St. John Passion (JS Bach)
The St. John Passion ( Passio secundum Johannem , BWV 245) is, along with the St. Matthew Passion (BWV 244), the only completely preserved authentic Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach . It supplements the Gospel report according to John of the capture and crucifixion of Jesus Christ with chorales and freely composed texts and forms it musically in a line-up for four-part choir , vocal soloists and orchestra. The work, which lasts around two hours, is usually performed as concert music today , but has its original place in the church service and was premiered on Good Friday , April 7, 1724, in the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig .
The Passion story , i.e. the biblical account of the suffering and death of Jesus Christ , has always played a special role in divine services due to its central importance within Christian theology : It was often read out in divided roles, later sung in a solemn tone, with the action involved crowds were represented by turba choirs. Complete Passion settings are available as early as the 17th century, including three choral works by Heinrich Schütz (based on reports by Lukas , Matthäus and Johannes ) and a St. John Passion by Thomas Selle .
These “oratorical” or “concertante” passions set the Bible text literally to music, although it has been customary since the 17th century to record chorales, arias and pure instrumental movements. Bach's passions are also in the tradition of these works, which were intended to be performed in church services. They are to be distinguished from the "Passion Oratorios", which were first written at the beginning of the 18th century, deviate from the exact wording of the Bible and aim more at the emotional touch of the listener (see main article Passion (music) ). A work of this kind that was well-known at the time of Bach and was set to music several times was Jesus, Martyred and Dying for the Sin of the World by Barthold Heinrich Brockes . Some of the free poems that have found their way into Bach's St. John Passion are based on his text .
The Johannes Passion is the earliest of the Bach Passion music known today. Since the composer's necrology mentions a total of five passions, of which, apart from the St. John Passion , only the St. Matthew Passion and the St. Mark Passion can be proven to have been lost, it is considered possible that Bach was involved in parts of the St. John Passion has resorted to an earlier work that a 19th century biographer dates to 1717, but about which no reliable statement can be made.
From the first version of the work, which was premiered on Good Friday 1724, only individual parts have survived, but they are very similar to the version widespread today. The main differences are a simpler movement, a shorter version of movement 33, which tells of the tearing of the curtain in the temple, and presumably missing parts for the transverse flute .
A large part of the changes made for the second performance in 1725 are now attributed to the fact that Bach did not want to perform the same version for two consecutive years, especially since he later reversed most of the changes. He replaced the opening and closing choruses with two chorals, "O man, weep your sin great" and "Christe, du Lamm Gottes", exchanged a number of recitatives and arias and created movement 33 in the form we know today. It has been assumed that some of the inserted movements come from a work that had already been written in Weimar and that the changes made Bach's Passion better fit the series of choral cantatas that he systematically wrote in the year 1724/25. Both assumptions are considered plausible, but cannot be proven beyond doubt.
In the third version (which cannot be dated precisely, 1728 or 1732), Bach reversed the main changes made in the second version. In addition, he removed - possibly due to an order from the authorities - all text passages that came from the Gospel of Matthew, i.e. a. the earthquake scene, as well as the sentences that directly related to it. To replace it, he added two movements that have now been lost, probably a tenor aria and an instrumental sinfonia .
At the end of the 1730s, Bach began a corrected copy of the original version of the work, which was possibly intended for a performance planned but not carried out in 1739. It breaks off in the middle of sentence 10 and was only continued towards the end of his life by a copyist who probably had the now-lost version from 1724. This copy was only partially corrected by Bach himself.
The last variant performed during Bach's lifetime dates from 1749. It essentially corresponds to the structure of 1724, but has been significantly expanded in the instrumental area and contains the longer movement 33. In addition, some of the free aria texts have been extensively repositioned; It is unclear to what extent these text changes, some of which destroy the text-music relationship, were initiated by someone else or were even made after Bach's death.
Due to the fragmentary nature of the tradition and changes, which are presumably based less on a final intention of the composer than on the needs of the respective performance and instructions from the authorities, there is no binding final version of the work. The version mostly performed today is a mixture of the unfinished new version from the late 1730s and the fourth version from 1749, without the later text changes in the arias.
Robert Schumann created a version of the St. John Passion in 1851.
As a result of the Bach renaissance with the first re-performance of the St. Matthew Passion after Bach's death in 1829 in an abridged version, conducted by Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy with the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin , this also became Johannes on February 21, 1833 under Carl Friedrich Rungenhagen -Passion brought to the first revival since Bach's death. The first recorded performance after Bach's death took place on Good Friday, April 20, 1832, in Bremen Cathedral. The local cathedral cantor Wilhelm Friedrich Riem was in charge . As early as May 25, 1815, it had been on Carl Friedrich Zelter's rehearsal schedule.
The St. John Passion consists of two parts, which are based on the theologically usual structure of the Passion Report in five "acts". The first part tells of the betrayal and imprisonment of Jesus (first act) as well as Peter's denial (second act). At this point the sermon usually followed in the service . The second part is much longer and tells of the interrogation and condemnation of Jesus by Pontius Pilate (third act), of crucifixion and death (fourth act) and finally of the burial (fifth act).
The biblical account
The core of the text of the John Passion is represented by the Passion Report of the Gospel of John in the Luther translation ( Joh 18 LUT and Joh 19 LUT ). Compared to the reports of the synoptics , John places the divine nature of Jesus Christ in the foreground. The Passion therefore appears more strongly in the light of the return of the Son of God to his Father than of the earthly torments of the man Jesus of Nazareth .
In the text set to music, this is expressed, among other things, in the fact that Jesus' capture is dealt with very briefly: internal conflicts in the prayer of Getsemani are missing, as is the kiss of the traitor Judas Iscariot . Instead, Jesus makes himself known to the servants of the high priests and asks them to spare his disciples . During the interrogation by Pontius Pilate, Jesus appears to be superior and indifferent to his fate: He refuses to make statements or answers counter-questions. Even in the scene of the cross he seems sovereign and untouched by human suffering: he carries his cross himself and does not have to endure any mockery. Instead, he has still on the cross his beloved disciple to, his mother to feed. Finally, according to John, Jesus' last words are triumphant: "It is finished."
A biblical criticism in today's sense that elaborates such peculiarities was alien to Bach and his contemporaries. Therefore, aspects that are reported in other Gospels can be found in the text of the St. John Passion: In particular, the depictions of Peter's repentance after his denial of Jesus and the forces of nature after Jesus' death come from the Gospel of Matthew (shortened from Mt 26.75 LUT or . Mt 27.51 to 52 LUT ). Nonetheless, the free poetry and the choice of chorales have numerous references to the special features of Johannes' portrayal.
Choirs, the texts of which are mostly taken from well-known evangelical hymns , are inserted into the gospel report . It is possible that Bach had suggestions from a lyricist for the selection of suitable stanzas, but it can be assumed that the composer was also able to contribute his own ideas on this point.
Acts one, two, four and five are each concluded with a chorale that reflects what has happened and points out its significance for the Christian community (sentences 5, 14, 37 and 40). If the scene changes are viewed as natural seams between the five acts, the transition from the third to the fourth act is in the aria “Eilt, ihr gefocht'nen Seelen”, which moves the setting to Golgotha . If one sees the transition instead in Pilate's last appearance, the third act is also ended with a chorale (movement 26). Five other chorales are unevenly distributed among the acts and often comment on the report from the point of view of the community in particularly significant scenes. The central Christian interpretation of the Passion event, according to which Christ frees the believer from original sin through his death and opens up the possibility of redemption , takes place in sentence 22 (“Through your prison, God's son”). Finally, a chorale opens the second part of the Passion (movement 15) and another accompanies the bass aria “Mein teurer Heiland” (movement 32), so that the version of the St. John Passion that is widespread today contains a total of twelve chorales.
The chorale texts are mainly from the 16th and 17th centuries and go back to well-known hymn poets such as Martin Luther , Michael Weisse , Martin Schalling and Johann Heermann . An exception is the chorale “Through your prison, God's son”, which cannot be traced as a hymn verse. Movement 11 is the only text by Paul Gerhardt that contains two stanzas of the song “O world, see your life here”. His song “ O head full of blood and wounds ”, which plays a central role in Bach's St. Matthew Passion , is not represented in the St. John Passion.
The free poetry
The texts of the arias and the choirs in movements 1, 22 and 39 do not come from the Bible or traditional hymns. Their author is unknown and Bach research assumes that these freely added texts do not come from a single librettist. In particular, there is no reliable evidence that Bach himself was its author. Most of the aria texts as well as the chorus "Rest, you holy bones" are more or less free adaptations of sections of the Brockes Passion. This suggests that their author was mainly interested in putting together suitable texts to complete the oratorio, and none Developed ambitions to create a poetically original work.
The chorale text “Through your prison, God's son” (sentence 22) can be found in a St. John Passion attributed to Christian Ritter , the libretto of which was set to music a second time by Johann Mattheson . The stanza structure of movement 30 "Es ist vollbracht" (It is accomplished) shows remarkable parallels to another aria of this Passion, so that it is probably different stanzas of the same song text, which, however, has not been preserved as a whole. The originals for at least three arias from the Passion of Ritter come from Christian Heinrich Postel . Whether this also applies to the two texts used in Bach's St. John Passion cannot, however, be determined with certainty. The opening chorus, which is based on Psalm 8.2 LUT , the aria “Ach, mein Sinn” (sentence 13), which is largely identical to a poem by Christian Weises , and the aria “I also follow you,” have no archetype in Brockes' work with joyful steps ”(sentence 9), the origin of which is completely unknown and which in both text and music reports remarkably cheerfully about the discipleship of Peter, which immediately leads to the betrayal of Jesus.
The libretto of the St. John Passion expresses a specific emotional movement in each aria, which Bach puts into music in the sense of the baroque doctrine of affect . In particular, the insertions from the Gospel of Matthew allow arias to follow in sentences 13, 34 and 35 expressing repentance, suffering and sorrow. At the same time, however, the texts constantly focus attention on the significance of the event for the salvation of man.
As in the St. Matthew Passion , the plot is presented from four different perspectives:
- Narrative perspective expressed by the Recitatives of evangelists , the persons involved and by the dramatic chorus -Partien ( Turbae );
- Viewing perspective of the individual, represented in the mostly lyrical arias ;
- Devotional perspective of the community, in the form of well-known Protestant church hymns (chorales);
- Admonishing perspective, embodied by the elaborately designed opening and closing choirs;
The duration of the performance depends, of course, on the tempos chosen, on the pauses between the movements and the two parts, and on any abbreviations, and is generally around two hours.
In addition to the strings and basso continuo, the orchestra includes two flutes and two oboes . In individual movements, Bach also uses other instruments such as oboe da caccia , oboe d'amore , viola d'amore , lute and viola da gamba . Four soloists emerge from the four-part choir, whose roles are indistinguishable in the score - unlike in today's performance practice, the Jesus part and the singer of the bass aria are not explicitly assigned different singers.
This overview follows the New Bach Edition.
|NBA 1||BWV 2||shape||occupation||Start of text||Instrumentation|
|Act I: Treason and Capture|
|1||1||Chorus||Lord, our Ruler||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings 3 and continuo 4|
|2||a||2||recitative||Evangelist (tenor), Jesus (bass)||Jesus went with his disciples||Continuo|
|b||3||Chorus||Jesus of Nazareth||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|c||4th||recitative||Evangelist (T), Jesus (B)||Jesus speaks to them||Continuo|
|d||5||Chorus||Jesus of Nazareth||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|e||6th||recitative||Evangelist (T), Jesus (B)||Jesus answered||Continuo|
|3||7th||Chorale||O great love||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|4th||8th||recitative||Evangelist (T), Jesus (B)||That the word might be fulfilled||Continuo|
|5||9||Chorale||Your will be done||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|Act II: Denial|
|6th||10||recitative||Evangelist (T), Jesus (B)||But the crowd and the captain||Continuo|
|7th||11||aria||Old||From the cords of my sins||Oboe I, II and continuo|
|8th||12||recitative||Evangelist (T)||But Simon Peter followed Jesus||Continuo|
|9||13||aria||soprano||I follow you too||Flute I, II and continuo|
|10||14th||recitative||Evangelist (T), maid (soprano),
Peter (B), Jesus (B), servant (T)
|The same disciple was known to the high priest||Continuo|
|11||15th||Chorale||Who hit you like that||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|12||a||16||recitative||Evangelist (T)||And Annas sent him bound||Continuo|
|b||17th||Chorus||Are you not one of his disciples?||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|c||18th||recitative||Evangelist (T), Peter (B), Servant (T)||But he denied and spoke||Continuo|
|13||19th||aria||tenor||Oh, my mind||Strings and Continuo|
|14th||20th||Chorale||Peter who does not think back||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|Act III: Interrogation and Flagellation|
|15th||21st||Chorale||Christ who saves us||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|16||a||22nd||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||So they led Jesus||Continuo|
|b||23||Chorus||If this weren't a culprit||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|c||24||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||Pilate spoke to them||Continuo|
|d||25th||Chorus||We mustn't kill anyone||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|e||26th||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B), Jesus (B)||That the word might be fulfilled||Continuo|
|17th||27||Chorale||Oh great king||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|18th||a||28||recitative||Evangelist (T) Pilate (B), Jesus (B)||Pilate spoke to him||Continuo|
|b||29||Chorus||Not this one, but Barrabam||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|c||30th||recitative||Evangelist (T)||But Barrabas was a murderer||Continuo|
|19th||31||Arioso||bass||Behold, my soul||Viola d'amore I, II solo and continuo with lute|
|20th||32||aria||tenor||Consider how his blood stained back||Viola d'amore I, II solo and continuo|
|21st||a||33||recitative||Evangelist (T)||And the soldiers braided a crown||Continuo|
|b||34||Chorus||Greetings, dear King of the Jews||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|c||35||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||And gave him strokes on the cheek||Continuo|
|d||36||Chorus||Crucify, crucify||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|e||37||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||Pilate spoke to them||Continuo|
|f||38||Chorus||We have a law||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|G||39||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B), Jesus (B)||When Pilate heard the word||Continuo|
|22nd||40||Chorale||Through your prison, Son of God||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|23||a||41||recitative||Evangelist (T)||But the Jews shouted and spoke||Continuo|
|b||42||Chorus||You let go of this||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, oboe d'amore, strings and continuo|
|c||43||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||When Pilate heard the word||Continuo|
|d||44||Chorus||Away, away with that||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, oboe d'amore, strings and continuo|
|e||45||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||Pilate speaks to them||Continuo|
|f||46||Chorus||We don't have a king||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, oboe d'amore, strings and continuo|
|G||47||recitative||Evangelist (T)||Then he handed it over||Continuo|
|24||48||aria||Bass and choir (soprano, alto, tenor)||Hurry, you troubled souls||Strings and Continuo|
|Act IV: Crucifixion and Death|
|25th||a||49||recitative||Evangelist (T)||There they crucified him||Continuo|
|b||50||Chorus||Don't write: the Jewish King||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|c||51||recitative||Evangelist (T), Pilate (B)||Pilate answers||Continuo|
|26th||52||Chorale||In the bottom of my heart||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|27||a||53||recitative||Evangelist (T)||But the soldiers||Continuo|
|b||54||Chorus||Let's not divide this up||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, oboe d'amore, strings and continuo|
|c||55||recitative||Evangelist (T), Jesus (B)||That scripture might be fulfilled||Continuo|
|28||56||Chorale||He was well aware of everything||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|29||57||recitative||Evangelist (T), Jesus (B)||And from that moment on the disciple took her||Continuo|
|30th||58||aria||Old||It is finished||Strings, viola da gamba solo and continuo|
|31||59||recitative||Evangelist (T)||And bow your head||Continuo|
|32||60||aria||Bass solo and choir (soprano, alto, tenor, bass)||My dear Savior, let me ask you||Strings and Continuo|
|33||61||recitative||Evangelist (T)||And lo and behold, the curtain in the temple was torn||Continuo|
|34||62||Arioso||tenor||My heart in which the whole world||Transverse flute I, II, oboe da caccia I, II, strings and continuo|
|35||63||aria||soprano||Dissolve, my heart||Transverse flute I solo, oboe da caccia solo and continuo|
|36||64||recitative||Evangelist (T)||But the Jews, because it was the preparation day||Continuo|
|37||65||Chorale||O help, Christ, the Son of God||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|Act V: Entombment|
|38||66||recitative||Evangelist (T)||Pilate then asked Joseph of Arimathia||Continuo|
|39||67||Chorus||Rest in peace, holy bones||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|40||68||Chorale||Oh Lord, leave your dear little angel||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo|
|Sentences added in the second version (1725)|
|NBA||BWV||shape||occupation||Start of text||Instrumentation||Comments 5|
|1 II||244/35||Chorale||O man, weep greatly for your sin||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo||replaces No. 1 Lord our ruler ; later adopted in the St. Matthew Passion (BWV 244)|
|11 +||245a||aria||Bass, soprano||Heaven, tear, world, tremble||Flute I, II and continuo||inserted between no. 11 who hit you like that and no. 12 a and Annas sends him bound|
|13 II||245b||aria||tenor||Smash me, you rocks and you hills||Strings and Continuo||replaces no. 13 Oh, my mind|
|19 II||245c||aria||tenor||Oh, don't squirm so, troubled souls||Oboe I, II and continuo||replaces # 19 Behold, my soul and # 20 ponder, like his blood stained back|
|40 II||23/4||Chorale||Christ, you Lamb of God||Transverse flute I, II, oboe I, II, strings and continuo||replaces no. 40 Oh Lord, let your dear angel out ; taken from the cantata You true God and David's son (BWV 23)|
- 1 numbering according to the New Bach Edition
- 2 Numbering according to the Bach works directory
- 3 ie violin I, II and viola
- 4 ie cello, violone, bassoon and organ
- 5 numbering in "Notes" follow the NBA.
- Hans-Joachim Rotzsch (conductor), Thomanerchor Leipzig (choir), Gewandhausorchester (orchestra). Sony BMG , 1976.
- Nikolaus Harnoncourt (conductor), Tölzer Knabenchor (choir), Concentus Musicus Wien (orchestra), Kurt Equiluz (tenor: Evangelist), Robert Holl (bass: Jesus), Thomas Moser (tenor), Anton Scharinger (bass). Video Unitel 1985.
- Helmuth Rilling (conductor), Arleen Augér (soprano), Charlotte Hoffmann (soprano: Ancilla), Julia Hamari (alto), Peter Schreier (tenor: arias, evangelist), Markus Müller (tenor: Servus), Philippe Huttenlocher (bass: Christ ), Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (bass: arias), Dietmar Keitz (bass: Petrus), Andreas Schmidt (bass: Pilatus), Gächinger Kantorei Stuttgart (choir), Bach-Collegium Stuttgart (orchestra). Columbia Records , 1985:
- John Eliot Gardiner (conductor), Anthony Rolfe Johnson (tenor, evangelist), Stephen Varco (bass-baritone), Cornelius Hauptmann (bass), Nancy Argenta (soprano), Ruth Holton (soprano), Michael Chance (countertenor), Monteverdi Choir (choir ), English Baroque Soloists : Deutsche Grammophon , 1986.
- Peter Schreier (conductor, tenor), Roberta Alexander (soprano), Marjana Lipovšek (mezzo-soprano), Olaf Bär (baritone), Robert Holl (bass), Rundfunkchor Leipzig (choir), Staatskapelle Dresden (orchestra). Universal Music Group , 1988. (= version 1724, with four arias of version 1725)
- Helmuth Rilling (conductor), Juliane Banse (soprano), Ingeborg Danz (alto), Michael Schade (tenor), James Taylor (tenor), Matthias Goerne (tenor), Andreas Schmidt (bass), Gächinger Kantorei Stuttgart (choir), Bach -Collegium Stuttgart (orchestra). SCM Hänssler , 1997. (= "International" version (first recording of the movements of all versions).)
- Eckhard Weyand (conductor), Stuttgart hymn choir boys (choir). SCM Hänssler, 1992.
- Masaaki Suzuki (conductor), Bach Collegium Japan, Ingrid Schmithüsen (soprano), Yoshikazu Mera (counter tenor), Gerd Türk (tenor, evangelist), Makoto Sakurada (tenor, arias and servants), Yoshi Hida (soprano, maid), Chiyuki Urano (Bass, Jesus), Peter Kooij (Bass, Petrus, Pilatus), 1998
- Masaaki Suzuki (conductor), Bach Collegium Japan, Midori Suzuki (soprano), Robin Blaze (counter-tenor), Gerd Türk (tenor, evangelist), Stephan MacLeod (bass-baritone, Jesus and others), u. a., DVD 2001
- Stephen Cleobury (conductor), Catherine Bott (soprano), Michael Chance (alto), John Mark Ainsley (tenor), Paul Agnew (tenor), Stephen Richardson (bass), Stephen Varcoe (bass), King's College Choir (choir), The Brandenburg Consort. Regis Records, 2003.
- Konrad Junghänel (conductor), Cantus Cölln (choir), Sabine Goetz (soprano: Ancilla), Amaryllis Dieltiens (soprano), Elisabeth Popien (alto), Alexander Schneider (alto), Hans Jörg Mammel (tenor: Evangelista), Georg Poplutz ( Tenor: Servus), Wolf Matthias Friedrich (bass: Pilatus, Petrus), Markus Flaig (bass: Jesus). Accent Records , 2011 (= fourth version (1749)).
- Jos van Veldhoven (conductor), Nederlandse Bachvereniging (choir), Myriam Arbouz (soprano), Maria Valdmaa (ancilla), Daniël Elgersma (alto), Marine Friborg (alto), Raphael Höhn (tenor: Evangelista), Gwilym Bowen (tenor) , Guy Cutting (Servus), Felix Schwandtke (Bass: Jesus), Drew Santini (Petrus), Angus Mc Phee (Pilatus). allofbach, 2017.
- Ralf Otto (conductor), Bachchor Mainz (choir), Julia Kleiter (soprano), Gerhild Romberger (alto), Georg Poplutz (tenor: Evangelista), Daniel Sans (tenor), Yorck Felix Speer (bass: Jesus), Matthias Winckhler ( Bass). Naxos , 2018. (= version 1749, with five choirs, arias and chorales from version 1725)
- Masaaki Suzuki (conductor), Bach Collegium Japan, Aki Matsui (soprano), Damien Guillon (counter-tenor), James Gilchrist (tenor, evangelist), Zachary Wilder (tenor), Christian Immler (bass-baritone, Jesus), u. a., 2020 (so-called ghost concert in the Cologne Philharmonic on March 15, 2020 - due to the Corona crisis)
Sheet music editions
The numbering of the sentences in the various editions is not uniform. This article follows the numbering of the New Bach Edition .
- Wilhelm Rust: Passion music after the Evangelist Johannes. Volume 12.1 of the complete edition of the Bach Society , Breitkopf & Härtel, 1863. (online version of the score)
- Carl Eberhardt: St. John Passion. Edition CF Peters, EP 8634 (score), EP 39 (piano reduction)
- Arthur Mendel: Johannes Passion - St. John Passion. Score. Series II, Volume 4 of the New Bach Edition, Bärenreiter (BA 5037-01), also as a pocket score (TP 197) and as a piano reduction (BA 5037-90); identical to Deutscher Verlag für Musik Leipzig, DVfM 3093 (study score)
- Arnold Schering: St. John Passion. Edition CF Peters, 1986, EP 579 (study score)
- Gerd Sievers: St. John Passion. Edition Breitkopf, PB 3792 (score), PB 3811 (study score), EB 6280 (piano reduction by Günther Raphael)
- Peter Wollny: St. John Passion, Version II (1725). Carus-Verlag (Stuttgart Bach Edition) CV 31.245 / 50 (score), CV 31.245 / 53 (piano reduction by Paul Horn)
- Peter Wollny: St. John Passion, Version IV (1749). Carus-Verlag (Stuttgart Bach Edition) CV 31.245 / 00 (score), CV 31.245 / 07 (study score), CV 31.245 / 03 (piano reduction by Paul Horn)
- Hans Darmstadt : Johann Sebastian Bach - St. John Passion, BWV 245 . Analyzes and comments on compositional technique; with practical performance and theological notes. Klangfarben Musikverlag, Dortmund 2010, ISBN 978-3-932676-16-1 .
- Alfred Dürr : Johann Sebastian Bach, The Johannes Passion . Origin, tradition, factory introduction (= Bärenreiter factory introduction ). 3. Edition. Bärenreiter, Kassel / Basel / London / New York / Prague 1999, ISBN 3-7618-1473-9 .
- Walter Hilbrands : Johannes Sebastian Bach as interpreter of the Bible in his St. John Passion . In: Walter Hilbrands (Ed.): Love language - understand God's word. Contributions to biblical exegesis . Brunnen, Giessen 2011, ISBN 978-3-7655-9247-8 , p. 271-285 .
- Siegfried Kettling: "Lord, our ruler" . The St. John Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach explained theologically and musically (= Hänssler paperback ). Hänssler, Holzgerlingen 2002, ISBN 3-7751-3759-9 .
- Christoph Rueger, Hans Gebhard: Johannes Passion BWV 245 . In: Hans Gebhard (Ed.): Harenbergs Chormusikführer - From the Chamber Choir to the Oratorio . Harenberg, Dortmund 1999, ISBN 3-611-00817-6 , pp. 69-71 .
- Meinrad Walter: Johann Sebastian Bach: St. John Passion . A musical-theological introduction; with 63 music samples. Carus-Verlag Reclam, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-89948-156-3 .
Sheet music and audio files
- St. John Passion (Bach) : Sheet music and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project
- Text and structure of the St. John Passion on the University of Alberta website
- Frank Laffin: [p. 53 JS Bach: St. John Passion - A musical analysis. ] 2007. (PDF; 1.97 MB)
- Overview of Bach's Passion settings with work versions
- Source description of the original score , source database RISM
- Autographs and copies of the St. John Passion in the Bach digital portal : 1st version , 2nd version , 3rd version , 4th version
- The Passion of Saint John by Bach Cantatas (English)
- Alfred Dürr: The Johannes Passion. 1999, p. 15.
- Alfred Dürr: The Johannes Passion. 1999, p. 20.
- Alfred Dürr: The Johannes Passion. 1999, pp. 17-20.
- Klaus Blum: Musikfreunde und Musici, p. 143ff. Tutzing 1975.
- Alfred Dürr: The Johannes Passion. 1999, p. 54.
- Frank Laffin: JS Bach: Johannes-Passion - Eine musical Analysis , p. 53, accessed on April 20, 2019 (PDF; 2.1 MB).
- Alfred Dürr: The Johannes Passion. 1999, p. 66.
- Alfred Dürr: The Johannes Passion. 1999, p. 56.
- St. John Passion - International Version , accessed April 21, 2019.