Giulio Romano

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Giulio Romano (engraving by Jean-Louis Potrelle after a self-portrait by Romano).
Dance of Apollo with the Muses, fresco in the Pitti Palace , Florence

Giulio Romano (* 1499 in Rome , † November 1, 1546 in Mantua ; also Giulio Pippi ; actually Giulio di Pietro Gianuzzi ) was an Italian painter, architect and builder of Mannerism .

His painting style, inspired by the late works of Raphael and Michelangelo , and his free and personal interpretation of the architectural language of the Renaissance made him a master of Mannerism in Italy. Marcantonio Raimondi's copperplate engravings spread knowledge of his work in the rest of Europe.

life and work


Giulio Romano was trained in Raphael's workshop in Rome and is documented there for the first time in 1515. He was Raphael's close associate, of many of its frescoes and paintings took him from running, he has, for example, which is now in the Prado existing image Holy Family under the oak tree designed after his sketches and painted.

In the Vatican he painted frescoes in the Vatican rooms and loggias together with Raffael and in 1517/18 he carried out the decoration in the Villa Farnesina together with Raffaellino del Colle , Gianfrancesco Penni and Giovanni da Udine with pictures from the story of Amor and Psyche .

After Raphael's death in 1520, he and Penni took over the workshop, both completed the remaining assignments, and the Raphael workshop continued to dominate the art scene in Rome. First they completed the paintings in the atrium of Villa Madama , which Raphael had begun for Cardinal Giulio de 'Medici, later Clement VII . As a result, they painted frescoes for the Sala di Constantino in the Vatican on behalf of Pope Leo X. Giulio's religious panel paintings from the period between 1520 and 1524 are still based on Raphael in their formal structure, while the choice of colors, the abundance of figures and the unusual motifs indicate new developments in his painting art.

The modi , 16 erotic drawings, which were engraved in copper by Marcantonio Raimondi and which Pietro Aretino provided with pornographic verses, the sonetti lussuriosi , date from the 1920s . Raimondi went to prison for these stitches, and the church put the book on the index .

His first task as an architect was the completion of the Villa Lante on the Gianicolo in Rome, which Raphael had begun in 1518. This was followed by the order to build the Palazzo Cicciaporti-Senni, a building that already indicated Giulio's spectacular breaks with the principles of Renaissance architecture. So he optically replaced the supporting pilasters with decorative pilaster strips and the bases of the columns rest on wide cornices, into which the column bases seem to sink.


Fall of the Giants (fresco in the Palazzo del Te)
Raffael and Giulio Romano: The Borgobrand

Duke Federico II Gonzaga of Mantua summoned him to Mantua in 1524 and appointed him director of hydraulic structures and superintendent of buildings. In the following years he gave the city a completely new look. His main work is the Palazzo del Tè , a pleasure palace at the gates of Mantua, which he built for the duke and decorated with spectacular frescoes. For the palace of the duke he designed a cortile with winding double columns on the upper floor. The design for the cathedral in Mantua dates from 1545.

Giulio Romano died in Mantua on November 1, 1546, when he was about to leave the city as the newly appointed architect of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.



  • Story of Cupid and Psyche , frescoes in the Villa Farnesina in Rome, 1517/18, together with Raffaellino del Colle,
  • Giovanni Francesco Penni and Giovanni da Udine under the direction of Raphael
  • Frescoes in the loggias and in the rooms of Raphael in the Vatican, u. a. The Borgobrand , fresco based on the design by Raphael, 1517 [1]
  • The Madonna and John the Baptist, Sacristy of the Canons in St. Peter's Basilica , Rome
  • Holy Family under the oak tree, around 1518/19, based on a design by Raphael, Prado , Madrid
  • Victory of Constantine the Great and other frescoes, based on the designs of Raphael
  • executed by Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni and Raffaellino del Colle, Sala di Constantino in the Vatican
  • Madonna with the Cat, 1522–1523
  • Pala Fugger (Altarpiece of the Fuggers ), Santa Maria dell'Anima , Rome
  • Madonna with the basin, around 1525, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister , Dresden
  • Stoning of Saint Stephen, around 1520–1525, Santo Stefano, Genoa
  • Frescoes in the Ducal Palace in Mantua, 1524
  • Frescoes in the Palazzo del Tè , Mantua among others: The fall of the giants , around 1532 (see illustration on the right)


The Cortile della Cavallerizza in the Palazzo Ducale of Mantua
  • Villa Madama in Rome, completion of the building by Raffael and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder. J.
  • Villa Turini (Villa Lante), construction and interior decoration, Rome
  • Palazzo Cicciaporto-Senni, 1521–1522, Rome,
  • Palazzo Maccarani (today Palazzo Di Brazzà),
  • Villa Adimari Salviati, Rome
  • Palazzo del Tè , 1526 to 1535, Mantua
  • Restoration of the monastery of San Benedetto di Polirono 1540–1544
  • Giulio Romano's house in Mantua, around 1544
  • Cortile della Cavallerizza in the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, around 1544
  • Design of the Church of Saint Benedict in Mantua, after 1545
  • Remodeling of Mantua Cathedral


  • 1825 in Nuremberg : a highly obscene idea, the more detailed description of which is beyond the limits of morality.


  • Sergio Polano (Red.): Giulio Romano. Electa, Milan 1989, ISBN 88-435-2953-6 (exhibition catalog. Mantua).
  • Giorgio Vasari : The Life of Giulio Romano. Newly translated by Victoria Lorini and Matteo Burioni. Edited, commented on and introduced by Matteo Burioni. Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-8031-5028-0 .
  • Vetter, Andreas W .: Gigantic fall representations in Italian art. On the instrumentalization of a mythological subject in a historical-political context, Weimar 2002. ISBN 978-3-89739-299-1
  • Fabian Müller, Giulio Romanos Mantuaner, Künstlerhaus' as summa artistica . Self-referentialities in the architecture and furnishings of Casa Pippi (1538–1542), in: Artists 'Houses in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age (Artifex - Sources and Studies on Artists' Social History), ed. by Andreas Tacke, Thomas Schauerte, Danica Brenner, Petersberg 2018, pp. 106–114. ISBN 978-3-7319-0394-9

Web links

Commons : Giulio Romano  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Vetter, Andreas W .: Gigantic fall representations in Italian art . . For the instrumentalization of a mythological picture subject in a historical-political context. Weimar 2002.
  2. directory via the v.Derschauische Kunstkabinett to Nuremberg .... Nuremberg, in which committed Auctionator Schmidmer., 1825, 250 S. directory of rare art collections., 1825., Google Books, online , pages 74 and 75, (65 ..)