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( German Hadersleben )
Haderslev Coat of Arms
Haderslev (Denmark)
Basic data
State : DenmarkDenmark Denmark
Region : Syddanmark
(since 2007) :
Coordinates : 55 ° 15 ′  N , 9 ° 29 ′  E Coordinates: 55 ° 15 ′  N , 9 ° 29 ′  E
Population :
Area : 272 km²
Population density : 81 inhabitants per km²
Height : 10 m ö.h.
Telephone code : (+45) 7
Postal code : 6100
Mayor : Hans Peter Geil
Sister cities : GermanyGermany Pinneberg

GermanyGermany Wittenberg Uusikaupunki / Nystad Braine Sandefjord Varberg

Website: www.haderslev.dk
Hadersleben Cathedral
Hadersleben Cathedral

Haderslev [ ˈhaːʔðəʀsleu̯ ] (German Hadersleben ) is a town in the Syddanmark region in Denmark on the Hadersleben Fjord . It has 22,101 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2020). Haderslev has a harbor and a historic city center with a cathedral and the Haderslev Museum . The city is the location for machine, textile and food industries .

Haderslev has been part of the Duchy of Schleswig since it was founded in the High Middle Ages . After the German-Danish War and the end of the entire Danish state , it belonged to Prussia from 1867 to 1920 and thus to the German Empire from 1871 to 1920 ; in the same year it was ceded to Denmark , together with North Schleswig . A German minority (German Nordschleswiger ) still lives in the city today .

In 2015 Haderslev was awarded the honorary title of “ European Reformation City ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .

History until 1834

There were settlements early on in the area of ​​today's city. A first port square can be traced a little further east near the Starup church , the oldest church in the region. To the west of what would later become the right town, another settlement center with the St. Severin Church, which is also preserved today, was built. The actual trading town developed at the end of the Hadersleben Fjord. A sovereign castle was also built there. Haderslev was first mentioned before 1200. Saxo Grammaticus tells in the legend of a King Hather, after whom the city is named. In Hadersleben or Hathörsleff = heirs of Hather, as the oldest form of the name was, the Dominicans built a monastery in 1228. In 1241 Haderslev was given market justice .

The place was burned down during the war between King Eric IV of Denmark and Duke Abel of Schleswig . 1292 was Haderslev, rebuilt by Duke Waldemar IV. The Slesvig city charter . Castle district and the settlement of Alt-Haderslev with the St. Severin's Church remained outside and belonged to the Haderslev office. The award of the town charter was proof of the increasing reputation of the place. The city was fortified and had three city gates. The damming of the mill stream provided further protection for the town, which was built on a hill, creating the Hadersleben dam to the west of the town. The reservoir is still one of the largest bodies of water in North Schleswig. Since then, the old town has been on a peninsula, and the bridge over the Mühlenstrom still adorns the city's coat of arms.

In the Middle Ages, the city was one of the wealthiest in the region. The Marienkirche is after the Schleswig Cathedral the second largest in the area of ​​the old Duchy of Schleswig . As the seat of a collegiate chapter , it had an excellent position, and there were efforts to raise the northeastern provost of the diocese to a separate diocese .

In 1351 Count Nikolaus von Holstein and his troops were on the field here when he besieged Törning Castle. The division of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein , which had been linked to Denmark under a sovereign ruler since 1460 , had a lasting impact on the city's development. This applied in particular to the divisions of 1523 and 1544. In 1523 King Friedrich I handed over the property to his son Christian III. the offices of Törning and Haderslev with the city to rule. Christian soon took over Luther's teachings and in 1526 appointed the Magdeburg reformer Eberhard Weidensee , under whose influence the city became the spiritual center and starting point of the Reformation in the north.

After Christian III. Having become king and duke, he had to put up with his younger brothers. This led to a further division of the country in 1544, the consequences of which were supposed to be more lasting than the consequences of 1490 and 1523. Haderslev became the residence of Duke Johann the Elder , who now managed, among other things, the north-western parts of the Duchy of Schleswig, the island of Fehmarn and parts of Holstein the city of Rendsburg commanded. The Duke replaced the old castle with the splendid Hansburg Castle a little further to the east and was very committed to the jurisdiction in his part of the country. As a successor to the monastery that had died, he founded a hospital on the southern edge of the city that still bears his name today.

Ground plan of the town of Haderschleben in 1651

When Duke Hans died childless in 1580, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben became extinct again and was divided between the other two lines of state rule. From then on, Haderslev stayed with the royal part of the country. In 1627 the residents were struck by a fire. The wars of the 17th century did not spare the city. Hansburg Castle was also destroyed when the Swedish General Wrangel besieged and captured the castle. It caught fire and was blown up by the explosion of the powder stored in the vault. It was not rebuilt. Most of the remains were used to repair the Kolding Castle. The canal that separated the castle from the city disappeared and was completely filled by 1729. Since it was difficult for larger ships to maneuver on the narrow fjord, the city lost part of its importance as a trading city, but remained the undisputed center for the north of the Duchy of Schleswig. Christiansfeld , founded in 1771 just 13 km north of the city, became an unpopular competitor . The Herrnhut Brethren enjoyed extensive trade and business freedom there.

History 1834 to 1920

A restaurant at Parageistraße 582 (now Vestergade 50) around 1910
Haderslev Bank, Nørregade, 2017

In 1834 the castle grounds were incorporated.

In the 19th century, the city fell into the maelstrom of the German-Danish conflict , which quickly obscured the question of political liberalization and democratization. A part of the bourgeoisie voted for the German-Schleswig-Holstein side, while others, like most of the surrounding area, joined the Danish side. Unlike the neighbors in Tønder and Aabenraa , the city administration did not immediately join the Schleswig-Holsteiners when they initially gained the upper hand during the 1848 survey . After the end of the war in 1850, the previous conditions were restored, and German and Danish were the official languages ​​of the city on an equal footing, with school lessons preferably being given in Danish.

However, the German-Danish conflict was not resolved and flared up again in 1863 when the Danish government sought a common constitution for the kingdom and Schleswig. In this, the German Confederation under Prussian leadership recognized a violation of the London Protocol . On the one hand, it was argued that Holstein, which was part of the German Confederation, could not remain without a constitution (this was suspended by the Holstein assembly of estates in 1858); on the other hand, Denmark violated the London Protocol , according to which the Danish fief of Schleswig could not be tied more closely to Denmark. The German-Danish War ended in 1864 with a Danish defeat, after which the duchies had to be ceded.

The part of Schleswig with the city of Hadersleben was initially administered by Prussia. With the occupation patent from 1866 it became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. The new state border now ran 15 kilometers north of the city and interrupted the previous economic ties to the north. With the reorientation that began, the city was able to record a certain industrial boom. In 1867 a district court was set up. The garrison town also became a popular retirement home, which is still evident from numerous beautiful villas today. In 1910 the western suburb of Alt-Hadersleben and the southern suburb of Süderotting were incorporated. A disadvantage was that in 1862 the main railway line from Hamburg to Fredericia (Vamdrup-Padborg-Bahn) had been planned by Hadersleben for reasons of military strategy. In 1866 the city was connected to the railway network with the Vojens – Haderslev railway. From 1899 the Hadersleben circular path was created .

History 1921 to 1970

Sønderbro around 1927
Sønderbro around 1959

After the end of the First World War , the city came to the I. Zone for the German-Danish referendum on the future state membership of Schleswig. On February 10, 1920, around 60% of the population voted for Denmark, and since Northern Schleswig was voted en bloc with a total of 75% for Denmark, the city has belonged to the Kingdom of Denmark since June 15, 1920. The national conflict was not over, however, and large parts of the German minority did not come to terms with the new state border. Shortly after the union with Denmark, the city became a bishopric.

When German troops occupied Denmark on April 9, 1940 , there was brief fighting in Haderslev, in which several Danish soldiers were killed. However, the border was not moved. In 1943, the "Hadersleben Circle", which opposed the minority leadership, declared its loyalty to the Danish state in the Hadersleben Declaration . During this time, Hadersleben Air Base was built for the Air Force about 15 km west of the city center , today the only remaining combat aircraft base of the Danish Air Force . At the end of the war, the border question shifted south for a while. The 1955 Bonn-Copenhagen declarations ended the German-Danish conflict. Today there is a German school, a German kindergarten and several German clubs in the city.

The greatest tragedy in the city's recent history happened in 1959 when the excursion boat Turisten caught fire on Haderslebener Damm . 57 people died or drowned in the flames.

History after 1970

Economically, the city continued to grow and expanded. New industrial areas emerged in the north-west and south of the city.

In 1970 the city was merged with the municipalities of Moltrup , Vonsbæk , Åstrup , Øsby , Halk , Grarup , Starup , Vilstrup and Hoptrup and the remains of Gammel Haderslev to form the new municipality of Haderslev . In 2007 the municipalities of Gram and Vojens as well as the parishes of Bevtoft, Hjerndrup , Bjerning and Fjelstrup follow . The population of the new large municipality Haderslev is 55,670 (as of January 1, 2020).

In 2015, Mayor Hans Peter Geil ( Venstre ) had a bilingual place- name sign with the Danish and German place names set up near Gammel Haderslev Kirke . The German place name sparked a violent dispute; After a few days, the sign was damaged and finally stolen by unknown perpetrators. In the city council, Venstre, Dansk Folkeparti and Liberal Alliance disapproved of the mayor's unauthorized approach.


The hospital church Herzog-Johann-Hospital
  • The Cathedral Hadersleben considered the most beautiful Gothic church in the country; Worth seeing epitaphs , burial chapels, bronze baptism, organ.
  • Old town, many closed preserved streets with buildings from the 17th to 19th centuries, mainly east of the market around Schlossstrasse and Klingenberg, but also west of the main street in the area of ​​the former monastery
  • Watermill, now a theater
  • Herzog Johann Hospital , 16th century
  • Haderslev Museum, especially archeology, but also cultural history
  • Ehlers' collection, ceramics, is expanded to become a city history museum
  • Schleswig carriage collection
  • Old cemetery, numerous historical tombs, view over Haderslebener Damm
  • Haderslebener Damm, large medieval reservoir with numerous hiking trails


Car traffic

The north-south motorway E 45 has been passing the city about eight kilometers to the west since 1978 and can be reached via three junctions. The former A 10, bypassing the old town, also runs through the city as state road 170 in a north-south direction.

Public transport

Hadersleben has an express bus connection with Sønderborg and Vejle and hourly overland connections to the north and south, while the east-west connections are thinner.

Rail transport

The Fredericia – Flensburg railway from Hamburg via Flensburg to Fredericia was routed 12 km west of the city. On the one hand, the tracks on the Geestrücken could largely be laid without expensive bridges; on the other hand, the Danish Army Command wanted to avoid making the main locations on the Baltic Sea bays easier to attack from the south. The Vojens – Haderslev railway, which opened in 1866, has only served as a museum railway since 2011. The nearest train station with regular passenger traffic is Vojens .

The narrow-gauge lines of the Haderslev Amts Jernbane were already closed in the second half of the 1930s, most recently the connection to Toftlund in 1939 .

Bicycle traffic

Several local, national and international cycle routes lead through Haderslev: the international route Ostseeküsten-Radweg (runs around the Baltic Sea as the European EuroVelo route EV 10), the national cycle route Haervejen and the local cycle routes Ribe - Gram, Haderslev - Vojens Tunneldal and Haderslev - Hejls.

Education and culture

  • Bispen, cultural center with municipal library, city archive and activity house with cabaret, music rooms and café
  • German library
  • Harmonies culture house with theater hall
  • VUC Sønderjylland (adult education center) with locations in Haderslev, Aabenraa, Sønderborg, Tønder and Gram
  • Katedralskolen: Gymnasium (traditional school since the 16th century)
  • CVU Sønderjylland (College of Education / University of Applied Sciences) with two locations (Haderslev and Soenderborg) - University College / University of Applied Sciences (health / nutrition and nursing school)
  • Commercial school
  • Realschule (private school, nine-grade)
  • Den Kristne Friskole (Christian private school, nine-grade)
  • four elementary schools in the city area (St. Severin, Favredal, Hertug Hans and Hjortebro)
  • Primary schools in the surrounding villages, which also belong to Haderslev commune
  • 10th class Skole (10th year, voluntary year)
  • Ungdomsskolen (voluntary lessons)
  • German School Hadersleben (private school, nine-class)
  • Special school "Skolen ved Stadion"
  • eight Danish kindergartens and one German kindergarten

Twin cities


sons and daughters of the town

Personalities associated with Hadersleben

  • Christian IV (1577–1648), King of Denmark, married Anna Katharina von Brandenburg (1575–1612), daughter of Elector Joachim Friedrich von Brandenburg , on November 27, 1597 at Schloss Hansburg .
  • Peter Johann Willatzen (1824–1898), teacher, translator and poet, was a pupil and later a local teacher.
  • Johannes Mück (1831–1919), German-Danish landscape and portrait painter, lived from 1858 to 1919 in the then still Prussian Hadersleben.
  • Christian Martens (1845–1917), doctor and city councilor
  • Thomas Otto Achelis (1887–1967), German high school teacher, historian and author; lived in Hadersleben from 1916 to 1935 and taught at the grammar school from 1916 to 1924, author of important works on the city history of Hadersleben

Web links

Commons : Haderslev  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Haderslev  - sources and full texts
Wikivoyage: Haderslev  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Statistics Banks -> Befolkning og valg -> BY1: Folketal January 1st efter byområde, alder og køn (Danish)
  2. On the importance of Haderslev in the history of the Reformation as a Reformation “pilot project” in Denmark, see the city portrait of the project Reformation Cities of Europe: Reformation City Haderslev. Denmark. Haderslev - the "Wittenberg of the North". In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed June 17, 2016.
  3. Borgmester fik næse for tysk byskilt. In: JydskeVestkysten . May 27, 2015, accessed November 27, 2018.
  4. Flere tosprogede byskilte syd for grænsen. In: Jydske Vestkysten. July 9, 2015, accessed November 27, 2018.
  5. ^ Daniel Kummetz: German-Danish sign dispute. A sign of friendship. In: TAZ . May 20, 2015, accessed July 10, 2015.
  6. ^ Henning Dehn-Nielsen: Kirker og klostre i Danmark. 2nd Edition. Sesam, Copenhagen 1998, ISBN 87-11-13181-0 , pp. 489-493, here: p. 489.
  7. translator2: EuroVelo 10th Baltic Sea Coast Route. Denmark. In: eurovelo.com. Retrieved May 19, 2017 .
  8. Bicycle routes . In: VisitHaderslev . ( visithaderslev.de [accessed on May 19, 2017] with links to maps).