New Castile Governorate

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Division of South America according to the Capitulación of Toledo (1529). The area awarded to Pizarro was New Castile in its original size.
Division of South America by Charles V between 1534 and 1542

The New Castile Governorate ( Spanish Gobernación de Nueva Castilla ) was a Spanish colony in South America . The area in present-day Peru and Ecuador , which was still largely unknown at the time , was assigned to the Conquistador Francisco Pizarro in 1529 . In 1534, after the conquest of the Inca Empire, New Castile was expanded to the south and the area bordering on it was awarded to Pizarro's partner Diego de Almagro as the governorate of Neutoledo (Nueva Toledo) . In 1542 both areas became part of the newly founded viceroyalty of Peru .


Pizarro and Almagro had explored the north-west coast of South America in two expeditions from 1524 and received news of the Inca Empire , which the Spaniards called Peru. In 1528 Pizarro traveled to Spain and on July 25, 1529 received royal permission for colonization in the Capitulación of Toledo . Its area extended from the Río Santiago (1 ° 20 'N) from 200 leguas (17.5 leguas = 1 degree of latitude) far to the south, i.e. H. up to approx. 10 ° S. Simón de Alcazaba initially received the 200 Leguas further south ; but his expedition there never took place.

Pizarro and Almagro actually succeeded in conquering the Inca Empire in 1532–1534 , which extended far beyond the borders of "New Castile" to the south. With a decree (real cédula) in 1534 King Karl expanded Pizarro's governorate by 70 leguas to the south; the subsequent 200 leguas south of it were assigned to Almagro, who had felt neglected in his claims, as the governorate "Neutoledo".

The capital of New Castile was initially Jauja in 1534 , then the newly founded city of Ciudad de los Reyes ( Lima ) from 1535 . A dispute broke out between Pizarro and Almagro over the Inca capital Cusco : the border between New Castile and Neutoledo was imprecisely defined, and each of the two claimed the city to be their domain. This conflict eventually led to the violent deaths of Almagro (1538) and Pizarro (1541). Then the Spanish crown took over the administration and established the viceroyalty of Peru on November 20, 1542.

See also