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Ismail Pasha (Khedive from 1867–1879)

Khedive , less common or obsolete chedive ( Ottoman خدیو Hıdiv , DMG ḫidīw ), was a title given to the governors of the Ottoman province of Egypt from 1867 to 1914.


Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 . Under Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805–1849) the country achieved relative independence. He and his successors ( dynasty of Muhammad Ali ) were able to achieve a certain degree of independence under Ottoman rule. The title of a khedive (instead of a wali ) was intended to express the nominal sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire over the de facto independent and increasingly under the influence of the great European powers (especially Great Britain ).

Already Muhammad Ali Pasha 1845 was the title of Khedive been awarded by the Sublime Porte, however, he had himself never used that title. After the death of a successor to Muhammad Said on January 18, 1863, Ismail Pasha was proclaimed Wali (governor) . In 1867, in exchange for the doubling of the tribute to the Ottoman Empire, he was given the hereditary title of Khedive by Sultan Abdülaziz .

During the Anglo-Egyptian War , the country was occupied by British troops under Garnet Joseph Wolseley in 1882 . Great Britain took control of the country without ending its formal assignment to the Ottoman Empire. The Khedive of Egypt remained formally a vassal of the Ottomans. British rule was represented by the Consul General , who, as an advisor to the Khedive, was the actual ruler of the country.

After the Ottoman Empire entered the First World War on November 1, 1914 and the subsequent proclamation of the British Protectorate over Egypt, the title was changed to " Sultan " to illustrate the separation of Egypt from the Ottoman Empire. From 1922, after the formal independence of Egypt, the rulers carried the title " King " (Arabic Malik ).

The title has the approximate meaning as "(case) vizier ", " Prince " or " Lord " (English " Lord "). A khedive was ranked higher than field marshal , third in the protocol for civil servants after Sadrazam and Sheikhul Islam.

Khedives of Egypt

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Derived from Persian خدیو, DMG ḫadīw , 'Herr (scher), master', related to Bactrian χοαδηο xoadēo ; see Nicholas Sims-Williams : BACTRIAN LANGUAGE . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica . (English, - including references). .
  2. Khedive . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 3, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 907.
  3. Yılmaz Öztuna: Tarih ve Politika Ansiklopedisi (German: History and Politics Encyclopedia ) Editor: Ötüken, 1st edition, 2006 ISBN 975-437-599-2 (Turkish)