
Cardboard: 150 g / m² to 600 g / m²
Cardboard: over 600 g / m²
Squares
Dice game of the typesetters with squares .
Printing a monochrome photo in four colors. See also duplex printing .
Landscape
Term for a paper or image format in which the length is greater than the height.
Sheeter
Cutting machine for roll paper, which separates the paper web into individual sheets across the running direction .

R.

etching
Describes a gravure printing process in artistic printmaking in which the drawing is scratched or etched with a needle.
Rotogravure printing
The gravure printing process used in the industrial sector. The excess ink is scraped off the printing cylinder with the squeegee .
As an aesthetic or visual margin adjustment, it is a function of various layout programs that optimize the sentence margin. It pushes capital letters (V or W), quotation marks, hyphens and punctuation marks a little beyond the actual edge, so that the visual impression of a clean edge is created.
rapport
Term for a constantly recurring, identical print pattern, such as wallpaper or textile printing .
Grid
Describes a process in printing technology to represent halftones .
Grid density
Describes the integral density within a measuring field with a densitometer .
Grid projection, gigantography
Enlargement of raster negatives or positives by projection in the reproduction camera .
Screen ruling , screen frequency
Number of grid points per centimeter.
Screen angle , screen angle
In order to avoid annoying moiré formation, the halftone dots are angled differently in each printing color.
Rough (h) sentence
Also known as flutter sentence , it has many word separations in order to make optimal use of the column width. Rausatz appears more restless than justification , in which the gaps are optically balanced. However, there should be a maximum of three word separations in a row and no small syllables should be separated.
Right justified
Typographic designation for a line case in which all line ends are right-aligned vertically below each other and the beginning of the line freely expire on the left.
Recycled paper
Designation for paper that has been made from 100% waste paper.
editorial staff
Term for the entirety of the editors of a media company and their workplaces.
Edit
The recording and revision of texts in an editorial office .
Register , registration
The ratio of the set, text and page layout of a printed object on both sides to each other. The spacing above, below, right and left, as well as the spacing in the case of multiple columns on the front and back should be the same.
Reglette
Non-printing blank material in lead type.
Final artwork
An exact template on drawing board for printing, created according to repro technical requirements.
Rider roll
Additional roller in the inking or dampening system that has no direct connection to the printing ink or the dampening solution.
Recompression
Loss of data for images due to multiple storage with non-lossless compression.
Relaunch
Complete renewal of a magazine, including a website.
Reproduction camera, repro camera
Large format camera that was used in repro photography for color separations , rasters and projections.
RET
Abbreviation for Resolution Enhancement Technique , the name for a resolution enhancing technique for desktop printers.
Reproductive technology
Designation in prepress for processes that deal with the reproduction of images and texts and that are used to produce printing forms for the various printing processes .
retouching
The subsequent improvement or modification of a surface , photo or image.
Revision
Last check of a printing form for typesetting errors before the start of production.
RGB
Abbreviation for red, green, blue , stands for additive color mixing .
Ries
Unit of the paper count. In the printing industry, a ream has 250 or 500 sheets of various sizes.
Grooves
A bookbinder's operation to improve the flexibility of the material.
RIP
Abbreviation for Raster Image Processor , designates special hardware that converts data from a higher-level page description language , such as PostScript or PDF , into raster graphics
Red chalk
Masking paint used by the photolithographer, belongs to the mineral paints and consists of a soft mixture of clay and hematite .
Raw arch
Describes the finished, printed paper coming out of the printing machine in stacks, which is then further processed in the bookbindery .
Raw format
Dimensions in excess of the exact size required for further processing after printing.
Web offset
Web offset and sheet-fed offset are differentiated according to the type of paper fed in. With web offset printing, paper webs are printed and with sheet-fed offset printing, sheets are printed. Web offset is suitable for large and very large print runs.
Reel changer
Transfer of a new paper roll to the machine without interrupting printing.
RTF
Abbreviation for Rich Text Format and denotes a file format that is used to exchange data between word processing programs from different manufacturers on different operating systems .
Rotary printing
Printing principle in printing machines with printing forme and impression cylinders, with the paper to be printed running between the two.
Back folds
Fabric strip that is glued around the back of brochures.
Back title
Title written on the spine of the cover or dust jacket of a book, usually running from bottom to top.
Setup , setup time
Time required to set up machines.
Plucking
Tearing particles out of the paper surface. Picking occurs when the paper surface cannot withstand the mechanical tensile stress caused by the printing ink when the sheet of paper is pulled off the printing form or the rubber blanket.

S.

Sawtooth effect
In many printing processes , such as screen printing or rotogravure printing , a sawtooth effect occurs when raster points do not form closed contours.
saturation
The intensity of a bright color compared to an equally bright tone in achromatic gray.
A machine in which the folded printed sheets are gathered and then stapled.
Satin finishing
A process used in papermaking to smooth the surface of the paper.
Type area
Term from typography and describes the usable area of a book page on which the text is located.
Scan resolution
Resolution in pixels in which the image is scanned.
scanner
An electronic data acquisition device that scans a reflective or transparent original and converts it into digital data.
Sharpening
Describes the increase in the sharpness of the contours of an image or a raster graphic .
Narrow grain
The sheet of paper lies narrowly in the paper web from which it is cut. The long edge is parallel to the direction of travel of the paper (preferred direction of the fibers).
Ship, pack ship
Serves as a work and storage area for the lead type and its transport.
Shift side
Name for the side of the film on which the photographic layer is located.
Sliding mark
When placing the sheet in the open grippers of the printing machine, ensures that the printed sheet is positioned correctly on the side.
Mold arch
Sheet not printed or only printed on one side. In sheetfed printing, arises when two sheets of paper are drawn into the printing machine at the same time.
Schmitz
Denotes an error in the printing process that manifests itself in the form of a smeared print and a blurred print image.
Braised cabbage
A particularly simple, undemanding job.
Spot color , custom color
An additional color that does not belong to the CMYK color system used in printing , such as for CI colors.
Half-title
The sheet in front of the title page of a book.
Cut edges
Transfer of film edges to the printing plate, which are eliminated by manual correction or post-exposure with diffuse light.
Crop marker , crop mark
Fine lines that mark the format of the printed matter.
Perfect printing
Printing on the front and back of a sheet of paper.
Nice side
The felt side lying on the sheet when the paper is formed in the paper machine has less structure and becomes smoother - i.e. more beautiful - i.e. the side lying on the wire with its "rough" grid shape.
Cursor , cursor
Marks the current machining position in a computer program .
Font family
Designates a group of font styles that belong together .
Font size
Specification for the size of the font in points .
font size
see font size
Baseline
The line on which all letters stand. Characters protruding below this base line have a descender .
Font sample
Used to select the appropriate font.
Font style
Different variants of a font, such as normal, semi-bold, bold / bold or italic / italic.
Shed feeder
Term for a transport system for feeding sheets to sheet-fed printing machines .
Cobbler boy
In letterpress is the first line of a paragraph, which is the last line on a page or in a column.
Term of protection
Duration of copyright protection, which in Germany is limited to 70 years after the death of the author.
Swiss sword
Term for someone who trained as a printer and the typesetter has completed.
Screen design
Layout developed for the monitor.
Scribble
A sketchy drawing or draft.
Correctly, backwards
Designation for the appearance of the print image on the printing form . Letterpress and gravure printing forms are reversed, while offset printing forms are copied the right way round on the plate.
Page break
Describes the design of a page of a book or brochure. In lead type, this was the combination of writing and clichés of the images.
Secondary colors
Mixture of two primary colors in equal parts.
semantics
The doctrine of the meaning of the signs.
Semibold, half bold
A typographic term that refers to the cut of a font between normal and bold , semibold is the English form of semi-bold.
Serifs
Little feet and heads that end a letter line at the end, transverse to its basic direction.
Put
The creation of text and image material according to typographical rules, originally the manual typesetting of individual lead letters .
Typesetting machine
Name for a device for the production of the sentence from writing metal . A distinction is made between a line typesetting machine or linotype and a typesetting machine for single letters or monotypes .
SGML
Abbreviation for Standard Generalized Markup Language and means standardized generalized markup language . It is a metalanguage that can be used to define different markup languages for documents .
Shannon factor
If an image with 300 dpi is required, it should be scanned at 600 dpi in order to have reserves for corrections.
Short run color printing
Another term for digital printing .
Screen printing , serigraphy
A screen printing process in which the printing ink is pressed with a rubber squeegee through a fine-meshed textile fabric onto the material to be printed.
Sieve side
The reverse side of the paper, the side that rests on the wire when the paper is formed in the paper machine, is given a “rough” structure. In contrast, the front is then called the beautiful side or the felt side .
signet
Name for a graphically designed person, company or trademark.
Silver halide plate
Current low-cost plate type for CTP .
Scaling
Adjust to a given or desired size.
Sleeve, carrier sleeve
Name for the exchangeable outer shell on gravure or flexo printing cylinders .
SM paper
Abbreviation for typewriter paper .
Soft font
Fonts that are not downloaded to the printer but are sent with the print job.
Soft proof
The colors are displayed on the monitor as they will look when printed.
Soft tripping
In the software RIP , the rip process is only carried out by software and not with special hardware.
Custom color
see spot color
special character
Punctuation marks that do not belong to the written alphabet sounds.
Column , column
In letterpress printing designates the set of a printed matter designed as a page. Its individual column is called a column .
Spacing
Describes how the typographer deals with the spaces between letters and words, preferably for optimized legibility .
Spectral colors
Colors of the spectrum that are continuously visible to the human eye from purple to red.
Lock
In typography, designates a font used to emphasize parts of text by increasing the spacing.
pike
Unintentionally printing blank material .
Get pointed
In the production run, the term for the lighter image motifs, especially in the light areas of the print. When clichés were still used in the times of letterpress printing, the small halftone dots in highlights were actually physically small and pointed and tended to break away in production. This made the highlights even sharper.
Highlight
The lightest tonal values ​​of a reflective original or a slide. The term originally comes from painting.
Spooling
A process in the operating system in which print jobs to be processed are collected in a buffer before they are actually sent to processing.
Stand sheet, stand template
Term for a lined print sheet in order to be able to control the exact status of all texts, images and page positions. Also designation for the finished arch (including glued-on elements).
Stand up
Completion of a signature by sticking on the various elements (texts, images, cutting marks, etc.).
Stand color
Term used in color register measurement.
Punching
Cutting out individual shapes with the help of punching tools.
Bridges
In lead type, the largest non-printing material for filling in areas that should not be printed.
Standing sentence
Texts or parts of text that are used again and again for follow-up orders or for print orders that are printed over and over again in a similar form or with minor changes, business cards, stationery, sayings for wedding advertisements.
Standing pages
The top edges of the pages are parallel to the cylinder axis.
Lithograph
A planographic printing process that prints from a lithographic stone.
Line
Surface finishing of papers.
Barcode , barcode
Representation of numbers by means of a line system for reading into a computer.
Line art
Template for drawings or graphics that do not contain halftones.
Stripping, stripping film
Outdated technology for making corrections to the artwork. A special type of reprofilm was required for this, the removable stripping film .
bases
Also called anchor points , which designate the points of a Bézier curve in vector graphics .
Stylesheet
A style sheet corresponds to a format template .
Supersampling
Utilization of the achievable color depth of more than 8 bits per color channel in order to improve image processing.
subject
Describes an image motif.
SWOP
Abbreviation for Specification for Web Offset Publications and denotes the American standard for printing inks. In Europe, the standard is called the Euroscale .
Symbol font
Various symbols under the keyboard , such as Symbol , Zapf Dingbats and Wingdings .
syntax
In grammar, this means the theory of sentence structure. In typography, syntax describes a font.

T

tray
see graphics tablet .
Daylight types
Name for two white light standards in the printing industry , which are based on the different phases of daylight. D50 with a color temperature of 5000 Kelvin for assessing photos and monitors. D65 with 6500 Kelvin is used to assess papers and printing inks containing whiteners or optical brighteners .
dancer
Paper storage rollers for magazine reel changers for use in web offset.
Pocket folding machines
With pocket folds, the sheet runs into a pocket and is then folded by the back pressure.
Pitch circle diameter
Diameter in which component elements, mostly for the rubber blanket in offset printing, are arranged around a center point.
Templates
Prepared sample pages in the various desktop publishing programs in order to be able to process repetitive work more quickly.
Textura (texture)
Name of a broken script that originated in northern France during the Gothic period and is therefore often referred to as Gothic script .
Thermal plate, thermal plate
Term for an offset printing plate which, in CTP systems, is illustrated by heat (thermal energy) and not by light.
Thermal sublimation
Describes a color printing process in thermal printers in which high temperatures of 300 to 400 ° C are used. The paint is turned into a gaseous state and evaporated onto the paper.
thesaurus
Name for a model to describe a subject area. It consists of a systematically arranged collection of terms that are thematically related to one another.
Thumbnail , thumbnail image
Small digital graphics or images as a preview for a larger version.
Gravure
Printing process in which the printing parts of the printing form are recessed.
Gravure cylinder
Name of the printing form for gravure printing , which consists of a cylindrical hollow steel core and a surface coated with copper.
Depth, depth plate
The darkest parts of a motif are called depth. Misunderstandings can arise because the printing color black (K) is also called the depth , the associated printing plate is called the depth plate .
Platen printing press
Name for a printing press in letterpress printing , in which both the press and the counter-pressure body each form a flat surface. The best-known brand is the Heidelberg crucible .
TIFF
Abbreviation for Tagged Image File Format , means marked image data format and designates a file format for storing image data .
Title page
The sheet in the book on which the title appears.
Bibliographic record
Name for the set of headings and capital letters.
Front page
Designation for the pages of a book that precede the actual text.
Tone
Print non-printing areas on the printing plate or the printing cylinder. In this way, unwanted washed-out areas in the toning printing ink are produced in the print result.
Tone and color value corrections
It used to be a manual activity for the retouchers in the various printing processes. Their function is increasingly being replaced in image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop or GIMP , with which the tone and color value of an image can be changed.
Tone value
Designation for the gray or color value within an image motif or color spectrum.
Tone value increase
Broadening of the halftone dots in the print, so that the print image is unintentionally darker than intended.
Transparency, native
transparent objects in a print output file.
Trapping , overcrowding
Term from reproduction technology and describes the overlapping of color areas. Prevents white speed cameras from appearing when multiple colors are overprinted.
TRC
Abbreviation for Tone Reproduction Curve and describes the gradation curve of a color separation or of the entire image.
Trimmer
Name for a three-sided trimmer in a print production line. The head, foot and outside are trimmed in the process.
Drying (of printing inks)
Drying is generally understood to mean the solidification of the printing ink on the printing material. A distinction is made between physical, chemical and physical-chemical drying.
Drum scanner
Used for scanning transparent and reflective originals and was used in prepress. The originals are scanned on a rotating roller to produce rasterized color separations.
True color , true colors
Term from computer technology and denotes a color depth of 24 bits , which corresponds to around 16.78 million colors. Images of this color depth give the human viewer a natural impression.
TrueType
A font display standard for screen and print. It is currently integrated into the Windows and Mac OS operating systems .
TWAIN
Standard for the exchange of data between image input devices and programs for Windows and Mac OS . An image processing program equipped with a TWAIN interface can receive data from any image input device, which in turn offers appropriate support.
Type, printing type
Single letter for making the sentence for letterpress printing.
typography
Term for printed writing in contrast to handwriting .
Typographic measurement system , font size
Letterpress term for the size of a font.
Typograph line setting machine
Rod-shaped dies in a wire basket were struck by a keyboard, collected in a collector and poured into a line shape, after which the wire basket tilted and the dies returned to their starting position.
Typometer
Name for a typographical scale for calculating the text size.

U

Overexposure
Multiple exposure beyond normal exposure, as with plate copies, which leads to changes in the printed image.
Overprint
Method of printing two colors on top of each other. Opposite of omitting
Overfill, underfill
See trapping
Overset
Set volume that can no longer be accommodated in the planned scope. By deleted text, reducing the line spacing, lower walking distance or smaller font sizes overset can be eliminated.
UCR
Abbreviation for Under Color Removal and means under color reduction . It is used to save printing ink, because the dark tones are mainly printed with black, while the colored part CMY is greatly reduced.
Upheaval
Arrangement of text and images on a page.
Turn around
Turn a sheet so that the front and side contact alternate. However, the same side of the sheet is printed.
Transfer
Process for transferring an original drawing from paper to stone or metal.
Scope calculation
Mathematical determination of the expected number of print lines or pages of a printed matter based on the manuscript.
Flow around
Layout function in DTP programs in which text flows around other elements of the page, such as irregularly shaped images.
Turn over
Turn a sheet so that the side mark changes, but the same side remains on the front lays. After turning over, the back of the sheet is on top.
Turn inside out
Turn a sheet so that the same side stays on the side mark, but the front lay changes. After turning inside out, the back of the sheet is on top.
Uncircumcised
A sheet or book block with the required larger dimensions of the raw format .
Achromatic structure
Form of image structure in which the same color values ​​from cyan, magenta and yellow, which result in gray in the print, are replaced by a black component corresponding to the gray.
Descender
Letter length below the baseline, for example for the letters pgj y.
In image processing, refers to a filter method that improves the impression of sharpness in photos and images by increasing the contrast of small differences in brightness.
Undercut
Reduce the horizontal space between pairs or groups of letters in order to achieve a balanced typeface.
Originator
Name for the creator of a work, for example a book author, artist, graphic artist, photographer or composer.
The copyright law protects the creative, individual intellectual work of a person. In Germany this is the Copyright Act (UrhG) of the Federal Republic of Germany of September 9, 1965.
Url
Abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator and describes the address in the World Wide Web .
USB
Abbreviation for Universal Serial Bus and describes a universal serial interface in a computer.
UV drying, UV printing inks
A photocatalyst contained in the binder of the printing inks is activated by UV light and initiates the drying process through a polymerisation process . The drying takes place within seconds. UV printing inks are mainly used in offset printing and screen printing for special products.

V

Vacant side
A blank page that is included in the page count.
Vector graphic
In comparison to a pixel graphic, resolution-independent display and output option for image and graphic files, the details and areas are described by vectors with a certain length and orientation.
Vectorize
Conversion of a pixel graphic file into a vector graphic file , also known as tracing .
Blocking
Gluing together freshly printed sheets in the discard pile.
course
Term for a technique that creates gradual transitions between at least two color nuances (color gradient), two gray tones (lightness gradient) or more colorful and achromatic color nuances (saturation gradient) by means of continuously changing rasterization.
When setting capital letters , there may be unfavorable letter combinations. This creates “holes”, as in WALTER between WA or LT: This inaccuracy is compensated for by slightly blocking TER, as in the word “Walter”.
Cap height
Height of the capital letters, which does not have to be identical for different fonts despite the same point size.
Capital letters
Term for capital letters , even Majuskel called.
Vertical wedge
Special formatting within a text frame in which the individual paragraphs and lines are pulled apart within a permissible range.
Distributed printing
Central creation of documents, sending of page data via EDI and subsequent output via digital printing machines at local print shops all over the world.
Four color printing
Description of all printing processes in which any number of color tones and nuances can be achieved by overprinting the CMYK basic colors.
vignette
Small decorations with ornaments or pictures in books and other printed matter.
viscosity
Measure of the viscosity of the printing ink. The greater the viscosity, the thicker the paint.
Becoming fuller, tone value increase
Increase in tonal values ​​by broadening the halftone dots during printing.
Full tone
Area in print templates as opposed to halftone halftones.
Solid density
Color density of a full- tone area determined with the densitometer .
Front lay
Describes a device on the printing machine that aligns an incoming sheet of paper exactly forward in the transport direction.
Original, original
Is used for the production of printing templates and can consist of text and image templates, which in turn are divided into reflective and transparent templates.
Intent
Tear-proof double sheet that provides the connection between the book block and the book cover. The page glued to the inner book cover is called the mirror , while the second page remains free and is called the flying leaf .
Feed
Describes the distance from line to line, in contrast to the leading , which characterizes the distance between the lines.

W.

Orphan, whore child
Typographic expression for an incorrect break if the last line of a paragraph is the first line on a page or column, i.e. is orphaned.
Waterless offset printing
A process that uses special inks and special plate coatings to print without dampening solution. Due to the lower moisture penetration of the paper, finer print rasters and more precise color guidance are possible.
Watermark
Quality mark in the paper, which can only be seen when looking through it.
Knock away
Physical drying, whereby the binding agents or solvents of the printing inks penetrate the paper, while the resin components with pigments remain on the surface and harden.
Whitener
Name for optical brighteners in paper.
Further processing
After printing, printed sheets can be cut, punched, folded, stapled, grooved, laminated and perforated.
Turning drum
Mechanical device for turning the sheet, as in the setup in combined two-color and perfecting presses.
Factory pressure
Printing books and brochures that contain mostly text.
Work set
Term from the lead type for regularly recurring similar typesetting (periodicals), in contrast to the commercial typesetting.
Letter fold
A form of parallel fold, in which two or more equally wide parts of the folded sheet are folded around a sheet part without changing direction.
Reverse printing
Printing the back of a sheet. The print on the front of the sheet is called face print .
Term for the fonts printed with movable type that were produced up to December 31, 1500.
Washer fluid
Another expression for the dampening solution in offset printing .
Cloudiness
Uneven ink coverage on full-tone areas of a printing sheet, which is usually caused by an incorrect ink-water balance.
Workflow
PDF workflow: workflow for processing PDF data in the print shop. Workflow management: Control of the workflow in networks and their connected computers and output devices such as imagesetters, CTP, proofs, printers, printing machines, postpress.
Interword space
Distance between the individual words in a line, which can be set in layout programs.
WYSIWYG
Abbreviation for What You See Is What You Get (What you see is what you get) . Real screen display of what is output on the printer or plotter.

X

xerography
Electrostatic copying process, colloquially called photocopy .
XTensions
Special program modules, often offered by third-party providers, which increase the functionality of the QuarkXPress layout program .

Y

YCC
The data format used on the Kodak Photo CD , in which Y stands for the brightness and the two C (Cr, Cb) for the red-green and blue-yellow chromaticity, the image data on the Photo CD are based on the Huffman Compression method and have a color depth of 24 bit / pixel.
Y
Name for the color yellow from the CMYK color model .

Z

Character equalization
Spation in the typography with individual letters .
Line width
A legible line should contain no less than 25 and no more than 75 characters.
Line break
Manually ends the line and places the cursor or cursor at the beginning of the next line without creating a new paragraph. Such a soft line break, which does not cause a new paragraph, is achieved in many word processing programs with the key combination Shift + Enter .
Line exclusion
Term from the lead type that denotes blank material (exclusion) from one to several points thick in order to bring the lines to the full width.
Newspaper format
Describes the size in terms of width times height of an unopened newspaper.
Newsprint
Machine-smooth paper with a lot of wood pulp or waste paper with a weight per unit area of ​​40 to 57 g / m²
cellulose
Name for the fibrous mass that is formed during the chemical decomposition of plant fibers, mostly different types of wood, which consists mainly of cellulose . Cellulose fibers are the basis for the manufacture of paper. Wood is the raw material for over 90% of the pulp produced worldwide.
cellulose
The main component of plant cell walls and the most common organic compound on earth. Cellulose is mainly obtained from wood.
Centered set , axial set
Typographic expression for a sentence, the middle of the line of which is exactly aligned with the center axis of a page or column.
Zigzag fold , leporello fold
Term for parallel folds in which the sides lie one behind the other like an accordion.
Inch , inch
English length measurement of exactly 2.54 cm.
Zone screws
Designation for adjusting screws with which the amount of ink (ink flow) can be partially regulated on printing machines.
Collate
Term from bookbinding and describes the sorting and stacking of the individual folded printed sheets of a book or a multi-layer brochure in the correct order before binding. Special gathering machines are used for this task.
grant
Describes the amount of paper in excess of the number of printed sheets required for the order, which is required to set up (set up) the machines for production printing and further processing.
Printing ink and paper dust add to non-printing parts of the printing form and cause changes in tone value, especially in three-quarter tones and shadows.
Onion fish
A single letter set in a different font or style than the rest of the text.
Intermediate cut
Between the individual benefits on a print sheet, an additional strip of material is necessary so that each copy can be precisely trimmed to size.
Name for a special sheet in the book that marks the beginning of a new section.
finishing
Fine adjustment of the printing force in letterpress printing by placing paper behind the non- printing parts of the printing form in the elevator of the impression cylinder.
cylinder
Term for the cylindrical parts of a printing machine, such as impression cylinders , impression cylinders and blanket cylinders.

literature

• Eberhard Dilba: Typography lexicon and reader for everyone . 2nd Edition. Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt 2008, ISBN 978-3-8334-2522-6 ( Online [PDF; 5.8 MB ; accessed on June 14, 2019]).