Restoration (Switzerland)

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Karl Ludwig von Haller (1768–1854) coined the term restoration with his work «Restoration of Political Science». He stood up for the regaining of the royal power and its legitimation and thus became a representative of extreme conservatism .

The Restoration was a period of European restoration and Swiss history that was shaped by political conservatism and reaction . In Switzerland it lasted from 1814 to 1830.

The state ideal, which was revised compared to the time of the French Revolution, is characteristic of the era of the Restoration . Referring back to the Ancien Régime , the state is based on the principles of authority and legitimacy as well as on the conviction that the traditional relations of rule correspond to an order willed by God. In this understanding, the state was not created by people, but stands over them with unconditional authority. In political romanticism , the concept of freedom is understood to mean that the freedom of privileges in the patrimonial state divided into estates is considered true freedom. The ideas of the restoration are strongly influenced by the Bernese Karl Ludwig von Haller , who dismantles the enlightened understanding of the state in his work "Restoration of Political Science".


The transition from mediation to restoration

Hans von Reinhard , Mayor of Zurich, last Landammann of Switzerland and representative of Switzerland at the Congress of Vienna

The period of French dominance over Switzerland ended with the withdrawal of French troops across the Rhine and the withdrawal of Italian troops from Ticino in autumn 1813. The extraordinary federal diet , which met on November 15, 1813 in Zurich, unilaterally declared the armed neutrality , but not yet finally separated from France. The Allies therefore sent two envoys to Zurich, Count Ioannis Kapodistrias and Baron Ludwig von Lebzeltern , who were considered the best diplomats in the coalition. They acted skillfully between cantons and, together with the secret agents who agitated in the cantons' capitals , achieved that the daily statute accepted the march of the Allied troops through Swiss territory without reaction. General Ferdinand von Bubna and Littitz advanced through Bern and Lausanne on December 28th to Geneva, where the Republic of Geneva was reestablished. Only after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte was clearly foreseeable and the Allied troops were standing on the northern border, on December 29th, a meeting of representatives from ten old cantons in Zurich declared the repeal of the mediation constitution . This began a period of transition that was by no means smooth. The disagreement between the cantons on how the future territorial and constitutional order of Switzerland should be shaped threatened the continued existence of Switzerland at times and provoked the intervention of the Allied powers several times.

After the meeting in Zurich, two camps faced each other. On the one hand ten of the thirteen old cantons, which advocated the retention of the abolition of the subject relations (Uri, Schwyz, Lucerne, Zurich, Glarus, Zug, Freiburg, Basel, Schaffhausen and Appenzell) and which therefore also the new cantons Aargau , Thurgau , St. Gallen and Vaud connected. They formed the so-called Federal Association with Zurich as a suburb . On the other side stood the cantons, which demanded a restoration of the aristocratic order, the thirteen-place confederation and the former subject areas. The head of this party was Bern, where on December 23, 1813, after the arrival of the Austrian troops under General Bubna, the patriciate regained power. After further counter-revolutions, the cities of Freiburg, Solothurn, Lucerne as well as Zug and Unterwalden joined this party. These cantons formed what is known as "Old Switzerland" with an opposing statute in Lucerne. From the point of view of the Allied Powers, the principle of legitimacy should be the basis of the territorial reorganization, whereby legitimacy was understood to mean relations of rule based on history, tradition and international treaty. The claims of the ancestral monarchs - in Switzerland, for example, these were the formerly ruling places - to their domination limited by international treaties were therefore legitimate. Power relations established by the revolution were seen as an illegitimate usurpation of power. In principle, therefore, the existence of the cantons newly formed after 1798 was at stake. These could at least rely on the fact that the territorial order of the mediation time had also been recognized by most of the great powers.

In March the conflict threatened to degenerate into civil war, and Berne, Vaud and Aargau mobilized troops. The foreign powers took part in the conflict indirectly on the side of one party or the other. The decisive factor was the influence of the Vaudois patriot Frédéric-César de la Harpe on the Russian Tsar Alexander in favor of the new cantons. Only after the threat of military intervention by the Allies did the opposing constitution join the daily constitution of the Federal Association on April 6, 1814. As a result, the so-called "Long Tagsatzung" was formed in Zurich, which dealt with the reorganization of Switzerland from April 6, 1814 to August 31, 1815. The internal dispute over the future of the new cantons and the common constitution continued, however.

"Pilgrimage to the daily statute in Zurich". Caricature on the forced participation of Bern in the meeting in Zurich. The Bernese bear is led in chains and with a muzzle by a Zurich man on a chain. Two monkeys, who can be recognized by their flags as the lost subjects of Bern in Vaud and Aargau, ride on his back. The bear is driven by a Cossack, who stands for the Russian pressure on Bern. Caricature from 1814/15

First of all, the constitutions were revised in the individual cantons in line with the Restoration, in some cases with strong interference from Allied diplomats. The old order and legal inequalities were restored in the former rural municipality cantons . In the city cantons the prerogatives of the aristocracy were reintroduced and the predominance of the cities over the countryside increased. A complete return to the old subservience, however, seemed impossible. The tightening of the census and the introduction of indirect electoral systems also gave the government in the new cantons an aristocratic character. The extended terms of office and the preponderance of the so-called “small councils” (executive) made it possible for dominant, aristocratic-minded politicians to rule almost unchallenged. In all of the cantons, however, the revolutionary innovations could not be completely reversed; in the new cantons in particular, the restorative constitutions also remained liberal.

The negotiations on the federal organization came to a conclusion only after renewed pressure from the Allied powers in September, when the final settlement of the issues on which the cantons could not agree was transferred to the Congress of Vienna. The draft of the federal treaty was declared adopted on September 9, 1814 after a renewed warning from the authorized British Minister Stratford Canning by the daily statute, although Schwyz, Nidwalden and Appenzell Innerrhoden refused to give their approval until the end.

Shortly before the beginning of the Congress of Vienna, on September 12th, the Diet approved the admission of the Republic of Geneva , the Principality of Neuchâtel and the Republic of Valais to the Confederation. The Valais had been abandoned by the French troops at the beginning of 1814, whereupon the upper and lower ends of the Valais met in Sion to negotiate for a new formation of the Republic of Valais. An agreement in the dispute over the political equality of the Zenden could only be reached on May 12, 1815. The Principality of Neuchâtel was occupied by Austrian troops in December 1813 and taken back under Prussian administration in June 1814. After the Austrian invasion at the end of 1813, an independent republic with an aristocratic constitution was established in Geneva on January 1, 1814. The cession of Valais and Geneva was already recognized by France in the First Peace of Paris on May 30, 1814, but the definitive annexation to Switzerland was reserved for the Congress of Vienna.

Switzerland at the Congress of Vienna

Map for the reorganization of Switzerland 1814/15
The Geneva diplomat Charles Pictet de Rochemont

At the Congress of Vienna from September 18, 1814 to June 9, 1815, Switzerland was represented with its own embassy, ​​which consisted of the three conservative politicians Hans von Reinhard , Johann Heinrich Wieland and Johann von Montenach . In addition, a large number of unofficial representatives, private individuals and lobbyists traveled to Vienna in order to somehow influence the new territorial structure of Switzerland. The official embassy was tasked with achieving the recognition of neutrality by the great powers and, if possible, rounding off territories. The numerous individual interests of the cantons and the intrigues of the unofficial and official envoys, however, severely impaired the success of the embassy. Most of the influential diplomats in Great Britain, Russia and Austria were put off by the quarrel and complexity of the conflict over territorial issues affecting Switzerland. The declining influence of Russia also resulted in a decrease in sympathy for Switzerland. The subject of Switzerland was discussed in a special committee of the congress, which was formed on the advice of the “Switzerland experts” Stratford Canning and Kapodistrias in order to separate the diverging interests of the numerous Swiss parties from the otherwise complicated negotiations of the congress. The committee consisted of experienced diplomats, e. B. Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein and Wilhelm von Humboldt .

After Napoleon's return from Elba on March 1, 1815 (→ Rule of the Hundred Days ), the Diet appointed Niklaus Franz von Bachmann General of the Swiss Army and had a border occupation carried out. On March 20, the Congress of Vienna, under the impression of the French threat, adopted a declaration on the future of Switzerland, in which important concessions were promised:

  • The territorial existence of the 19 cantons during the mediation period was recognized and guaranteed. However, the new cantons had to pay the old cantons financial compensation for their state property in their territory. The canton of St. Gallen was supposed to pay the former prince abbot of St. Gallen a pension.
  • The cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva have now been recognized as Swiss. As a principality, Neuchâtel remained connected to the Hohenzollern dynasty and thus to Prussia . In addition, Bern received most of the former Principality of Basel as compensation for the loss of the Vaud and the Bernese Aargau . A small part went to the canton of Basel. The canton of Vaud got the Dappental back.
  • The former subject areas of the Drei Bünde , Valtellina , Chiavenna and Bormio finally go to the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia , which belongs to Austria. Border adjustments cannot be achieved for Ticino ( Campione ), Graubünden ( Livigno , Val San Giacomo ) or Schaffhausen ( Büsingen , Jestetter Zipfel ).
  • Furthermore, the recognition and guarantee of permanent neutrality as well as an area expansion for the canton of Geneva was promised.

In the spring, the Allies increased diplomatic pressure on Switzerland, so that the Diet gave up neutrality on May 20th and France declared war. This enabled the Allied troops to penetrate into France through the Valais and Basel. Swiss troops under General Bachmann invaded Franche-Comté in July , but the campaign turned into a fiasco. Further contingents of the army were involved in the siege of the French fortress Hüningen near Basel. With their surrender on August 28, the last military action abroad with Swiss participation ended.

The Second Peace of Paris between the Allies and France on November 20, 1815, under pressure from the Geneva diplomacy Charles Pictet de Rochemont , brought Switzerland monetary compensation and the transfer of a strip of territory between the canton of Vaud and Geneva. This enabled a land connection between Geneva and Switzerland to be established. The Pays de Gex could not be won for Geneva, but France had to agree to the establishment of a duty-free zone. De Rochemont's greatest success, however, was the first-time recognition of the perpetual armed neutrality and territorial integrity of Switzerland by the great powers, who signed a declaration he had formulated (→ Swiss neutrality ). The neutrality was also extended to Haute-Savoie , which belonged to the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont .

«... les Puissances signataires de la declaration de Vienne font par le présent acte, une reconnaissance formelle et authentique de la neutralité perpétuelle de la Suisse, et elles lui garantissent l'intégrité et l'inviolabilité de son territoire dans ses nouvelles limites, telles qu'elles sont fixées, tant par l'acte du Congrès de Vienne que par le Traité de Paris de ce jour, et telles qu'elles le seront ultérieurement, conformément à la disposition du 3 novembre ci-joint en extrait qui stipule en faveur du corps helvétique un nouvel accroissement de territoire à prendre sur la Savoie pour arrondir et désenclaver le canton de Genéve.

Les Puissances reconnaissent et garantissent également la neutralité des parties de la Savoie désignées par l'acte du Congrès de Vienne on 29 mars 1815 et par le Traité de Paris de ce jour, comme devant jouir de la neutralité de la Suisse, de la même manière que si elles appartenaient à celles-ci.

Les Puissances signataires de la déclaration du 20 mars reconnaissent authentiquement par le présent acte que la neutralité et l'inviolabilité de la Suisse et son indépendance de toute influence étrangère sont dans les vrais intérêts de la politique de l'Europe entière ... »

- Déclaration des Puissances portant reconnaissance et garantie de la neutralité perpétuelle de la Suisse et de l'inviolabilité de son territoire, November 20, 1815

Until well into the 20th century, Swiss politics and historiography saw the recognition of neutrality by the Congress of Vienna as one of the most important diplomatic achievements of modern times. At times this neutrality became a determining element of the Swiss national identity. The declaration of neutrality is to be understood in the context of the policy of the balance of power at the time . The establishment of a cordon of medium-sized and small states between the great powers Prussia, France and Austria should isolate them from one another and make direct warfare more difficult.

The federal treaty as a new state order

The federal treaty of August 7, 1815, also known as the Fifteenth League .

The federal treaty was solemnly invoked as the first self-created state system in Switzerland on August 7, 1815 in Zurich in the Grossmünster by the members of the 22 cantons. Because of this fifteen-man federation , Switzerland remained a confederation , but in a much looser form than during the mediation period.

The daily statute was defined as the only federal authority in the federal treaty . It was an assembly of delegates from the 22 cantons who were only allowed to vote after their governments had given prior instructions. Each canton had one vote. Every two years the seat of the daily statute changed between the cantons of Zurich, Bern and Lucerne, which were defined as suburbs . The ordinary meetings were held on the first Monday in June. The mayor or mayor of the suburb was in charge of the agenda as president, but no longer held the title of Landammann of Switzerland and had no privileges. Nevertheless, one can call him the head of state of what was then Switzerland. The Diet had the right to decide with a three-quarters majority on alliances as well as on war and peace. It elected the general, the general staff and the colonels of the approximately 33,000-strong federal army, which was made up of the cantons' contingents based on population size. The Diet also decided on trade agreements with foreign countries. As the only permanent federal institution, the Federal Chancellery, consisting of a Federal Chancellor and a State Clerk as well as its files and the archive, had to laboriously move from suburb to suburb every two years.

The cantons were granted extensive sovereign rights . They could now again conclude military surrenders and economic agreements with foreign countries and also special alliances with one another, provided that these were not directed against the federal government or other cantons. Since the army consisted of cantonal contingents, each canton had its own army. The cantons also minted their own money and levied customs duties at their borders. They also held the mail, salt and powder shelves. The freedom of establishment as well as the freedom of trade and industry were again more or less restricted by cantonal regulations.

The federal treaty did not grant the Swiss any rights of freedom. Legal equality, religious freedom and freedom of the press were not guaranteed. However, it was stipulated that there were no longer any subject countries and that political rights should not be the exclusive privilege of a class of canton citizens. Swiss citizenship was also abolished. The existence of the religious institutions, such as the Catholic monasteries and chapters, however, was guaranteed by the federal treaty. A revision of the federal treaty was not planned.

The restoration in the cantons

At the cantonal level, the restoration has been carried out to varying degrees since the spring of 1815. With the exception of Zug and Obwalden, the Landsgemeindekantons repealed their constitutions of 1803 and returned to an unconstitutional state. The minimum age for men to vote has been reduced significantly to 18 years in Ausserrhoden, 16 years in Glarus and Schwyz and 14 years in Nidwalden. In Schwyz and Nidwalden, political rights were again restricted to the old-established citizens, thus restoring the earlier legal inequality. In Bern, Solothurn, Lucerne and Freiburg, the rule of the urban patriciate was re-enforced in new constitutions of 1814/15, with at least a small representation in the council granted to the landscape in Bern and Lucerne. In the former guild republics of Zurich, Basel and Schaffhausen, urban rule was also restored, representing the countryside, and compulsory guilds were reintroduced. The cantons of Geneva, Valais, Neuchâtel, Graubünden, Aargau, Waadt, Thurgau, Ticino and St. Gallen also received new constitutions that strengthened central power, a strict census, only indirect election of the people's representatives (Grand Council) and a dominance of the executive ( Small council) through extensive powers, non-public governance and extended terms of office. Although this gave the new state order of the cantons a strongly aristocratic character, the liberal achievements of the "French era" were not completely abandoned, as a complete restoration of the old conditions was no longer possible.

The abolition of religious freedom represented a major step backwards. In its place came the old denominational intolerance between Catholic and Reformed places; In the equal cantons, the rivalry among denominations for influence in the state began again. Through the cooperation between the authoritarian state and the respective church, old moral codes were reinstated and a climate of social and political control established. The Jesuits were recalled to the cantons of Valais, Friborg and Schwyz .

Between the Congress of Vienna and Regeneration: Switzerland 1815–1830

«The thinkers club». Contemporary caricature on the Lucerne press law

After the situation in Europe had calmed down further, Switzerland was able to significantly expand its territory for the last time in the Turin Treaty with Sardinia-Piedmont in 1816 . Around Geneva some communities came from Sardinia-Piedmont to Switzerland, especially the city of Carouge . A further expansion of Geneva to include the Chablais and Faucigny failed, among other things, because of the resistance of the Reformed Geneva, who did not want to be dominated by a Catholic surrounding area. On the other hand, Sardinia also hesitated to subordinate its Catholic subjects to the Reformed city of Geneva. The Catholic Church in the newly formed canton of Geneva was therefore protected by far-reaching guarantees. In the end, Haute-Savoie was at least converted into a duty-free zone in order to promote Geneva's economic development.

In the following years, Switzerland concluded new military surrenders with several European countries in order to resume the tradition of mercenaries. 1816 with the Netherlands and France, last in 1828 with the Kingdom of Naples . Other older surrenders exist with Spain, Great Britain and the Pope. However, the number of Swiss working as mercenaries abroad fell from around 40,000 in 1787 to around 25,000. Resistance to mercenaries was already stirring for religious or social reasons. In the selection of officers, after 1815, preference was again given to aristocratic families, although applicants who had served under Napoleon were not hired. In addition, there was a significant strengthening of the federal military by 1819, as the fiasco when moving to Franche-Comté in 1815 had clearly shown the weakness of the army. The army was enlarged by around 70,000 men and organized according to new uniform military regulations. A military oversight agency should oversee its implementation. To improve training, the federal military school was opened in Thun on August 1, 1819 , and a first federal military camp was held in Wohlen from August 15 to 24, 1820 under Colonel Charles-Jules Guiguer de Prangins . The 14 federal military camps carried out up to 1852 promoted the collective consciousness of the military elite and prepared the ground for the later federal state. In terms of alliance politics, the Tagsatzung secured itself in 1817 by joining the Holy Alliance .

A popular symbol of the Restoration was the lion monument in Lucerne , which marked the sacrificial death of the Swiss mercenaries in Paris for King Louis XVI. glorified at the Tuileries Tower. It was built in 1821 at the suggestion of the aristocratic Colonel Carl Pfyffer von Altishofen .

Domestically, the period after 1815 was marked by censorship and the “alliance between authorities and the altar”. Confessional intolerance prevails particularly in the Catholic cantons. The Jesuits are called back to the Catholic cantons to take over the training of the priests and the youth of the conservative Catholic elite, first to Valais, then in 1818 to Freiburg and in 1836 to Schwyz. Various sects, some of them fundamentalist, are spreading in Reformed Switzerland.

The famine years of 1816/17, when food became scarce due to the Tambora volcanic eruption due to a bad harvest in the so-called snowy summers and galloping inflation caused the last great famine in the history of Switzerland, were formative for the collective memory of the 19th century . The incessant rain and bad weather of those years were processed by Mary Shelley in her novel Frankenstein , which dates back to her stay on Lake Geneva in 1816 . The misery in Eastern Switzerland in particular prompted Tsar Alexander I to make a generous donation of 100,000 rubles and grain deliveries from Russia. In addition, there was an economic crisis, falling wages and unemployment, as the Swiss economy was once again exposed to cheap British competition after the continental blockade was lifted . To make matters worse, France, the Netherlands and Austria simultaneously protected their markets with protective tariffs and thus severely hindered Swiss exports. It was not until 1822, when France extended its protective tariffs to the import of cattle, that the Diet tried to wage a trade war with France, which ended in a fiasco. In a retaliation concordat only 13½ cantons agreed on combat tariffs against France, so that there was a tariff war in Switzerland itself and the measure had to be abandoned in 1824 without success.

Despite the prevailing particularism and " cantonal spirit ", common federal patriotism was also revived, above all through the federal rifle club , which was founded by the first federal free shooting in Aarau from June 7th to 12th, 1824, the numerous academic gymnastics clubs that have been in existence since 1816 all over Switzerland, and the singers' associations. In these associations and their nationwide events, a revision of the federal treaty, liberal ideas and a closer cooperation of the cantons were discussed at an early stage. In 1826, on the occasion of the Freedom Festival on the Stoss in Gais AR , the patriotic all-federal Sempach Association for more freedom and against the cantonal league spirit and a resolute stance against the political interventions of the conservative neighboring countries took place.

An additional foreign and domestic political problem for Switzerland was the steadily increasing flow of political refugees (liberals, nationalists, supporters of Napoleon) from France, Italy and Germany after 1815. In addition, despite censorship from abroad, the Swiss press was still viewed as too free and too critical, which is why the conservative powers have repeatedly made concessions by threatening military intervention (→ for the first time on the occasion of the Troppau Prince’s Congress because of Karl Follen , Wilhelm Snell and Karl Völker ) Sought to blackmail the Diet. In July 1823 it therefore issued the so-called «Press and Foreigners Conclusion», which included monitoring the local press and restricting the right of asylum. Numerous prominent politically persecuted people remained in Switzerland. B. the former Queen of Holland, Hortense de Beauharnais , with her son Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte , later Napoleon III. The canton schools and universities benefited from the influx of German teachers and lecturers. At the same time, Switzerland was portrayed as a playground for foreign informers and spies and, internationally, as the main hotbed of international conspiracies. This was true for the Ottoman Empire insofar as Geneva became the center of European philhellenism in 1825 , as the Geneva banker Jean Gabriel Eynard was able to unite the various philhellenic associations of the European countries under his leadership through generous donations. These associations supported the Greeks' struggle for freedom and thus represented an open threat to the restorative state system.

End of the restoration in 1830

Barricade fighting in Paris during the July Revolution of 1830. The liberal overthrow in France acted as a signal for the liberal renewal movement in Switzerland.

From the mid-1820s onwards, liberal forces strengthened again throughout Switzerland, and the conservative governments were increasingly exposed to criticism. The national associations in particular awakened patriotism and free thinking. The most important of these associations were the Zofingen student association ( Zofingia ) (1819), the patriotic Sempacherverein (1821), the Swiss rifle club (1824) and the gymnastics and singing clubs. Above all stood the Helvetic Society , which met again for the first time after a long break in May 1819 in Bad Schinznach and became the most important champion of liberalism in Switzerland.

In 1828, Johannes Meyer from Trogen's Appenzeller Zeitung began to campaign for democratic innovations in decisive language and to denounce press censorship. The liberal Landammann of Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Mathias Oertly , let the newspaper do it despite political pressure from other cantons. The paper found a large audience across Switzerland as it was the only system-critical publication of the time. In Zurich in 1829, after the financial scandal surrounding Bank Finsler, the government had to allow limited freedom of the press under pressure from Paul Usteri and Ludwig Snell , as the long-time State Councilor Hans Konrad Finsler had abused his office for private purposes. Usteri then demanded the introduction of the principle of public disclosure for the Zurich government so that corruption cases such as the Finsler case could be avoided in the future. The principle of public access was vehemently rejected by the conservative forces, as it made it possible for the government to be held accountable to the citizens, which ran counter to the principles of the Restoration. Other cantons followed the example of Zurich, and finally the parliamentary statute repealed the “Press and Foreigners Conclusion” of 1823 and left the supervision of the press and foreigners entirely to the cantons. Thanks to the influence of liberal Great Britain, the major conservative powers did not intervene against this liberalization step. In Heinrich Zschokke's presidential speech in front of the Helvetic Society, the imminent change was announced under the impression of the events:

«For 15 years now every attempt has been made in vain to steer back to the good old days, the result of which was the sad downfall of the old Confederation. Common sense has got too much the upper hand; the light of experience and knowledge has already become too much for the spirit of the people. And it is the spirit in the end that moves the masses. The inseparability of the Confederation is ineradicably in the nation [sic], even if it could disappear in the diaries. "

On May 5, 1830, Heinrich Schinz from Zurich formulated the main goal of the liberal movement in Switzerland, the establishment of a federal state, before the Helvetic Society. Swiss liberalism called for equality of rights, personal freedom rights, popular education, public administration, separation of powers, direct popular elections (→ popular sovereignty ) and representative democracy . The supporters of liberalism were found in the educated middle class and in the business elite. They were a minority, but over the years they were able to get the majority of the population in some cantons on their side thanks to their good organization, networking and journalistic presence.

In the spring of 1830, Vaud and Ticino were the first cantons to revise their constitutions in a liberal sense. At the Diet in Bern, the Bernese mayor Emanuel Friedrich von Fischer attacked the liberal tendencies in vain, because the outbreak of the July Revolution in Paris also signaled the end of the restoration era for Switzerland. By 1831, the liberal renewal movement called regeneration in twelve cantons brought the end of the aristocracy and the introduction of popular sovereignty and a constitutional state.

Important personalities of the Swiss restoration period

President of the Federal Diet 1814–1830

Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl, Schultheiss von Bern during the restoration period

The head of government of the suburb cantons acted as president of the Diet. The term of office was normally from January 1st to December 31st.

See also


  • Jean-Charles Biaudet : Towards modern Switzerland . In: Ulrich Im Hof u. a .: Handbook of Swiss History , Vol. 2, Report House, Zurich 1977, pp. 873–986.
  • Michel Salamin : Documents d'Histoire suisse 1798–1847. Collection Recueils de textes d'Histoire suisse , Sierre 1969.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Antoine Morin: Précis de l'histoire politique de la Suisse . Paris, 1856. T. 2, Pièces justificatives, No 15, pp. 423-425. Quoted in Salamin, Documents d'Histoire suisse, pp. 69-70.
  2. ^ Negotiations of the Helvetic Society in Schinznach in 1829 . Zurich 1829, p. 28 ff. Quoted from E. Gruner, W. Haeberli: Werden und Wachsen des Bundesstaates 1815–1945 . Source booklets on Swiss history, No. 7. Aarau 1968, p. 9.