The term Aliyah (ֽֽ Hebrew עֲלִיָּה ʿAlijjah , German 'ascent' , Plene עלייה; Plural ʿalijjot ) comes from the Bible and describes in Judaism since the Babylonian exile (586-539 BC) the return of Jews as individuals or groups to Eretz Israel . Participants in an aliyah are called Olim in Hebrew (singular: fem. Olah , masc . Oleh ).
In ancient Judaism, the Hebrew word Aliyah for "ascending, ascending" referred to a pilgrimage of believing Jews to the Jerusalem temple for one of the three annual pilgrimage festivals of Pesach , Shavuot and Sukkot . The ascent referred to the high mountains of Judea and especially to the approximately 800 m high Temple Mount , Zion .
After the Babylonians established the temple and the city of Jerusalem as the cultic center of Judaism at that time in 586 BC. Chr. And exiled its political and cultic elites, the term also referred to the hoped-for future "pulling up" of the exiled Jews to their homeland Israel. The edict of the Persian king Cyrus II of 539 BC According to biblical tradition, they allowed them to return with the words ( Esr 1,3 EU ; cf. 2nd book Chronicles 36,23):
“Everyone of you who belongs to his people - his God be with him - must go up to Jerusalem in Judah and build the house of the Lord, the God of Israel; for he is the God who lives in Jerusalem. "
Cyrus triggered an early wave of migrants back to Israel, as a result of which the temple and Jerusalem as the capital of Israel were rebuilt.
The early Aliyot
- In the late 12th century, some Jews from North Africa arrived as a result of persecution.
- Between 1210 and 1211, 300 French and English rabbis immigrated ( immigration of the three hundred rabbis ).
- After the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, some Jews came to Palestine
- In the 15th century, a group of Italian Jews arrived who had a great influence on the local Jewish community. Among them was Rabbi Elijah, who immigrated from Ferrara in 1483 .
- After the Turkish conquest in 1516, there was a wave of immigration from the Orient, Sicily, Italy, France, Germany and North Africa. Other refugees from the expulsions from Spain and Portugal came with them. Some settled in Jerusalem, but most of them settled in Safed .
- During the entire 16th century, the heyday of the Kabbalah in Safed attracted many immigrants from France, Germany, Italy and other European countries, but also from North Africa and the Orient.
- 1579 120 new immigrants from Damascus
- In the middle of the 17th century there was an important aliyah of Turkish Jews.
- In 1700 a group of 1,500 European Jews settled in Jerusalem under the leadership of Rabbi Yehuda Hasid. They build the Hurva synagogue .
- Immigration of Hasidim began at the end of the 18th century and into the early 19th century . The first organized Hasidic immigration took place in 1764 and was led by students of Ba'al Shem Tov , the founder of Hasidism. They settled in Tiberias, Safed, Hebron and Jerusalem and established the tradition of the four holy cities of Judaism.
- In 1808 the Peruschim, the disciples of the Gaon of Vilna , an opponent of Hasidism, organized an aliyah and founded a community in Jerusalem.
- In 1830 a wave of immigration from Germany, the Netherlands and Hungary began.
- During the 19th century, thousands of Jews immigrated from oriental countries such as Turkey, North Africa, Iraq, Persia, Bukhara, Assyria , Afghanistan, the Caucasus and Yemen, which marked the arrival of the Messiah for the Jewish year 5600 (= 1840). expected. In 1840, Jews were the largest group in Jerusalem. The conquest of Syria by Muhammad Ali Pascha brought relief for the Jewish population. B. the permission to rebuild the buildings in Safed and Tiberias that were destroyed in an earthquake in 1837.
- 1857: The Italian Jew Sir Moses Montefiore , who lived in London , had an eighteen-meter-high windmill with a small settlement of twenty houses built outside the city walls of Jerusalem, thus creating an important livelihood for the Jewish population.
- 1860: About 12,000 Jews live in Palestine.
The modern alijot
The alijot of modern times are periodized differently in the literature, both in terms of duration and in terms of immigration numbers.
The first aliyah
The first aliyah lasted from 1882 to 1903. The area of Palestine then belonged to the Ottoman Empire. With the first Aliyah, 20,000 to 30,000 immigrants came from Eastern Europe, Russia , Romania and Yemen.
The reasons for immigration can be traced back to three factors:
- The ancient longing of the Jews for their historical homeland.
- The ongoing pogroms in Russia.
- The conviction that only a return to the historical homeland would be able to permanently and fundamentally solve the “Jewish problem”.
The first Aliyah was mainly influenced by the Chibbat Zion and Bilu movements. Bilu is an abbreviation for “ B eit J a'akov L ekhu V e-nelkha ”, “House Jacob, go, let's set out!” ( Isa 2,5 EU ). These movements also founded the first agricultural settlements, Moshavot , up to 1903 a total of 28, including in Judea: Rishon LeZion, Ekron, Gedera, Petach Tikva, Zichron Jaakov and in the Upper Galilee: Rosh Pina, Jesod Hama'alah. Be'er Tuvia was the southernmost and Metulla the northernmost settlement.
The first group of 14 people went ashore on July 6, 1882 in Jaffa ; the second group of 34 people came two years later. This group also included four women. Gedera is a Bilu foundation. On June 27, 1901, the Kibbutz Achim association was founded with the aim of helping those arriving at the first aliyah in their search for work and accommodation.
Also from 1882, Baron Edmond Rothschild , who lived in France, began to settle 12,000 Jews in sixteen model villages, who could support themselves. His vineyards on the southwest slope of Mount Carmel became particularly well known , for which he had French grape varieties imported.
There were two main waves of immigration: 1882 to 1884 and 1890 to 1891.
In addition to 28 new agricultural settlements with around 6,000 people, the urban settlements also grew. Around 3,000 new immigrants came to Haifa and Jaffa and around 1,000 to Jerusalem.
Hebrew became a language spoken in everyday life again and the first Hebrew elementary schools emerged. However, the pioneering spirit had exhausted itself and by 1903 had almost come to a standstill. In total, about 35,000 Jews came to Palestine during the first aliyah, but almost half of them left the country after a few years.
A well-known participant in the 1st Aliyah was Eliezer Ben-Jehuda .
The second aliyah
It took place from 1904 to 1914 and brought 35,000 to 40,000 immigrants, mostly from Russia and Poland , to the country of Palestine.
The participants were mostly young men and women with socialist ideas and a desire for a classless society and a religion of work. Not only were they guided by a national ideology, but they also wanted a community for proletarians in Palestine.
As a rule, they had already received agricultural training in their home countries. The first parties of the labor movement, the Poalei Tzion and the HaPoel HaZair, the predecessor organizations of the Mapai , were built up by immigrants from the second Aliyah .
The participants in the second aliyah worked as workers in the moshavot or in the cities. In 1909 they founded the first kibbutz Degania , the first modern Jewish city of Tel Aviv, and also in 1909 the military organization HaSchomer . They also created the basis for a new Hebrew press and literature, which greatly promoted the spread of the language, and for the Histadrut union .
The Second Aliyah ended with the outbreak of the First World War. In the same period, more than a million Jews from Eastern Europe emigrated to the United States.
The third aliyah
The third aliyah lasted from 1919 to 1923 and was in many ways a continuation of the second. It brought 35,000 immigrants into the country, 53 percent of whom were from Russia and 36 percent from Poland. The rest came from Lithuania, Romania and other Eastern European countries. Eight hundred immigrants came from Western and Central Europe. Many of the newcomers were members of the Hechalutz movement in Russia and Poland or of Hashomer Hatzair ("the young guardian") in Galicia , the oldest Jewish youth movement that describes itself as the "world organization of Zionist youth".
The causes of the wave of immigration lay in the consequences of the Russian October Revolution and the civil war , the pogroms in Ukraine in 1919 and 1920 with 150,000 murdered Jews, the disputes over national self-determination in Europe after the First World War , the Balfour Declaration and the British mandate administration of Palestine with the assurance of the establishment of a national Jewish home.
Immigration to the United States was still possible and often used, most of those who chose Palestine as a country of immigration came from Zionist beliefs.
These young pioneers brought a creative power that changed the character of the yishuv . Together with their predecessors from the Second Aliyah, they played an important role in his leadership. They founded the Histadrut , the national union federation of workers, the self-defense organization Hagana , provided workers for housing and road construction as well as the beginnings of industry and supported the development of Jewish agriculture. The Third Aliyah also increased the number of Jewish settlements through the establishment of many new kibbutzim (e.g. En Harod , Gewa , Tel Josef and Beit Alfa in the Jezreel plain , Kirjat Anavim near Jerusalem), the first moshavim (e.g. B. Nahalal , Kfar Yechezkel, Tel Adaschim and Balfouria) and started their kibbutz movement in 1927.
In 1922 around 85,000 Jews lived in Palestine: in the country's cities, mainly Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Haifa and Hebron and in 60 agricultural settlements.
During World War II, members of the Hashomer Hatzair, including Mordechaj Anielewicz , operated in Nazi-occupied Europe, especially in Poland, and were involved in ghetto uprisings. After the war they took part in Bricha companies. In 1946 the movement founded a political party which, together with Achdut Ha'Avoda , formed the Mapam workers' party in 1948 .
The fourth aliyah
The fourth aliyah from 1924 to 1927 differed in its social structure from the previous ones. It began in mid-1924 and was attended by 67,000 immigrants, half of them from Poland.
It is also known as the middle class aliyah because it consisted primarily of members of the middle class, business people and craftsmen. The immigration of pioneers practically came to a standstill because of the emigration restrictions of the Soviet Union.
The wave of immigration was the result of two developments: the economic crisis in Poland and the economic restrictions that were imposed on Polish Jews, hence the name Grabski Alija after the Polish Minister of Finance Władysław Grabski . Another reason was that with the Immigration Act of 1924 , the United States largely sealed off its borders for mass immigration.
Most of the newcomers, a total of eight out of ten immigrants from the fourth aliyah, stuck to their way of life and settled in the cities, especially in Tel Aviv. They invested their little capital in workshops and factories, small hotels, restaurants, shops, but above all in the construction industry. There was also significant agricultural development in the coastal plain. New settlements, whose livelihoods were citrus plantations, were founded, including Magdiel , Herzlia , Binjamina and Netanja .
In 1926 immigration stagnated due to a serious economic crisis in Palestine. Of the 13,000 who arrived in 1926, more than half left the country. In 1927 more than 5,000 emigrated, but only 2,300 immigrated, which subsided the wave of immigration.
The fifth aliyah
The fifth aliyah stretched from 1930 to 1939 and brought 250,000 immigrants. Most of them came from Poland, Germany , Austria, Romania, Greece, Yemen and Iraq. Single-period from 1933 to 1936 came after the assumption of power of Adolf Hitler 164,000 Jews legally to Palestine, among other illegal refugees. The vast majority settled in the cities; About half of the immigrants moved to Tel Aviv alone.
The German and Austrian Jews, who made up over a quarter of the total number of immigrants, made a decisive contribution to the development of the yishuv. They were the first large group of immigrants from Western and Central Europe. Many of them had medical or other academic training. They also made up the majority of the musicians in the new Philharmonic Orchestra. The cities experienced an increase in the level of business life and city facilities due to the high level of education, the bourgeois way of life and Central European values such as punctuality and a sense of order, as well as professional experience. Many of these characteristics have been incorporated into the image of German immigrants, the Jeckes , which is still associated with irony and respect today . With this influx, the Tel Aviv success story began.
On the eve of World War II , there were 475,000 Jews in Palestine, about forty percent of the country's total population.
The Aliyah Bet
The Alija Bet (Bet is the 2nd letter of the Hebrew alphabet) denotes the secondary ascent, i.e. illegal entry. It is also known as Ha'apalah . It began around 1934 with the persecution in Germany during the National Socialist era and lasted until the state was founded. Immigration defied the British government's hurdles (including the 1939 White Paper ) and attempts to control immigration routes. In 1939 the Mossad was established as an organization for illegal immigration within the Haganah .
Despite British restrictions, 115,000 illegal immigrants reached the country between 1934 and 1948, while 51,000 were detained by the British authorities in Cyprus and were only able to enter after the independence of the State of Israel. The Jewish population in Palestine rose to 650,000 Jews by 1948.
In the literature there are also periodization attempts that name a sixth aliyah and date to 1936-1940. It comprised around 90,000 immigrants, mainly “illegal” refugees before National Socialism (Maapilim) .
Aliyot since the founding of the state
- The Law of Return was adopted by the Knesset on July 5, 1950 as the first law after the founding of the state in 1948.
- 1948–1951: A total of approx. 687,624 immigrants, mainly from Egypt , Iraq , Poland and Romania, as well as 123,371 from Yemen , 34,547 from Turkey and 21,910 from Iran. This doubled the Jewish population in Israel.
- 1955–1957: around 100,000 immigrants from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, with the end of French colonial rule (on immigration from Morocco in the 1940s and 1950s see also: History of Morocco from 1948 ).
- After the cargo ship Egos sank 16 km from Morro Nuevo in the Bay of Alhucamas on January 11, 1961 , killing all 44 Jewish refugees from Morocco and 2 crew members, with the permission of the Moroccan government from November 1961 to spring 1964, 80,000 Jews were in the Operation Jachin brought to Israel via France and Italy.
- 1969–1975: around 100,000 immigrants from the USSR.
- Between November 21, 1984 and January 5, 1985, Operation Moses (Miwza Mosche) and, in March 1985, Operation Joshua brought about 8,000 Ethiopian Jews to Israel.
- 1989 to 1995: around 600,000 immigrants from the Soviet Union or the CIS .
- From November 2011 to August 2013, another 7,846 Ethiopian Jews came with Operation Taubenflügel .
Immigrants since the founding of the state of Israel on May 15, 1948 by continent:
|year||unknown||A. + O. 1||Europe||Africa||Asia||total|
1 = America and Oceania
2 = May 15 through December 31, 1948 only
Source: 1948–2015: 2016–2019:
The Jugendalija or Kinderalija , a department of the Jewish Agency , was founded in 1933 by Recha Freier from Berlin to rescue Jewish children and young people from Nazi Germany. In Palestine the organization was headed by Henrietta Szold and later by Hans Beyth . Before World War II, around 5,000 youth were brought into the country and educated. After the war there were 15,000 Holocaust survivors.
In Germany: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kinder- und Jugend-Alija founded in July 1933 with headquarters in Berlin-Charlottenburg 2, Kantstrasse 158 (non-partisan organization for the transfer of Jewish youth to Palestine), comprised the three Berlin associations: Ahawah children's home, Jewish orphans and youth welfare.
- Gur Alroey: Aliyah. In: Dan Diner (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture (EJGK). Volume 1: A-Cl. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2011, ISBN 978-3-476-02501-2 , pp. 36-39.
- Historical representations
- Lothar Mertens: Alija. The emigration of Jews from the USSR / CIS. 1993, ISBN 3-8196-0122-8 .
- Julian Grzesik: Aliyah after the dispersion of Israel. Bible and facts. Three volumes, Lublin 1989.
- Alex Bein : The Jewish question. Biography of a world problem (two volumes). Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-421-01963-0 .
- Experience reports
- Jay and Meridel Rawlings: Alija. Return to the promised land. Schulte + Gerth, Aßlar 1984, ISBN 3-87739-551-1 .
- Artist's impression
- Wolf Stegemann: Alija - The rebirth of Israel. 25 lithographs by Salvador Dali. Dorsten 1993.
- Alex Bein: Die Judenfrage , Volume II, DVA, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-421-01963-0 , p. 354.
- Alex Bein: Die Judenfrage , Volume II, Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-421-01963-0 , pp. 272, 354.
- Alija, the ascent In: Israelnetz.de , August 26, 2016, accessed on August 17, 2018.
- The First Aliyah
- The second aliyah. In: jewishvirtuallibrary.org , accessed April 2, 2018.
- The third aliyah. In: jewishvirtuallibrary.org , accessed April 2, 2018.
- Tom Segev: Once upon a time there was a Palestine - Jews and Arabs before the founding of the state of Israel. 4th edition. Siedler, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-88680-805-X , p. 244f.
- The fourth aliyah. In: jewishvirtuallibrary.org , accessed April 2, 2018.
- The fifth aliyah 1929-1939. In: Jewish Virtual Library, accessed June 30, 2018.
- Aliyah Bet 1939-1948. In: Jewish Virtual Library, accessed June 30, 2018.
- Immigration of Jews to Israel - Migration or Flight? In: Israelnetz .de. June 27, 2019, accessed July 7, 2019 .
- Immigration of Jews to Israel - Migration or Flight? In: Israelnetz .de. June 27, 2019, accessed July 7, 2019 .
- Aliyah, the rise. In: Israelnetz.de , August 26, 2016, accessed on August 17, 2018.
- Ministry of Immigrant Absorption: “On Eagles' Wings” - Aliyah from Yemen (1949) , accessed on July 6, 2018 (English).
- Megan Melissa Cross: King Hassan II: Morocco's messenger of peace , pp. 66-67.
- Ethiopia Virtual Jewish Tour . In: Jewish Virtual Library . American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise , accessed December 4, 2018 .
- http://www.cbs.gov.il/shnaton67/st04_02.pdf , information from the Israeli Statistical Office, accessed on July 29, 2018.
- Information from the Israel Statistical Office , accessed on August 4, 2018, November 9, 2019 and August 9, 2020.