Friedrich Creuzer

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Georg Friedrich Creuzer, lithograph by Joseph Nicolaus Peroux after a painting by Jakob Wilhelm Roux .
Signature Friedrich Creuzer.PNG

Georg Friedrich Creuzer (born March 10, 1771 in Marburg , † February 16, 1858 in Heidelberg ) was a German philologist , orientalist and mythologist .


Creuzer was the son of the bookbinder and later tax collector Christoph Andreas Joachim Leonhard (* 1726; † 1772) and the Philippine Eleonore Bang (* 1734; † 1795). His older brother was the Marburg theologian Andreas Leonhard Creuzer . From the summer semester of 1789, Friedrich Creuzer studied theology, philology and philosophy at the University of Marburg , at the University of Jena and later again in Marburg. In 1794 he founded an “Eleven Institute” there with others, where he worked as a teacher until he went to Leipzig in 1798 as a private tutor . In the winter semesters 1797/1798 and 1798/1799 he taught as a private lecturer in Marburg. His doctorate in philosophy took place on May 24, 1794 (or October 9, 1799) in Tübingen. In 1799 he received his habilitation in Marburg, where he was appointed associate professor on October 21 of the following year and full professor for classical philology on October 31, 1802 . On April 4, 1804 he went to the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg as a full professor , where in 1807 he founded the "Philological-Pedagogical Seminar" with Friedrich Heinrich Christian Schwarz . For the summer semester of 1809 he went to the chair in Leiden , but was called back to Heidelberg after a few months. He turned down later calls to the universities of Göttingen , Kiel , Bonn and Munich .

Creuzer was personally friends with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Clemens Brentano . From 1804 he was in a relationship with Karoline von Günderrode , who then, after Creuzer abruptly left her, took her own life in 1806. On October 7, 1799, he married Eleonora Sophia Müller (* 1758, † 1831), the widow of the financial scientist and economist Nathanael Gottfried Leske . After her death, on November 9, 1831, he married Anna Jacobina Sebastian (* 1803; † 1889), the daughter of the pathologist Friedrich Jacob Christian Sebastian. Both marriages remained childless.

With his lectures on archaeological topics, he established the tradition of this subject at the University of Heidelberg, from which the Archaeological Institute (today Institute for Classical Archeology and Byzantine Archeology) emerged in 1866 . In 1835, the Antiquarium Creuzerianum archaeological collection named after Creuzer was donated, and in 1848 it was incorporated into the archaeological collection of Heidelberg University . On May 1, 1845, he was retired at his own request.


On October 31, 1817, Creuzer received an honorary theological doctorate from the University of Marburg, and in 1844 the legal doctorate from the University of Heidelberg. In the same year he was made an honorary citizen there.

In 1825 Friedrich Creuzer was appointed an external member of the Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres . From 1846 he was a foreign member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences , he was also admitted to the scientific academies in Munich (1808), Göttingen (1844) and Vienna (1848).

In 1806 Creuzer was appointed privy councilor , in 1818 privy councilor and in 1826 privy councilor 2nd class. In 1834 he was accepted as "Commander" in the Order of the Zähringer Lion ; in 1849 he received the order Pour le Mérite and in 1853 the Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art .

Medal Georg Friedrich Creuzer 1844

Friedrich Creuzer has a medal in silver and bronze (1844, 41 mm) for the 40th anniversary of his service at Heidelberg University, as the Latin legend on the lapel says. The medalist was Ludwig Kachel , he signed on the obverse below the neck.


Creuzer founded the Heidelberg Yearbooks in 1808 with Carl Daub . His best-known work was the symbolism and mythology of the ancient peoples, especially the Greeks (1812), in which he assumed an early oriental source for the mythology of Homer and Hesiod . This influenced Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Johann Jakob Bachofen , among others .

Fonts (selection)

Georg Friedrich Creuzer



  • Ludwig von UrlichsCreuzer, Georg Friedrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, pp. 593-596.
  • Franz Gundlach: Catalogus professorum academiae Marburgensis 1527-1910 . Marburg 1927, p. 334.
  • Oswald Dammann:  Creuzer, Georg Friedrich. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , p. 414 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • U. Angsüsser: Symbol, myth and Greek belief in Georg Friedrich Creuzer. Dissertation, Vienna 1962.
  • Hellfried Dahlmann , Ingeborg Schnack (ed.): Hessian letters of the 19th century: Friedrich Creuzer's letters to Savigny (1799–1850) (= publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse. Volume 23/02). Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-503-00599-4 .
  • Werner Paul Sohnle: Georg Friedrich Creuzer's "Symbolism and Mythology" in France. An investigation of their influence on Victor Cousin, Edgar Quinet, Jules Michelet and Gustave Flaubert , Kümmerle, Göppingen 1972 (Göppingen academic contributions, volume 55), ISBN 3-87452-121-4 .
  • Dagmar Düll: Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon 1803-1932. Springer, Berlin a. a. 1986, ISBN 3-540-15856-1 , pp. 40 f.
  • Volker Lenhart , FHC Schwarz and the foundation of the philological-pedagogical seminar anniversary lecture, Heidelberg 2007, p. 12. (digitized version)
  • George S. Williamson: The Longing for Myth in Germany: Religion and Aesthetic Culture from Romanticism to Nietzsche. Chicago 2004, ISBN 0-226-89946-2 .
  • Fernando Gustavo Wirtz: The mythology with Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling and Friedrich Creuzer . Diss., University of Tübingen, Tübingen 2019.

Web links

Commons : Friedrich Creuzer  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Entry in the professorial catalog of the University of Marburg , accessed on October 5, 2016.
  2. Dagmar Düll: Heidelberger Gelehrtenlexikon 1803-1932. Springer, Berlin a. a. 1986, ISBN 3-540-15856-1 , pp. 40 f.
  3. ^ Members of the previous academies. Georg Friedrich Creuzer. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities , accessed on March 10, 2015 .
  4. Holger Krahnke: The members of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen 1751-2001 (= Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class. Volume 3, Vol. 246 = Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Mathematical-Physical Class. Episode 3, vol. 50). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-82516-1 , p. 63.
  5. Hans Körner: The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art and its members. In: Journal for Bavarian State History. 47: 299-398 (1984). (online at: )
  6. Stefan Krmnicek, Marius Gaidys: Taught images. Classical scholars on 19th century medals. Accompanying volume to the online exhibition in the Digital Coin Cabinet of the Institute for Classical Archeology at the University of Tübingen (= From Croesus to King Wilhelm. New Series, Volume 3). University Library Tübingen, Tübingen 2020, p. 80 f. ( online ); Hollister 6453